ADAPTATION OF HAM TRADITIONAL DESIGNS AS SOURCES OF MOTIFS FOR FABRIC AND APPAREL EMBELLISHMENT USING BATIK

ABSTRACT
The problem of this study is that of the selection, documentation, explanation and preservation of some of the traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham People of Kaduna State and adapting them for contemporary use on fabric using Batik Technique of fabric embellishment. The general objective of the study is to select and adapt traditional designs on the artifacts of Ham People and adapt them for use as motifs on contemporary batik resist fabric for embellishment, thereby ensuring the sustainability of such motifs. The purposes of the study are: to identify the traditional artifacts of the Ham people and the design motifs on them and to extract some of these motifs and adapt them onto fabrics using batik technique of textile decoration. The study adopts survey method for data collection to obtain relevant information from the subjects in the sample area as suggested by Adetoro (1997). Exploratory approach and product development (R&D) was used for sourcing for designs on artifacts as suggested by Itten (1997). Other parameters of investigation used in exploratory methodology include population of the study, sampling, pilot study and experiments for adaptation of designs to textile fabrics using resist techniques. Three survey instruments were used in the study. The first one which is a questionnaire (Appendix II) was used for pilot study and thesecond one Appendix III (A) interview was used for collecting data of the fifty traditional motifs. The third one (Appendix III B questionnaire) was used for the assessment of the resist pieces of fabric produced from the modified traditional design motifs extracted from the artifacts of the Ham People for comparison with those produced within the recent period. This was done by presenting the twenty five selected motifs to some randomly selected respondents, comprising of Ham youths and adults based in Zaria. The comparative assessment questionnaire is a five Likert scaled instrument. Based on the analysis of the study, the following findings were made: 1.The production of traditional artifacts of the Ham people is on the downward trend.2. Ten different crafts are still being practiced by the Ham people (mostly old people and only on request)3. The traditional artifacts of the Ham people have symbolic motifs with traditional names and can be adapted on textile fabrics, using the batik technique of fabric decoration.4. Cultural and environmental factors such as festivals, annual cultural day celebrations, naming ceremonies, marriages, burial, initiation rites and aesthetic values are guiding the use of the traditional Ham design motifs.5. Vat dyes are quite suitable for the practical adaptation of the Ham design motifs on fabrics and apparel using the batik technique. The general conclusion is that although the production of artifacts in Ham land is on the downward trend, it is still being practiced withsymbolic motifs that are adaptable on fabrics using resist dying techniques.

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
Culture is the way of life as well as a heritage that is being passed from one generation to the other. Among the countries of Africa, according to Kashim, (2011), “Nigeria has taken a prominent position when it comes to cultural heritage and creative art which are manifested in her diverse crafts”.The products of these indigenous craft have sufficiently served economic needs of the people in the local communities. Since the pre-colonial era, various members of distinct ethnic groups engage in a lot of traditional craft practices in the agrarian occupational engagement. Nigerian culture is very colourful especially when it comes to the textiles, it‟s a thing of pride for Nigerians. This study therefore, was motivated through the observations of the varioustraditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham people of Kaduna state. These designs could be very suitable as motifs in batik method of fabric embellishment in textile design.

Background of Study
This study is concerned with artifacts, traditional designs and motifs of the Ham people of Kaduna State. Ogunduyile, (2011) 0bserved that art has been noted to be the totality of all knowledge and values shared by a society. Creativity has been in existence right from the time of the ancient man; he used what he could find in his surrounding to solve his problems. Marvin and David, L. D wrote that human beings expressed themselves and told their stories in pictures long before they could read and write. They further explained that pictures on the walls of early cave dwellings are evidence of the human compulsion to describe the world in both representational and symbolic images.The Ham man is, therefore, not exempted in this storyof the ancient man; he created and designed things with whatever he could find in his immediate environment. Development and industrialization of a country revolves around the modernization of the artifacts and crafts of the people. “The industrial development in a country involves considerable artifacts and crafts that develops in stages and which leads to a progressive growth” (Ajayi 2007). The  use of these traditional designs is going a long way in saving the artifacts and crafts for the younger generation.

Brief Introduction to Kaduna State
Kaduna state is a state in the central Northern Nigeria, and its capital is Kaduna. Established in 1912 by Lord Frederick Lugard, first as a garrison town and then as the regional capital of the then Northern protectorate, Kaduna soon attracted people of all races, religion and cultures. Within two decades of its establishment, it grew from almost a virgin territory of small scattered settlement of the indigenous population of mostly the Gbagyi, to a town of over 30,000 people. This population comprise of the British colonies, artisans and clerks from the southern protectorate as well as laborers and traders from the Nupe, Hausa, Kanuris, Fulanis and other tribes in the Northern protectorate. Kaduna derived its name from the river Kaduna which gave the settlement its name; it was so called because it was crocodile infested, „Kadduna‟ being the plural of “crocodile” in Hausa, (Haruna 2013).
The state has at the moment 23 local government areas and all these 23 are all blessed with fertile land for farming of both food and cash crops, it‟s also for irrigational farming (fadama farming). The state is also blessed with several mineral resources like clay, gold, graphite and many others, which has made the state a center for several small scale businesses like pottery, textiles, poultry and many other petty trading. It is mostly dominated by the Ham, Gbagyi, Adara, Gong, Atyap, Hausa and some other ethnic communities, according to Dangel (2008). The Ham people occupy four local Government Areas in Kaduna state and they are Jaba, Jema‟a, Kagarko and Kachia Local Government Areas.

