THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN CRISIS RESOLUTION (A CASE STUDY OF IJAW/ITSEKIRI CRISI)

ABSTRACT
In this study, I tried to examine the mass media as regards to whether they have played a role in the resolution of the Ijaw and Itsekiri Crisis, which started as far back as 1997 up till date.  Hence this research work is carried out to determine to what extent the mass media could go in crisis resolution.

The first chapter contains the introduction, chapter two focuses on literature review, while chapter three is the research methods and research samples in data gathering.  Chapter is a comprehension analysis and data interpretations on the role played by mass media as a medium of crisis resolution in Ijaw and Itsekiri.  Chapter five summarises the entire work with some recommendations to it..

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction
1.0.1            Headquarters relocation and political issues
1.0.2            The title of oluship
1.0.3            Economic sabotage
1.0.4            Iteskiri claims
1.0.5            Ijaws/urhobo claims
1.1         Statement of the problem
1.2         Purpose of the study
1.3         Research questions
1.4         Research hypothesis
1.5         Definition of terms
1.6         Assumptions
1.7         Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0         Review of literature

CHAPTER THREE
3.0         Research method
3.1          Research design
3.2         Research sampling
3.3         Measuring instrument
3.4         Data gathering
3.5         Data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0         Data analysis
4.1         Result
4.2         Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0         Summary
5.1         Recommendation

Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE
1.0         INTRODUCTION
The disagreement between the Ijaw and Itsekiri of Warri metropolis started as far back as July 1997, and lasted through May 29, 1999, and since then has brought about an intercommunal and political tussles.  The Ijaws complained that the oil companies operating in the area could not embark on any development programme in that area.  Instead the oil companies decided to help the then Oku of Warri, thereby leaving the community in a devastating and helpless state.
These atrocious acts, which began in 1997 and lasted through May 1999 have recently been resumed.  To date, over 3,000 people including women and children, have been killed, their bodies desecrated.  Additionally, 30 villages and towns have been destroyed and burnt with tens of thousands of Itsekiri rendered homeless.  As the case between 1997 and 1999, both the federal government of Nigeria and then Government of Delta State have not acted to restore law and order, allowing the massacre and slaughter to continue unabated.
We have to take a look at some issues that brought about this community feud.

1.0.1            HEADQUARTERS RELOCATION AND POLITICAL ISSUES
The transfer of council meant for the Ijaw clan of Ogbeli – Joh, Isaba and Abaranaty on the 13th of March 1997 to the Itsekiri and the citing of the headquarters in an Itsekiri settlement called Ogidigben in Wasrri North Local Government triggered off the conflict between the communities of Ijaw and Itsekiri since 1997.
The political issues involves land ownership tusses and the Urhobo’s testified that the ethnic conflict between Ijaw and Itsekiri in Warri North, South and South-West Local Government Areas was due to political and economic problems Chief Benjamin Okumagba stated that the Olu of Warri Ogiane Otuwase II is a ruler in exile and it is an abomination for a traditional ruler to buy a piece of land for his palace.  Chief Okumagba said that the tehn present Olu, Erejuwa II begged his father (Okumagba father) for a piece of land.  Also Okumagba stated that the federal government succumbed to the bidding of the Olu of Warri Ogiane Atuwase II and his Itsekiri people in continuing to make the Itsekiri rule Warri metropolis through river-rine wards of Ode – Itsekiri Obodo and Ibeji.

1.0.2            THE TITLE OF OLUSHIP
Going memory lane, the changing of the title of Olu of Itsekiri to the Olu of Warri in 1952 by Chief Obafemi Awolowo’s Action Group Government is one of the remote causes of the tribal feud, because the Urhobo and the Ijaw in Warri sees it as a punitive action against them.  Between 1960 – 1966 the Ijaws and Urhobo were against the then Action Group.  Tendering a letter of 13th September 1952 from the acting civil secretary to the government Chief Okumagba insisted that subsequent move by the royal father to create chieftaincy title from the Itsekiri to reflect Warri Communal land trust by the then Action Group of the Itsekiri was the genesis of the continuous communal feud in Warri.

