INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING ON VOCATIONAL VALUE ORIENTATION AND SOCIAL NETWORKING AMONG IN-SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to determine the influence of guidance and counselling on vocational value orientation and social networking among in-school Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria. the Ex-post facto design was adopted, and the study was carried out in the three major municipalities in the three senatorial districts of Enugu State. The population for the study comprised of all the 162,651 secondary schools students in Enugu State. The sample for this study is 645 in-school adolescents, which comprises 427 males and 218 females. The sampling technique adopted is multistage sampling technique, which involved both purposive and stratified random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire titled: guidance and counselling influence on vocational value orientation and social networking questionnaire (GCIVVOSNQ) was used to collect data for the study. The questionnaire was subjected to face – validation by three experts in University of Nigeria Nsukka. The instrument was pilot tested on 60 selected SSII secondary school students of the Orokam Community Secondary School Adimoko Benue State. And the data collected were analysed using the Cronbach Alfa method on the SPSS platform, and a reliability coefficient of 0.89 was obtained. The data collected for the study were analyzed using Mean and Standard deviation for answering each of the five research questions. The t-test statistic was used to test the four hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that The in-school adolescents in Enugu State receive educational counselling while choosing subjects, and they receive occupational information on different occupations, and equally they receive information about the requirements for the available occupational choices, the study equally revealed that the in-school adolescents in Enugu State are guided to develop good study habits and study patterns, and theyare shown that there is dignity in honest labour, and are guided to choose occupations that are in line with the needs of the 21 st century world of work. Equally they are made to know that social network sites are not totally bad and should not be avoided totally, and are made to apply moderation in the way they visit social network sites the study equally revealed that female in-school adolescents are more adversely affected in their choice of vocation because of social networking, and that female in-school adolescents spends more time on social network sites, and finally that female in-school adolescents are more vulnerable to the negative effects of social networking. It was recommended that the school principals in Enugu State should look into the social networking activities of their students especially the female students and make sure that the students are properly guided to avoid the negative impacts of social networking. Equally that parents should take a very critical look into the social networking activities of their teenage children and make sure that the children are properly supervised, to avoid the negative impacts of social networking. It was equally recommended that counsellors should work together with the principals to organize workshops and seminars designed to educate the in-school adolescents and the public on the negative impacts of social networking and how to properly manage their time.and that counsellors should work together with the principals to organize workshops and seminars designed to educate the parents and their teenage children on the importance of guidance counselling and the need to release their wards for counselling activities. And that Parents and school counsellors should improve on their listening skills. Finally it was recommended that the Enugu State Post Primary School Management Board (PPSMB), should employ and inject more professional counsellors into the secondary schools in Enugu state.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
The prevalence of social interactions and electronic communication among Nigeria students today is increasing. Students prefer to interact electronically than paying maximum attention to their studies. Consequently, it has recorded an increase in poor academic performance and occupational maladjustment in the educational sector (Berkman,2010). Occupational maladjustment according to Omeje (2007) is a situation where an individual is unable to adapt to his working environment which leads to ineffectiveness on the job.

This reported ineffectiveness on the job has made parents, teachers and government to recognize the harms poor value orientation and social networking are causing in career, value, attitude and personality of students in Enugu State (Ede, 2014). These include poor study habits, wrong choice of vocation, poor performance of students in external examinations such as West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) and National Examination Council (NECO). Equally high rate of incidence of juvenile delinquency, like examination malpractice and other vices, high rate of social crimes like shop lifting and illegal use contraband drugs, high rate of unemployment, economic dependence and occupational maladjustment, among the youth in the country (Eze, 2010) andEnugu State is not left out.

In Nigeria today, Omeje (2007) states that even the youth who finally get employed, perform below expectations at the work place, all as a result of negative peer modelling and poor value orientation, and this impedes national development. Omeje (2007) further points out that many students aspire to enter into occupations ignorantly without knowing the risk and implications that are involved. The Federal Republic of Nigeria in National Policy on Education (FRN, 2009) stipulates that schools provide vocational counsellingso as to prepare the students to develop meaningful insights, attitudes, skills and value for their careers.Vocational guidance according to Okeke (2003) is the process of preparing individuals to choose, maintain and remain in a job. Eze (2010) defines it as a process which enables one to have better knowledge of one’s personal characteristics; critically examines and analyzes the various occupational characteristics and requirements as well as have objective analysis of one’s suitability to an occupation of choice.In recent times there has been an increase in the rate of youth unemployment and occupational maladjustment as well as a decline in the performance of in-school adolescents in their academics, as a result of their addiction to social networking, especially in many developing countries. Thus causing youths’ dependence and involvement in social crimes (Singh, 2013).