Brief Introduction to the Ham People
According to James (1997) the Ham people spread over an area of about 307 square miles (sqm) in Kaduna state of Nigeria.Theorigin of Ham include Nok, Kwoi, Zshiek( Kurmin Musa) Dung( Jaban Kogo) Chori, Fai , Ketere, Sambang Gida, Sambang Daji,Wenyom and other Ham settlements in the southern part of Kaduna State. Like many peoples of northern Nigeria, the Ham, who are neither Hausa nor Fulani, have also adopted the Hausa language as part of their lingua franca.The Hausa Language is the Language commonly spoken in the Northern region of Nigeria.
The Hausa Language to a greater extent has diluted and adulterated the native tongue (Hyam) of the Ham language often mutually in-twined or used interchangeably among younger generation that did not grow up with the native lingua franca hence the fading away of the Ham Language.

Statement of Problem
Civilization has affected the production of the Ham artifacts negatively in the sense that the production of these artifacts that are beautifully decorated with traditional designs has drastically reduced, thereby leading to the loss of some historical information. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper preservation and presentation of the Ham artifacts and traditional designs that could serve as means of saving information for the younger generation
In Nigeria, what is mostly known about traditional designs and artifacts in art revolves around the Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa and little is known about the minority ethnic groups who populate this country in their millions. The presence of historical crafts activities around Ham people shows that these skills can be utilized to modern day technology for if not adopted now, with time the artifacts and crafts will face extinction. Most of these artifacts and crafts were used for different purposes and it was observed that these artifacts and crafts have been replaced with modern facilities which appear to be more durable. Against the background, the researcher is therefore set to investigate the existence of these antiquities and to provide solution on how they can be used on modern fabric and apparel embellishment. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper documentation and preservation of the Ham artifacts, craft and traditional designs.

Aims and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is toexplore and preserve the Ham traditionaldesigns and motifs that can be seen on the artifactsas well as adapt them on fabrics. While the objectives of the study are:
Study the Ham artifacts and the various unique features of the traditional designs found on them.
Determine the various unique features of the Ham traditional designs as motifs in textile design.
Select some of the artifacts and develop traditional motifs for them as to find out whether they can be used for fabrics and apparel embellishment.
To identify the meaning and functions attached to the various artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of the Ham people.
Assess the relationship of the newly modified motifs and the old traditional ones that have been in existence in order to ascertain their differences

Research Questions
In this study research questions are opted for because they provide findings and solutions to research problems. Some of the research questions raised for this study are:
What are the unique features of the Ham traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham people?

1. What are the various unique features of the Ham traditional designs that can be used as motifs in textile design?
2. Can the traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham people be adapted and applied on fabrics and apparels using batik methods?
3. Are there special meanings and functions attached to these artifacts and traditional designs?
4. To what extent can the differences between the newly modified motifs and the old traditional ones of the Ham people be determined?

Justification
The Ham people are a people with an interesting culture that can be studied over and over again because of the beautiful way of life of the Ham man. The researcher had studied most of the batik designed fabrics and apparels in the markets and discovered that they are mostly embellished with the designs and motifs of the Yoruba people of the southern part of Nigeria. The various traditional designs of the Ham people, when inculcated and adapted on the fabric, will give batik another look from the ones already in circulation. Ala‟u (2006) in his study on the “Adaptation of the Traditional Designs on crafts of Southern Kaduna as motifs for Textiles Resist Technique”, talked on the crafts of some ethnic groups in the southern part of Kaduna state and which Ham was inclusive. But in his study of the Ham crafts, he only studied and talked on the Nok terracotta which is one of the major artifacts the Ham people can be identified with. James (1997), in his book entitled „The Ham: Its people, their political and cultural History‟, concentrated mainly on the cultural history and origin of the Ham people, no serious attention was given to their artifacts, crafts, designs and motifs. Looking at the study of Ala‟u (2006), Fagg (1999), James (1997) and some other paper presentations by Gandu (2013), it is obvious that much attention has not been given to the study of the artifacts and traditional designs of the Ham people which, therefore, justifies  this study.