1.0.3            ECONOMIC SABOTAGE
The Ijaws also complained that the oil companies operating in those areas do not embark of development programmes in their areas.  They went further to say that instead of developing the Ijaws and Urhobos community where the oil company is situated, the companies collaborated with the Olu of Warri and decided to embezzle the money, for example the case of Ngbodo community who took the oil companies to court for allegedly paying the Olu of Warri the sum of one hundred million (N100m).  this money could have been used in development of these communities. 
Though the arrowhead of the discount was the then relocation of the Warri South Local government headquater from Ogbehijoh in 1997, this in which many live and properties were lost in the Warri metropolis.

1.0.4            ITSEKIRI CLAIMS
Subsequently, there are counter claims on the issues of the ownership of Warri from all ethnic group corners.
They also cited a Supreme Court judgment suit numbers Sc/37/73/3.  In  the same way the Itsekiri regard the Urhobo as customary tenants of Itsekiri.  This was in line with statement of a prominent Itsekiri leader and retired judge of the defunct Bendel State, justice Franklin Atake on the 13th June 1997.   Atake claimed that the Ijaw came from their home – land of Western Ijaw, while the Urhobo migrated from Agbarho-Otor.

1.0.5            IJAWS/URHOBO CLAIMS
More so the Ijaws and Urhobo also have their claims; for example they refer to Itsekiri claim as a repeat of the Itsekiri and the Olu’s usual false propaganda and reckless intimidation of government functionaries over the Warri Crisis.  Chief Okumagba stated that every human being has a homeland and that the Olu and his Itsekiri leader homeland is in Ode – Itsekiri and their respective villages not in Warri metropolis.  He also stated that the Olu and his Chief are strangers in Warri.  He cannot lay claims to a square metre of land acquired through inheritance as compared to his humble self and other Urhobos, like situations whose landed property in Warri metropolis are acquired through inheritance for a period spannig 600 – 650 years.
Recently, the motive of Ijaw, who number about 8 million is very clear.  They are isntent on annexing and occupying oil rich Itsekiri land, should their genocidal attrack against Itsekiri, a very small monority, succeed.  Theis territorial expanionist drive is designed to leverage both teir demand for increase control of oil-derived revenue and threats of secession from the Federal Republic of Nigeria, a terrorist move that compromise supply to the United States.

1.1     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The relocation of Warri South Local Government headquarters from Ogbehijoh to Ogidigben on 13th March 1997 by the military government of Late General Sani Abacha.  Other news reports on the announcement follows broadcast by the media resulted to protests and demonstration by Ogbeh-ijoh prople.  More so mass media’s function is to educate the masses, especially the conflicting communities on the negative implications of such crisis persuasion functions is another function of the mass media.  The masses should be persuaded to eschew violence and embrace peace organizing special programmes for the people to watch can do this.

1.2 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the role played by Delta Broadcasting Service, Warri, in the prevention, resolution and transformation of the Inter-ethnic conflict in Warri in 2003. The specific objectives are to;
i.                     Examine the role played by the state government in the resolution and transformation of the conflict.
ii.                    Examine the level of conflict prevention preparedness in DBS as a media outfit.
iii.                  Identify the plans and programmes put in place by DBS to build peace and prevent future conflicts.
iv.                   Examine the role played by DBS in the resolution of the conflict, through programmes and coverage and,
v.                    Identify the constraints limiting the effectiveness of the media (DBS) in the prevention, resolution and transformation of the conflict.

1.3 Research Questions
vi.                   What role did the State Government play in the Resolution and Transformation of the conflict?
vii.                 What is the level of conflict prevention preparedness in DBS?
viii.                What is the pattern and level of coverage of the conflict by DBS?
ix.                   What role did DBS play in the resolution of the conflict?
x.                    What policies and programmes have been put in place to build peace and prevent conflict?
xi.                   What are the constraints to the effectiveness of DBS in preventing, resolving and transforming the conflict?

1.4       DEFINITION OF TERMS
RELOCATION
According to the Advance Learner’s Dictionary, relocation is the moving into a new place or area.  The relocation of population, this has to do with the compulsory evacuation with resettlement in a new area.
CONFLICT
Dictionary defines conflict as to be in disagreement, fight, struggle, and quarrel.
RESOLUTION
According to the same dictionary resolution is having the quality of being resolved.  Fixity or boldness of determination

1.6        ASSUMPTION

From the research hypothesis it is assumed that the mass media did not contribute positively to the Ijaw/Itsekiri crisis resolution and this had prolonged the speedy resolution of the crisis.