Nigeria is not left out in this challenge. Therefore guidance services are needed to help these students.

Guidance is a term used to denote the process of helping an individual to gain self-understanding and self-direction so that he can adjust maximally to home, school or community environment (Ezeji, 2001). Similarly, Okeke (2003) posits that guidance is the process of assisting an individual to understand himself and his world better and thus be better equipped to solve life problems. In this study guidance is the process of helping an individual to have better understanding of his/her naturally endowed abilities and characteristics so that he can function adequately in the society.

On the other hand,counselling is the process of helping an individual to utilize his or her psychological resources by focusing on the individual’s personality, behavioural and emotional assets that could be mobilized (Onuigbo, 2005). Invariably, Gibson and Mitchell (2007) argue that counselling is the process through which the counselor expresses care and concern towards a personal growth and brings about change through self-knowledge. Operationally, counselling is the process of assisting an individual by a professionally trained person (counsellor)inorder to bring about change through self-knowledge, proper development and improved functioning.

In general term, Guidance and counselling is the process of helping an individual to develop self-consciousness, self-direction and to explore and participate in his own development towards a self-reliant and fulfilled person (Gibson, 2003). Okeke (2003) on his own, states that guidance and counselling is designed to help individuals in their different problems and concerns so that they grow up well adjusted individuals capable not only of living productive lives but are also prepared to contribute their quota to the development of their society. Similarly, Ifelunni(1997)defines guidance and counselling as a sum total of all the processes of assisting an individual to understand self and put self into positive use.Explaining further,the author sees guidance and counselling as a formalized service aimed at enabling an individual to fulfill his individual nature. This implies understanding one’s psychological and physiological make-ups and making use of these advantageously.

From the above definitions, guidance and counselling could be seen as a process of assisting individuals to acquire the capacity for self-direction so as to be able to live productive lives and also contribute to the development of their society. Guidance and Counselling connotes three major services which includes: educational counselling, vocational counselling and personal-socio counselling.Educational counselling according to Okeke (2003) is the assistance given to pupils to help them function more effectively in the school progress, and this assistance helps the pupils to act in terms of their present and future educational needs and opportunities. On the other hand, vocational counselling according to Onuigbo (2005) are those processes, theories, principles, ideas and styles given to the needy to help them assess themselves and be able to make a choice of career or occupation and fit in well to maximize their potentials and abilities for a livelihood. Finally Ezeji (2001) points out that personal social counselling is the assistance given to students to enable them to have a better knowledge of self and others as well as help them with their problems such as anxiety, stress, sexuality, alcoholism, drug abuse, suicidal tendencies, decision making, problem solving, setting goals and interpersonal relationships. The discourse on vocational counselling won’t be complete without highlighting the term vocation.

Vocation according to Amazue and Okoli(2004)means the activities, trade or occupation which constitutes public discussions. Literature reveals that occupational choice in the 21st century is so vast that it is discouraging or even paralyzing for youths (Schmidt, 2004). In essence the way youths make vocational choices and decisions is swiftly becoming a disturbing issue. The challenge of how youths make vocational choices has attracted so many life-style expressed in time, energy and ability. Similiarly,Eze (2010) states that vocation is an occupation to which an individual’s life is committed to and he/she has interest, liking and feelings for the work. Omeje (2007) points out that vocation means activities, traits or occupations consisting a life-style of an individual which is expressed in terms of energy or ability. Strengthening this view, Hornby (2009) defines vocation as a type of work or way of life that one believes is especially suitable for him. Operationally, vocation is an occupation or work consisting a life-style of an individual which he/she enjoys doing.

Furthermore, if there are several subjects available to students to choose from, students’ value orientations will help them determine choice of subjects (Okafor, 2006). Okafor (2006) defines values as the determiners in man that influence his choices in life and thus decide his behaviour. Values refer to any thing people cherish, desire, appreciate, want, hold, dear, prefer, need; it is internally desired which satisfies the needs (Kalusi, 2011). In this study, value is the rule of action and choice which determines, directs and controls our behavioural, spiritual and social consciousness- the standard of our conducts. In consonance with the above, Albert& Steinberg (2011) asserts that.....

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 130 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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