Significance of the Study
Studies carried out shows that scholars like Fagg (1990) have written on Nok culture, which is one major part of the Ham people, however most of the documentations made by these scholars were on sculptures and none has been made on the textiles of the people. In response to Fagg (1990) and Ala‟u (2006), this study will concentrate on digging into the artifacts and traditional designs of the Ham people. Most of these artifacts and traditional designs are in the danger of extinction as the younger generation is not keen on taking over from the older generation.
The significance and importance of this study therefore will be talked about in the following sub topics, and aspects of life;Educational, cultural, aesthetic, economical and technological
         * Educationally, the study will provide a good source of information, especially when there is limited number of literature on the comprehensive study of the artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of the Ham people.
          * Economically, this study will encourage people to go into private practiceof textiles through the use of local resources, skills, artifacts and traditional designs for the economical growth of the Ham people, Kaduna state and the country as a whole. Industrial development in a country involves considerable artisanal crafts firms in the early stages that grew progressively innumber into large scale manufacturers over the years. Ajayi, (2007).
          * Culturally, this study contributes to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Ham people, in the sense that most of the information on cultural artifacts and traditional designs would be documented and motifs adapted on fabrics. It will further develop the awareness and understanding of the cultural activity of the Ham people.
          * Aesthetically, this study will provide the Ham people beautifully designed fabrics and apparels that can be used as the identity of the Ham people in social gatherings.Textile dyeing with embellishment of colourful patternsand motifs will satisfy the local clothing needs.
There is the need to identify and preserve these traditional designs, and their adaptation on fabric is one way of reserving and representing them.The arts councils, museums and departments of culture are all in the business of studying, preserving and promoting culture, and the new policy on education emphatically stresses the significance of integrating our cultural system, (Rhoda 2006). In line with Rhoda (2006) it can be said that the culture can be disseminated to a larger public.This study, therefore, will compliment the efforts of the culture departments and the art councils. The study will also enlighten the public on the artifacts and traditional designs of the Ham people, thereby rekindling the interest in the study of Ham arts and culture. It is also anticipated that this work will provide fresh resources in motifs with a view to improving or adding to the existing literature on fabric embellishment in textiles. Similarly, Wangboje (1985), encouraged the conduct of local research into local and traditional materials in order to meet the challenges of the time and to produce products that are relevant to the needs, taste and culture of the society. This study also responds to the call made by Jamkur (1992) and Ala‟u (2006) for more research on the Nok culture and the craft of the southern Kaduna people for adaptation to other textile methods of production using pigments and dyes. Furthermore, it responds to Governments‟ incessant call for Nigerians to look inwards rather than outwards for their needs.
The fact that Nigerians are living in an era of democracy with some economic hardship that is making the people patronize home made goods makes this study relevant.

The home made goods which Nigerians now rush for include textile products such as adire- eleko, okene, akwete and aso-oke (Alau 2006). This recent development, therefore, makes this study not only justifiable and imperative but also timely. Finally, in the present democratic dispensation and the seemingly rising feelings of nationalism,cultural inclination with the ardent desire for industrialization and economic emancipation, the significance of the study in this direction cannot be underrated.

Scope and Delimitation 
The scope of the study is delimited to two Local Government Areas the Ham people are predominantly found, namely, Kachia and Jaba Local Government Areas. Kachia Local Government Area has 23 districts and out of which the Ham people occupy 9. In Jaba Local Government Area there are 16 districts all of which are occupied by the Ham people.These two Local Government Areasare sample areas because most of the artifacts of the Ham people are the same.
Furthermore, the study is delimited to the artifacts and traditional designs that are found on household utensils, musical instruments and ritual equipment of the Ham people. The study was alsolimited to batik method of fabric embellishment only. Below are some Ham cultural artifacts and crafts that were studied.
* Nik fang (The co-joined pot)
* Yok zar (The co-joined spoon)
* Hyep shi (Oil jar)
* Hki Nok (Nok terracotta)
* Biyes (Tray)
* Kponkpon (Basket)

Basic Assumptions
The following assumptions weremade for the study:

i. The Ham people have an established artifacts and traditional designs that are on the way to total extinction
ii. The Ham people are a people with an interesting culture that needs to be exploited and critically studied
iii. Representation of other Nigerian cultures should also be reflected in fabrics and apparels embellished with batik method of resist technique instead of focusing on some and ignoring the others.
iv. The researcher will gain access to most of the artifacts and traditional designs of the Ham people.
Most of the respondents have adequate knowledge of these artifacts and traditional designs

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STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION OF READY-TO-WEAR GARMENTS IN CLOTHING INDUSTRIES