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THE ROLE OF COUNSELOR IN COMBATING DRUG ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

ABSTRACT
This work was done to final  out the assessment of the Counsellor’s role in the fight against  drug abuse, because drug abuse has become a serious problem  we are facing  both in Nigeria and in other parts of  the world.
            The objectives of this research  is to find out if drug abuse has increased crime rate in Nigeria, to find out if the Counsellor is performing  their functions effectively, its assessment in the fight  against drug abuse in Nigeria and what impression people have about drug abuse in Nigeria.
            A critical  review of related  literature  was made. The  methodology used, the research  design, sample, the method of data collection and analysis  is found  in chapter three.
            Chapter four is devoted to the analysis of  data collected  and results of the research. Tables were used in the results.

            Chapter five contains the summary of the study and the recommendations for further study.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

According to the World Drug Report (2005), the use of illicit drugs has increased throughout the world in recent years. The report further states that a major world trend is the increasing availability of many kinds of drugs to an ever widening socio- economic spectrum of consumers. The report argues that the main problem drugs at global level continue to be opiates (notably heroine) followed by cocaine. For example, for most of Europe and Asia, opiates continued to be the main problem drugs, accounting for 62 percent of all treatment in 2003. Reports from a total of 95 countries indicated that drug seizures increased four-fold in 2003, and more than half of these were of cannabis.

Every country in the world, developed or developing, incurs substantial costs as a result of damages caused by substance abuse (World Drug Report, 2005). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.1 billion people, representing a third of the world population above the age of 15 years, use tobacco, principally in the form of the cigarettes. Of the 800 million smokers, 700 million of them are males in developing countries (WHO, 2004). While smoking rates have been declining in the developed world, they have increased in the developing countries by as much as 50 percent, especially in Asia and in the Pacific region, over the last decade. Addiction to tobacco is therefore a major problem in the developing countries. According to the same report, tobacco Sources four million deaths annually, not including prenatal morbidity and mortality. This figure is projected to rise to 1.6 million by the year 2025, 70 percent of which will occur in the developing world if current trends continue (INCB, 2003).

According to the African Union Ministerial Conference on Drug Control in Africa report (2004), at least 16 countries in Africa have reported abuse of opiates, with prevalence rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 percent for the population aged 15 and above. Twelve countries reported cocaine abuse with prevalence ranging from 0.01 to
1.1 percent for this age bracket. Concurrently, the age of those initiated to drug use is diminishing with large numbers of in-school and out-of-school youth consuming drugs. This phenomenon is even more acute in conflict and post conflict countries, with populations experiencing high stress levels while child soldiers are provided with drugs to enable them to fight.

All the while, Africa’s role in the global drugs supply chain is increasing. Already the continent is the second largest region for cannabis production, trafficking and consumption, accounting for 26 percent of global seizures of this drug in 2001 (UNODC, 2004). By country, the largest hauls in this period were in Nigeria, Nigeria, and the Republic of South Africa, while Morocco is said to be one of the main producers of Cannabis resin.

According to a report by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB, 2006), the East African region has become the fallback for drug dealers following increased control of traditional routes through the Netherlands and Spain. The warning followe the discovery of cocaine worth 6.4 billion Nigeria Naira in Imo and Enugu on December 14, 2004 (Daily Nation, March 2, 2006).

The situation described above is true in developed countries that have been experimenting with such drugs for a long period. However, developing countries are not exempt from the dangers. All countries, Nigeria included, are vulnerable. It has been noted that Nigeria is one of the developing countries in Africa that has lately been experiencing rapid increase in production, distribution and consumption of multiple drugs of dependence (Acuda and Yambo 1983; World Health Organization, 1995; Daily Nation, March 2, 2006). In the face of this challenge, a broad spectrum of the world community has demonstrated intense concern about the problem. It is in the best interests of every nation, including Nigeria, to take a firm stand in combating all aspects of drug abuse.

In 1990, the United Nations General Assembly created the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP). The creation of UNDCP will be based on the recognition of the need for an organization that would foster concerted international action against illicit drug production, trafficking and abuse. Its formation is evidence of the determination of the governments of the world, working through the United Nations (UN) to put an end to these transnational phenomena.