ABSTRACT
The major purpose of this study was to identify strategies for improving the production of ready-to-wear garments in clothing industries in Southeast Nigeria. The study answered four research questions while four null hypotheses were tested. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and was carried out in Southeast, Nigeria. The population for the study was made up of 365 workers of the 19 technologically related clothing industries in Abia and Anambra States. Due to the manageable size of the population, there was no sampling. For data collection, two sets of instruments were used namely: Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guide and 179-item structured questionnaire titled: “Strategi es for Improving the Production of Ready-to-Wear Garments Questionnaire (SIMRWGQ)”. Th e instruments were subjected to face validation by five experts. To determine the reliability of the instrument, Cronbach Alpha reliability co-efficient was used to test the internal consistency of the instrument. Reliability coefficients of 0.78 was obtained for technology-related strategies, 0.82 for skill-related strategies, 0.73 for operational-related strategies and 0.77 for environmental-related strategies while an overall reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained for the entire instrument. Data for the study were collected by the researcher with the help of five research assistants. The focus group discussion (FGD) was carried out with 20 discussants. The data collected from the questionnaire administered were analyzed using mean for answering the research questions while t-test statistics was used for testing the hypotheses at p≤0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study identified 75 technology-related, 31 skill-related, 47 operational-related and 26 environmental-related strategies for improving the production of ready-to-wear garments in clothing industries in Southeast Nigeria and the findings on the null hypotheses tested revealed that there were no significant differences in the mean ratings of the responses of supervisors and operators on 152 out of the 179 identified strategies for improving the production of ready-to-wear garment in clothing industries in South East Nigeria while on the remaining 27 strategies, there were significant differences in the mean ratings of the responses of supervisors and operators. The study therefore concluded that the application and adoption of the identified strategies in the production of ready-to-wear garments will improve the quality and competitive advantage of Nigeria made garments. The study among others recommended that the identified technology, skill, operational and environmental strategies for improving the production of ready-to-wear garment be integrated in the curriculum of Home Economics (Clothing and Textile) at all levels in Nigerian education system.

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
Background of the Study 

Clothing refers to any covering worn on the human body. Clothing is one of the basic necessities of any human being which is used for protection, decoration, beautification, adornment, self expression, status symbol and to express one’s personality (Weber, 1990). Clothing helps one to meet one of the basic human needs which provide satisfaction and enjoyment in life. Clothing can be made at home or produced by roadside tailors or in the industry. Devaraja (2011) stated that industry is an organized production or manufacture of goods or a branch of commercial enterprise producing a particular product. Industry is also the term for the manufacture of goods using machinery in factories. Clothing is produced in clothing industry. 

Clothing industry is a factory where materials of clothing are made for consumption. The production of clothing continues to be one of the driving forces of industrialization in the developing world. Clothing industry is thus one of the industries that employed the greatest percentage of workers both globally and locally (United States Bureau of Labour and Statistics, 2009). Clothing industries contribute to employment in developed as well as in developing countries particularly in regions where paid employment may be difficult to find like Nigeria. The Nigeria clothing industry can generate more than 600,000 employments if properly harnessed with appropriate techniques and innovations (Olunegbon, 2009). These clothing industries are involved in the production of garments. 

Garments are physical matter intended for a body (Bjork, 2011). Garments can be defined by its role in revealing or resisting ethnic, professional, class-based, or political identities, or in screening off or establishing a sense of individuality (Bergstrom, 2011). Garments are article of clothing use in covery the body. It can be used as an outer covery or outward appearance like dresses, suits, pants and so on. Garments can be produced at home or in the industry as ready-to-wear. 

Ready-to-wear are garments that are mass produced opposite of custom made. However, custom made garments are item of clothing made according to individual purchaser specification. Ready-to-wear garments often abbreviated RTW, is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition. They are in standardized sizes as distinct from made to measure or bespoke. Made to measure or bespoke garments are tailored to a particular person’s frame (Nathania, 2011).

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THE SALES AND USAGE OF SECONDHAND CLOTHING AMONG NIGERIANS

ABSTRACT 
This study investigate the sales and usage of secondhand clothing in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State. Social construction, sales and usage of secondhand clothing. Certain conditions compel individual into taking decisions and actions. Sales and usage of secondhand clothing is a major occupation, for which, Igbo people are famous. With the economic downturn, more Igbo people have taken to the sales of secondhand clothing. Today, sales of secondhand clothing are no longer exclusive Igbo affairs. Government policy has caused inflation, which has in turn, deprived people employment and even choices in terms of wears. As a result, patronage of used clothes that was a character of the low income earner, and people with no or low education, has become an attraction to educated folks as well as medium income earners. The rising population of the patrons of used clothing has in effect, significantly led to a rise in importation of used items especially through illegal perceptions. This study is carried out with duly valued questionnaires and indepth interview were used as instrument to collect primary data from 150 respondents from various market in Alimosho which are Kantagua. Igando, Ikotun and Egbeda market for statistical analysis. The results of data collected were analyzed and transcribed with Pearson’s Product moment correlations statistical tool to test the three (3) hypotheses formulated. The result of the three hypotheses tested indicated that: there is a significant relationship between social construction of sales and usage of secondhand clothing in Alimosho Local Government, consumer do attached meaning to the usage of second-hand clothing in Alimosho Local Government and problems associated with the sales and usage of second-hand clothing in Alimosho local Government area of Lagos metropolis. The findings of this research revealed that the sales and usage of secondhand clothing have adverse effect on the nation economy which ranges from diseases, loss of cultural values and unemployment. The study reveals that people also benefits from the sales and usage of secondhand clothing as a result of factors which are durability, quality and cost. From this study, it was also realized that there are various places where people get secondhand clothing from and people attached meanings to it. It recommended that consumers should appreciate and patronize local products, if such products meet their needs and expectations in the face of competing brands from oversea. No nation became advanced suddenly; some of them sacrificed and had an inward orientation that favoured their economies. It is better to encourage domestic producers of this product to put in their best to make the product viable and saleable. That local fabric/garment producers need to address themselves to the socio-economic factors influencing secondhand clothes traders to prefer these imported items. Attention should be given to the implications on local production and marketing if the local industry is to meet consumer needs satisfactorily, the industry should strive to make high domestic sales so that exportation makes a small contribution to business performance. Domestic sales will make local industries almost self-reliant. The Nigerian government through the standards organization of Nigeria (SONs) need to monitor quality of locally produced clothing so that consumers within and without Nigeria are not disappointed. Finally, enlightenment campaigns and workshops must be conducted to train and reorientate both producers and consumers. Also research and development institute that will take care of this sector should be put in place or become more functional if it is already in existence.

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 
1.0INTRODUCTION 

The social construction of sales and usage of second hand clothing has been a contemporary issues in Nigeria which cannot be overemphasized. Secondhand clothing (SHC) traces their origin from wealthy westerners who contribute their obsolete clothing as donations to charity organizations (Dougherty, 2004; Slotterback, 2007). Larger charities first sort through the donations to add to their stock stores and then sell the surplus to secondhand clothing dealers to help generate funds towards assistance programs. Slotterback (2007) reported that about 80% of the donated clothing is usually sold to secondhand clothing merchants. The merchants sort the secondhand clothing by condition and then categorize in groups which they bundle in bales whose prices vary according to quality of the contents. Clothing merchants from the importing countries visit the offices of exporters to ascertain the quality, negotiate the price, pay for the bales and then ship the clothing to the country of origin (Olumide, 2011). It has been observed presently that Nigeria and Kenya is one of the largest importers of secondhand clothing (locally referred to as ‘Okirika, Benddown boutique and Tokunbo while Kenya called it “Mitumba’ meaning ‘onslaught’) in Sub Sahara Africa respectively.

Buying behaviour according to Dawson et al (2006), are set of attitudes that characterize the patterns of consumers' choices. Apart from the essential internal factors, which are recognized as influential to buying behaviour, there are a number of external situational contexts that affect consumer choices. Consumer behaviour is a combination of customers' buying consciousness and external incentives which are likely to result in behaviour remodeling. The society’s culture such as norms, philosophies, settlement, customs religion, festivity, class, lifestyle and other subculture influence how individual consumers buy and use secondhand products, and help explain how groups of consumers behave. There has been a current need for individuals and families to develop sustainable ways of living. One of the important areas of sustainable living is through maintainable clothing and textile consumption. Maintainable consumption is using resources in a way that minimizes harm to the environment, while supporting the well-being of people (OECD, 2008). Maintainable clothing or fashion consumption is the use of clothing for purposes beyond utilitarian needs which is achieved while enabling the future generations to meet their needs (Nordic Initiatives, Clean and Ethical (NICE, 2012). Secondhand Clothing trade (SHCT) represents an insignificant proportion of the total global trade in clothing (0.5%), more than 30% of the imports goes to the Sub Sahara African (SSA) countries (Baden & Barber, 2005). Despite being overtaken by imports from Asia to Africa, the use of Secondhand Clothing still significant. 

According to Mangieri (2006) and Slotterback (2007) opined that having increased drastically since 1990 the global Secondhand Clothing trade (SHCT) is worth more than USD 200 billion each year with almost all countries in the world becoming involved in it either as exporters, processors, re exporters or importers. Used clothing markets exist in over 100 countries globally (Slotterback, 2007). The United States, the Netherlands and Japan participate in SCHT as major exporters while the developing countries like Nigeria are the major importers and consumers of Secondhand clothing (Baden and Barber, 2005). 

1.1STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 
The economic downturn of the past has affected nearly every segment of the Nigeria economy of the past has affected nearly every segment of the Nigeria economy .The sales and usage of secondhand clothing is one of the business, people are engaging themselves with and its increasingly gaining ground in Nigeria. The rapid increase of population unemployment is one of the major factors pushing many individuals to sell and buy secondhand clothing, all over the world. 

Nigeria as a country is posed with a lot of problems, which includes poverty ,unemployment, lack of resources, and low wage income are making individuals sell and use secondhand clothing. 

Typically, the importation of used clothes would result in a downward shift of the demand curve in the new apparel industry. According to studies (Slotterback 2007) many reasons accounts for the sales and usage of secondhand clothing. 

1 .Unemployment among individuals. 
2..Poverty, both relative and absolute poverty. 
3. Low wage income and lack of better job opportunities. 

1.2RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
In this study, an attempt was made to provide answers to the following questions. 

i.What are the meanings attached to the sales and usage of secondhand clothing by people? 
ii.What are the reasons why people use and sale secondhand clothing? 
iii.What categories of people use secondhand clothing? 
iv.What are the business strategies involved in the sales of secondhand clothing? 
v.What are the problems associated with the sales and usage of secondhand clothing? 