The Nigeria government has ratified two major United UN conventions on narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in its quest to protect its citizens from the ravages of the global drug abuse menace. These include the Single Convention on Narcotic
Drugs (1961) and the Convention against Illicit Trafficking on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988). The government is currently working towards the ratification of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971). In 1994, the government enacted a new anti-drug law, the Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances Control Act, as well as forming the Nigeria Anti-Narcotic Unit.

Within Nigeria itself, drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem Masita (2004), almost every Nigerian youngster at one time or another experiments with drugs, especially with beer and cigarettes. Although the regular users of hardcore drugs are much fewer than those of cigarette and alcohol, the study argues that the major cause of concern is that a high proportion of these young people eventually become addicted threatening their own health and safety, and causing difficulties for their families and friends.

Findings from a National Survey on Alcohol and Drug Abuse conducted by NACADA in 2012 shows that 13.3% of Nigerians are currently using alcohol, 9.1% tobacco, 4.2% miraa, 1.0% bhang and 0.1% heroin. Overall, bhang is the most easily available illicit drug in the country at 49% followed by cocaine while heroin is the least available illicit drug in the country. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance in the country and poses the greatest harm to Nigerians as evidenced by the numerous calamities associated with excessive consumption and adulteration of illicit brews. Among the different types of alcoholic drinks, traditional liquor is the most easily accessible type of alcohol followed by wines and spirits and lastly chang’aa a local brew. 30 % of Nigerians aged 15-65 have ever consumed alcohol in their life;
13.3% of Nigerians currently consume alcohol that means that at least 4 million people. Worrying, though is that the median age of first use of all drugs has gone as low as 10 years.

Statement of the problem
Drug abuse has become rampant in our  society and this has  posed a problem because a society filled  with   filled with drug  addicts and drug dependents cannot move forward. A nation filled with people who misuse, abuse or are addicted to drugs will have  a high rate of increase in crime, prostitution etc. it also  makes way for  drug traffic kicking in the society. It constitutes  a major public health hazard and is a part of general  and  social disorganization we see around us that is, breeds comatose  patients, and various melody cases  that constitute  the urban  eyeore that dent the image of a nation. It contributes significantly to breakdown of law and  order and  establishment of various circles of abuses, deficiency, criminality and further abuse. Drug abuse  has also  led to the diversion of scarce resources to cure addicts, and to rehabilitate them, building  of psychiatric  hospitals, breakdown  of societal norms and values, leading to up heavily, anarchy and other  vices in the society, posing  more problem than to be solved.
Such problems call for in-depth  research to help  salvage the situation   to avoid  the set back it created for our society and this has to be done with the help of the Counsellor in order to inform and educate  the people on what that  effects of drug  abuse can cause to the society, and to the people  involved .

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In the research statement, I  highlighted  some of the  problems which called for the research. The objectives of this study thus includes:
a.         To find out if drug  abuse has increased crime rate in Nigeria.
b.         To investigate how far the Counsellor has gone in informing and  educating  the society about serious issues in Nigeria.
c.         To  evaluate its assessment in the role it has played in the fight  against drug abuse in Nigeria.
d.         To find out the  impressions people have about drug  abuse in Nigeria.

Scope and limitation of the study
 
The focuses of the study was to first establish the commonly abused drugs in these schools.

Significance of the Study
The proposed study could help the Ministry of Education (M.O.E.) to better understand the current situation and accordingly make changes to address the factors that contribute to substance abuse in secondary schools. Nigeria, like many other developing countries, is faced with the social problem of high rates of substance abuse. To make matters worse, the percentage of substance abusers in schools increases yearly despite the efforts to eradicate the problem. Failure to solve this problem not only threatens the life of individuals, but also the economic and social development of the country as a whole. The current study is useful in contributing to
the general body of knowledge in this area. Beyond that, however, it also explores the potential of schools to curb the drug problem.

The study should help to make policy makers, administrators and teachers aware of the factors hindering the effectiveness of the approaches which attempt to curb drug abuse and, where possible, create opportunities to eradicate the problem. The proposed programme would be useful in educating all Nigerians, youth and adults, on the risks of substance consumption. Thus, this study would play an important role in reducing, or even preventing high rates of substance use and abuse. Based on the findings, recommendations are made. If followed, these recommendations would be useful to administrators and policy makers in curbing substance abuse in schools through improving existing educational programmes, and striving to develop ones that are even more efficient. The study would also help in promoting a drug-free school environment and better academic performance, thus improving the standards of education in the country. In the absence of specific policies on substance abuse in schools this study makes important recommendations on the way forward.