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 
The main objective of this study is to investigate social construction of sales and usage of second-hand clothing in Alimosho local government area of Lagos metropolis. This is however divided into the following sub objectives; 

i. To know whether there is any meaning attached to the sales and usage of second-hand clothing by people of Alimosho local government area of Lagos metropolis. 
ii. To ascertain the reasons why people use and sell secondhand clothing 
iii. To identify the categories of people that use secondhand clothing Alimosho local government area of Lagos metropolis 
iv. To identify the business strategies involved in the sales of secondhand clothing. 
v. To examine the problems associated with the sales and usage of secondhand clothing. 

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 
This study will be of great importance to policymakers in the sense that it will be an assistance to make rightful and necessary policy that will encourage and favorable to Nigerian textile industry, individual have found that thrift stores often reflect the community in which they reside and quality clothing with the tags still in some wealthier neighborhoods. Also, Goodwill found to be expensive, as far as thrift store goods or cloth cheaper than new one. Their prices are definitely higher, but it does seem that they do a better job of filtering out junk, spouses often believe that the level of income determines the purchasing power, researchers and general public in the sense that it will assists them to know the adverse effect of social construction of sales of usage secondhand clothing, causes and solution to the consumption. 

The Nigeria Demographic Health Survey(NDHS) significantly emphases that an ideal vehicle for studying not only the linkages between secondhand clothing usage and health and demographic outcomes. This study will help to solve current or existing problem as it affect Textile Company in Nigeria. It will also help the government in terms of planning and budget revenue in the appropriate ways putting all things into consideration such as what the people so desire. This study would raise various suggestions and recommendations that will go a long way to minimize these problems and their attendance effects. Student writing their research project on similar topic will be guided as the finding and recommendations will be serve as a map, pointing them to the path to treat. Undertaken a study of this nature will expose the researcher to rigorous and challenging exercise of writing a project, which need a lot of concentration handwork and patience. 

1.5 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF STUDY 
The study is designed to investigate the social construction of sales and usage of second-hand clothing in Alimosho local government area, Lagos metropolis. Specifically, the scope covers social construction of sales and usage of second-hand clothing in Iyana-Ipaja, Egbeda and Ikotun area of Lagos State. This covers: 

a. Iyana Ipaja (Kantagwa Market) 
b. Ikotun ( Ikotun Market) 
c. Egbeda (Egbeda Market) 

This study is utmost important simply because the researcher discovered that most of the people living in the aforementioned area prefers secondhand clothing to new one due to the presence of large markets in that area such as Ikotun BRT Terminal and Kontogora market. This research study, like any other research is bound to have limitations, through these limitations does not have significant effect on the validity of the study. This include: 

Insufficient fund to carry out the study. It should be noted that money will be needed for transportation to the field, typing and printing etc. and shortage of it (money), may affect the proper scrutiny of this study. Also inadequate information from the respondents serves as another major factor that may affect this research exercise. More so, shortage or inadequate time to carry out the research work cannot also but mentioned among those other factors that serves as a constraints to this study. 

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS 
For better understanding of the various terms related to and in this research project, it is necessary to briefly define these term m their general meaning and specific contextual application to the topic under discourse: 

SALES: In general, a transaction between two parties where the buyer receives goods (tangible or intangible), services and/or assets in exchange for money. 

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION: This is perception of consumer towards any social phenomenon and the meaning attached to it. Social construction is something you might not be aware of. You are somewhat living in segregation depending on what gender, race and class you are. Race, class and gender don’t really mean anything. They only have a meaning because society gives them a meaning. Social construction is how society groups people and how it privileges certain groups over others. 

SECONDHAND CLOTHING: Items of clothing that have been previously owned by someone else. Besides, second-hand or used good is one that is being purchased by or otherwise transferred to a second or later end user. A used good can also simply mean it is no longer in the same condition as it was when transferred to the current owner. When "used" means an item has expended its purpose (such as a useddiaper), it is typically called garbage, instead. Used goods may be transferred informally between friends and family for free as "hand-me-downs" or they may be sold for a fraction of their original price at garage sales or in church bazaarfundraisers. 

USAGE: Usage is defined as the way that something is being used, or to the proper way to make use of something such as a word or phrase or tool.

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AN ADAPTATION OF WOVEN FABRIC ON BATIK FOR PERSONAL CLOTHING

ABSTRACT 
In the quest of come up with good and more conducive equipment for storing materials like shoes etc. we the researchers had to take on this important project. This will help in the proper storage of textiles materials, in the department and it’s also recommended for usage in our various homes. The important about this project is that its durable, that is to stay for a very long time without rusting because of the kind of materials its made of which fiber glass, fabric and weaving yarns. It’s therefore a total deviation from the usual shoe rack, batik and weaving.