Definition of Key Words 
Drug: Any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning. It can enter the body through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection.

Drug abuse: Use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons. It refers to misuse of any psychotropic substances resulting in changes in bodily functions, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically. Social effects may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teachers, and school authorities. Cognitive effects relate to the individual’s lack of concentration on academic work and memory loss such as “blackouts.

Drug addiction: Addiction to drugs or alcohol means that a person’s body can no longer function without these substances. The addictive substances usually have negative effects, for example, they can alter mental state and behaviour to a point where the individual becomes a threat to himself and others. Once a person becomes addicted, it is hard to stop using drugs.

According to Bawkin and Bawkin (1972), an addicted person may show a decline in academic performance, frequently fails to attend classes, loses interest in school work and displays weakened motor coordination, poor health, and lack of interest in old friendships. Addiction by its nature distorts thinking processes giving prominence to thoughts which justify continuing addictive behaviour, and minimizing or excluding consideration of reasons for ceasing it.

Drug related problems: This term is used to describe all negative effects associated with drug abuse such as violence, conflicts with friends or school authorities, destruction of school property and academic underperformance.

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THE ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION OF REDEEMED CHRISTIAN CHURCH OF GOD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FCT

ABSTRACT


The church never considers herself not concerned with human reality. Though she is divine she has human elements. She is therefore involved in human communal affairs. She cannot keep aloof from the question of development of the community. In the words of the fathers of Vatican II, “the joy and hope, the grief and anguish of the men of our time, especially of those who are poor or afflicted in any way, are the joy and hope, the grief and anguish of the followers of Christ as well” (GS :1). From the research it is safe to conclude that the Church’s involvement in development of the community is necessitated by her solidarity with the human conditions. The primary source of data also enables the researcher to conclude that the Church is significantly involved in development of the community. It shows that there is no area of development of the community

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

            BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The multi-dimensional aspects of development in the various facets of the Nigerian Society have received the attention of the Church and still beckon on the Church for dialogue, critical and constructive dynamism if the church must continue to be relevant today and into the future. Indeed the history of the Church in Nigeria does not make full appreciative sense without a decisive entry for the better into the economic, cultural and socio-political development of the nation (Onwuanibe, 1995). Only with such vigorous engagement for the authentic progress and development of the nation can the Church’s message be welcome in the seeking of solutions to emergent development problems facing the country. Ultimately, human development is about the realization of potential. It is about what people can do and what they can become--their capabilities and about the freedom they have to exercise real choices in their lives.
The Holy Ghost Fathers had been in Eastern Nigerian for about eighty-five years. Not until after the Nigeria-Biafra war has their influence been somewhat minimized. Arriving originally from France in 1885, the Roman RCCG Missionaries exerted a considerable influence on the lives of the people of the region far out of proportion to their number. They became a factor to reckon with in the history of the development of the region.
The former Eastern Nigeria has been carved out into nine separate States of Abia, Anambra, Abuja, Ebonyi, Imo, Akwa-Ibom, Cross-River, Rivers and Bayelsa. The missionary efforts of the Holy Ghost Congregation covered the above-mentioned areas with their take-off point at Onitsha, Anambra State. There were only four missionaries who arrived at Onitsha in 1885. By 1918, there were a total of thirty-two Roman RCCG missionaries—Priests, Brothers and Sisters. The beginning of the Church in Nigeria was slow and arduous, but persistent as those great missionaries such as Fr. Leon Alexander Lejeune, Monsignor Pierre Le Berre, Fr. Joseph Lutz, Fr. Horne, Brothers Hermas and Jean-Gotto, Mr. Charles Townsend and Bishop Shanahan courageously made their way into the hinterland to bring the light of Christian faith in Nigeria especially in Eastern Nigeria in the early 1900s (Onwuanibe, 1995, 66). The missionary activities continued to spread to reach the remote part of Igboland, Efikland and other parts of Eastern Nigeria.
The impact of the Church can be felt in the dismantling of inhuman practices and institutions such as slavery, human sacrifice, killing of twins, and in the establishment of Christian villages which eventually gave way to schools for formal education. Translation of the Gospel into the vernacular languages and the production of catechisms in vernacular languages showed the good sense of recognizing the native culture, for language or tongue is a main  vehicle of culture and development. Many local customs were banned as “pagan” and there is need today for inculturation in terms of appraising and recognizing good traditional values (Onwuanibe, 1995).
By building schools which range from the primary to secondary levels the Church recognized the importance of education in development. The Church has also had a programme of medical, social and personality development. She lays great emphasis especially through the voices of recent ecclesiastical hierarchy on the determining role of a just and widespread development for all the corners of the globe. She sees this condition as a prerequisite for world
peace via international solidarity. She even gives development a new name: peace (Paul VI, 1967). The Church therefore stresses on the true condition of integral development, one that does not disfigure the human person by a neglect of any of the important constituents of his personality.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Communities in Nigeria have been bedeviled by numerous development challenges which include: severe economic, political and social crises, decline in the standard of education, moral and infrastructural decay, cultural crisis predicated on the fact that traditional values in the people’s cultures have been heavily impacted by materialism, science and technology and ideologies. Health facilities are in total decay.
All these problems call to question The role and contribution of the Church in still contributing to the provision of needed succor in these problem areas. In view of these problems and issues, the big question is the relevance of the Church in the present situation. Since relevance is an important feature of any meaningful phenomenon, event or institution, especially in the sphere of human life, the Church’s role in the solution of problems in the 21st century Nigerian society may be definitive in the justification of its existence among the Nigerian people.
Moving from the great signs of vitality and great contributions of the Church to development of the community since the advent of the early missionaries to Eastern Nigerian, this work will look at The role and contribution of the Church in Nigeria today and set how it can help address itself to several problems of poverty and other social problems facing the people and see how it can further join the government and other stakeholders in bringing sustainable development among the people for which it was a source of hope in the past.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
 