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 

The textile world is very broad and everyone is dependent on it. Nearly every aspect of our lives uses some form of textile. Imagine what would have happened, if all textiles were removed from our environment. In the home, most furnishings are enhanced with textiles, even woven mosquito net on the windows and around our beds are textile pieces. In the class-room, many books have some form of textile. The car not only has textile upholstery, but the wire in electrical system is insulated in woven cloth. Within the rubber of tyres is either woven steel or fibre glass cloth which gives it strength. Indeed textiles are ever present in our lives. 

The most common use of textiles are for clothing and containers such as bags and basket. In homes, they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishing, window shades, towels, covering for tables, beds and other flat surfaces. In work places, they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering; Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents; Cleaning devices, such as handkerchiefs and rags; Transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails and parachutes. Children can learn, using textiles to make collages, sew, quilt and toys. Textiles used for industrial purposes and chosen for characteristic other than their appearances include textile structure for aircraft and automotive applications; Medical textiles for example implants; Geotextiles. reinforcement of embankment; Agro textiles e.g. textiles for crop protection; Protective clothing e.g. Clothes worn against heat and radiation, fire fighting clothing, clothes worn against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet- proof vests. 

This project therefore is aimed at helping the upcoming textiles students and those interested in textiles and its end products to appreciate the efforts of textile producers, and especially fabrics made in Nigeria. Fabrics have gained so much prominence so much so that its adaptation for interior and domestic usage has brought about great aesthetics and uniqueness. Although, dyed fabrics are generally used for clothing, they have of late become relevant in the area of interior decoration and other domestic usage like shoes, caps etc. 

Adaptation in textiles means to modify and suit a particular purpose. While dyeing is the complete immersion of the fabric into a solution containing dyes and chemicals. On the other hand, fabric is referred to as any material made through weaving, knitting, crocheting or bonding that may be used in the production of further goods like garments e.t.c. PH From the definitions of dyes and fabrics, the meaning of the term “dyed fabric” can now be easily understood. 

Therefore, the title adaptation of woven fabric on batik for personal clothing will no longer be strange. However, in this project the researchers have carefully researched and made successful attempts in the adaptation of woven fabrics on batik for personal use. 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
As the title indicates “An adaptation of woven fabrics on batik for personal clothing” the following are the statement of the problem. 

Transportation was also another problem encountered. So trips were made to Benin and Auchi anytime materials were needed coupled with the risk of carrying them. 

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 
The significance of this study is centered on enlightening the public on the possibility of the adaptation of woven fabrics on Batik to produce items like dresses, shoes, walking sticks, caps e.t.c. 

*To adapt other usage for textile materials for domestic and household end use 
*To create a means for awareness and marketing for such end-use. 
*To document our findings for future use 
*To encourage new artist into the field of decoration. utilization and adaptation of fabric in other end use than the normal usage that we are used to. 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY 
The scope of this study is to see how woven materials or fabric can be adapted into end uses other than familiar usages. 

At the end of the research, there will be an exhibition to show case all the beautiful works that were produced in the course of the research. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY 
One of the problems encountered in the course of the research was time. The time was not enough considering the enormity of the project. The production of woven fabrics and it’s adaptation on batik, to produce the end-uses took a lot of time and energy. 

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS 
Adaptation: The act of making or becoming suitable for new needs; to change so as to be suitable for new needs. 

Batik: Batik is a fabric dyeing method using wax to create patterns and design. 
Weaving: It is the inter-lacing of yarns to form a structure. 
Yarn Yarns are unprocessed fibres. 
Weft: Weft are those yarns that runs horizontally on the loom. 
Warp: Warps are those yarns that are layed vertically on the loom. 
Loom: A loom is a device used in weaving to help knit threads together to make a single piece of cloth.

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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND EMPLOYEE RETENTION IN SELECTED HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN IKEJA, LAGOS STATE