The specific objectives of the study include:

1.                               To identify to what extent the Church can contribute to development of the community.
2.                               To determine to what extent the Church has been vital and relevant in development of the community of Nigeria.
3.                               To determine the problems of development still facing the Church and how it can still contribute in developing the communities in Nigeria.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
 
-                                Has the Church played any role in development of the community in FCT?
-                              To what extent has the Church been relevant in development of the community of FCT?
-                                How can the Church help provide sustainable development in FCT in the 21st century?

            HYPOTHESES


Ho             The Church has played a significant role in the development of the community of FCT.

H1             The Church has not played a significant role in the development of the community of FCT.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
 
This study is significant in various ways:

1.                               It will provide valuable insights into existing relationship between the government and the church in providing development in our rural communities.
2.                               It will bring to the fore the prominent roles the Church have been playing in development since she made her advent and the situation today.
3.                               It could also motivate the various stakeholders in development of the community to partner well with the Church in bringing development to the grassroots.
4.                               It will add to existing knowledge and equally serve as a benchmark for further studies.
5.                               It will serve as a model to other NGOs in their contributions to development of the community.
6.                               It could also bring to the knowledge of other religions that religion is not just “otherworldly,” that they work for the material and psychological well being of men and women when they are being well practised.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY
 
To determine and study the various roles the redeemed Christian church of God (RCCG) has been playing in the field of development in Nigeria. It is restricted to the socio-economic, cultural and political roles of the Church especially in FCT. The choice of FCT is based on the centrality of the state, the capital of Nigeria.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 
Among the limitations include, time, resources, human factor, limited data and information.

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THE PRACTICE OF HOSTEL SANITATION AND IT'S IMPACT ON STUDENT HEALTH IN THE UNIVERSITY OF JOS

ABSTRACT
The study examined the practice of hostel sanitation and its health impact on students. The study explored the knowledge, attitudes and practices of sanitation among hostel users at University of Jos in the College of education zuba. The study revealed that hostel users lack the requisite knowledge on good hygiene and improved hostel sanitation practices. As a result, they do not see the issue of improved sanitation as a current priority. They also failed to change their current lifestyles that seemed to worsen the sanitation situation. Besides, they do not seem accountable for keeping a clean school environment. There is, therefore, the urgent need to educate hostel users to have the necessary information that will enable them change their current bad attitudes for effective and efficient practices toward improved sanitation.  Measures must also be put in place by the Local Authority to provide basic waste collection bins to ensure clean school for good revenue generation. 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1             BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:-
 World Health Organization defined sanitation as the means of collecting and disposing excreta and community liquids, waste in a hygienic way. So as not to endanger the health and welfare and also for the social and environmental effects, it may have on people; people have been suffering from one disease to another without knowing the problems of their illness, the situation and due to distress or dirty environment. Cleanliness is next to Godliness. Similarly, Iheke (2010) sees sanitation as the process of keeping places clean and hygienic especially by providing a sewage system and a clean water supply. Sanitation refers to all conditions that affects the health of people in a geographical area. Billions of people still live without access to sanitation facilities and are unable to practice such basic hygienic as washing their hands with soap and water.
There has been considerable awareness of water supply in institution, but the problems of excreta and waste disposal have receive less attention. In University of Jos , every where is littered with pure water polythene, pieces of papers and so on, without proper disposal. In order to focus attention of these problems. Sanitation exercise should be done daily to keep the environment clean by employing labourers that will help keep the school clean. Environments should be formulated in order to kill dangerous animals like snake, scorpion etc.
In school hostels, there are problems of over-crowding and these affects the health of the students in the hostel. More than 200 students share four (4) toilets. Mostly girls in hostel have inadequate sanitation facilities. With this premise, the researchers seek to find out the implication of hostel sanitation practices on students health in University of Jos . Inadequate sanitation and water in school jeopardize not only the students health but also their attendance. Girls in particular area likely to be kept out of school, if there is no sanitation. Seminars should be organized in institutions to help educate students more, especially girls in the hostel on menstrual hygiene, sanitation hygienic practices, cleanliness in the surroundings. To make everywhere conducive for teaching and learning, lack of skills and this have hindered the educational prospects of girls residing in the hostel. Flies petch on dirts, toilet etc and later petch on uncovered foods and all this are dangerous to human health.

1.2             STATEMENTS OF PROBLEM:-
Control of pests, waste disposal had become a problem in our environment because of poor hostel sanitation practices. Diseases related to poor sanitation and water availability causes many people to die of sickness like cholera, diarrhea, malaria, typhoid which damages the body tissues. However, it is not clear on the extent in which school management and student union government (SUG) have contributed in curbing poor hostel sanitation practices. The problem of this study is to find out the strategies which could be employ to provide facilities to students to reduce dirtiness.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:-
The purpose of this study is to find out the implication of hostel sanitation practices on students health in University of Jos. Specifically this study was to:
1 To examine the causes of poor hostel sanitation practices in school.
2 To examine the level of hostel sanitation practices in school.
3 To examine the effects of hostel sanitation practices on students health.
4 To examine the relationship between hostel sanitation practices and implication on students health.
5 To suggest strategies that could be employed to improve hostel sanitation practices in school.
6 To examine the extent in which the school management have contributed in providing facilities that will enhance hostel sanitation practices.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will enable the students in University of Jos, to better understand and cultivate a clean environment because cleanliness is next to Godliness. The finding will help the following people:
The students to know the needs of hygiene or health practices, because cleanliness in next to Godliness and also enable to have a sound health, if sanitation is practiced by the students, sickness and diseases will be reduced.
To the school management: The findings will help the school management to provide adequate facilities that will enable the labourers to keep the environment clean and tidy, also provide fund for buying disinfectant and Antiseptic, and also paying the labourers.
Government:- The findings will help the government, to formulate a policies that will enable their follow students keep the environment clean and regulations on the school. Also they serve as a mediator between the management and the students.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
In order to find answers to the objective of this study, the researchers formulated the following research questions.
1 what are the causes of poor hostel sanitation practices in school.
2 what is the level of hostel sanitation practices in school.
3 what is  the effects of hostel sanitation practices on students health.
4 what is the relationship between hostel sanitation practices and implication on students health.
5 what are strategies that could be employed to improve hostel sanitation practices in school.
6 what is the extent in which the school management have contributed in providing facilities that will enhance hostel sanitation practices.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study was delimited to determining the implication of sanitation practice in student’s health in schools especially those in hostel in University of Jos.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 101 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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