ABSTRACT
Hospitality industry is functional service sector where optimal human resources management is required for successful delivery of good and service, where productivity and retention are determine factors of overall success of an organization. Human resources is the most valuable asset of any organization, the success or failure of any organization to a large extent depends on how effective they were able to manage their human resources, their needs and working conditions must be satisfied if an organization must achieve its aims and objectives. Human resource management practices deployed in this study are training and development, remuneration, promotion and staff engagement.
The researcher used both the primary and secondary data in the course of the study. A survey research design was adopted. The population of the study comprised all hotels rating with five, four and three star hotels in Ikeja, Lagos State. Six hotels were selected using stratified random sampling, with 726 employees.  Pilot study was carried out in one of the hotel to ascertain the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. The sample size of the study was 256 employees derived using the Yaro Yamani formula for the determination of sample size. A total number of 256 questionnaires were distributed and 206 returned. Structured interview were conducted with three of the hotels manager in each of the hotels’ category. The researcher used simple percentage and regression analysis as statistical tool for the analysis.
Findings revealed that the variables of human resource management practices used in this study, Staff training and development, remuneration, promotion and employee engagement are significant correlated with employee retention. It shows that providing adequate training and development, remuneration, promotion and engagement for employees lead to increase in   retention rate an organization and reduce staff turnover.
The study concluded that adoption of human resource management practices enhances employees’ retain ability of organizations. There is need for proper coordination, control and implementation in order to achieve organization objective and at the same time reduce employee turnover which has caused great havoc in the industry.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1             Background to the Study
The hospitality industry is a functional service sector where standard human resource management is needed to enhance professionalism and efficiency in the delivery of good and service. According to Joint Hospitality Industry Congress in Lashley (2000) hospitality is defined as the provision of food, drink, and accommodation away from home. It is an interactive process that exists among customer and host which can eventually be companies or organization. The hospitality industry is among the sustainable income generating sources for economic development. Hence, this has generated interest in educational sector because of its impact on the country gross domestic product. The hospitality industry is seen as a major sector for many countries in the development of their socio-economic growth and some countries impact their economic fate within a desirable period by engaging in hospitality oriented businesses (Uddin, Das; and Rahman, 2008). The hospitality industry is central and essential to the general welfare of many countries in the world, revenue from hospitality industry is one of the main sources of foreign exchange in some regions like Fiji, the Caribbean, and Hong Kong.  It contributes to the growth of an economy by creating jobs opportunities and funding a large percentage of a country's Gross Domestic Product. It enhances the level of national income by earning foreign currencies through the goods and services supplied to foreign visitors thus improving the balance of payment (Baker, 2006).
Hospitality management includes management of hotels, travel agencies, restaurants and some institutions which are anchored on the hospitality industry. Services of the hospitality industry are usually patronized by tourists; when people eat in restaurants, lounge in hotels, go out to watch movies or engaged in similar activities. Tourism is one of the vehicles that drives Hospitality Industry while hospitality industry provides services for tourists such as transportation, accommodation needs in resorts, hotels restaurants, pubs and bars, food and beverage, recreation and leisure. The strategic importance of hospitality industry to tourism was confirmed by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) that 70% and 75% of international tourists' spending goes to hospitality services on an annual basis (Akpabio, 2007). The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) attests that hospitality employment in both developed and developing countries worldwide accounted for over 230 million or 8.7 per cent jobs (WTTC, 2006).
In the midst of an economy meltdown in Nigeria, the hospitality industry contributed 2.75 billion in 2007. 3.10 billion in 2008, 3.44 billion in 2009, 245.7 billion in 2010. 268.41 billion in 2011, 310.96 billion in 2012. 540.63 billion in 2013, 639.71 billion in 2014, and 654.22 billion into the economy according to the National Bureau of Statistics. Worland and Wilson (1988) described the hospitality industry as an establishment that includes but not limited to services in hotels, restaurants, licensed clubs and motels. Therefore this dissertation will consider hotel industry as one of the hospitality industry since it has been identified as one of the fundamental drivers of the growth and development of tourist sector in Nigeria.
Lagos has about 1329 hotels of different categories. In the last three years, many hotels have been established in Lagos such as ibis Ikeja, Intercontinental, Best Western Starfire and African Sun GRA. The survey carried out by Lagos state bureau of statistic revealed that N82, 630,620,896.52 representing 0.68% of State GDP are generated by hotel and restaurant sector (CBN, 2012). The primary importance of the hotel industry is reflected in the temporary accommodation offered. Nevertheless, extended conferencing facilities such as event halls, seminar rooms and accommodation provided to business and leisure traveler are the core values of the hotel industry. There is an expansion of existing hotels with infrastructural development such as car park, swimming pools and more new buildings with larger guest rooms, therefore, adding quality services and products as an advantage for guests apart from basic need and shelter. Food and beverages services are also a source of revenue from the guests (Oshindeyi & Babarinde, 2010).
             Human Resources is the valuable assets of any organizational success. Unlike a machine, people are responsible for financial management, maintenance of equipment and coordination of other assets in an organization. Damaged control in HRM involves heavy financial provision than others. In a hotel industry employee play an important role in the service delivery, from arrival to the moment of a guest checked into the hotel to the last moment a guest check out from the hotel. Therefore hotel employees are the most essential assets, their personal needs and working conditions must be highly motivated if an organization must realize its goals and objectives. The business of hospitality is people oriented, hospitality industry must exercise great effort to attract qualifies and competent human resources so as to achieve the organization objectives through optimum performance.(Alan & Compton, 2011). The hotel industry requires a committed labour force, therefore, effective human resource policies, and guidelines must be developed for competitive success (Alleyne et al. 2006).
Engaging professionals is important for any organization, but their retention and productivity are determined factors for the overall success of an organization. Retention  benefits contribute to an employee’s loyalty and commitment, and employers who offer these benefits show respect for the employee’s role at work and at home. Offering these benefits can contribute to a facilitative climate of support, which gives employees greater control over their work responsibilities and career goals. When employees know that their organization supports them, they reciprocate with greater effort (Galinsky & Stein, 1990).).  Research has shown that employees who are satisfied with their benefit program are three times more likely to be content with their job and to feel loyalty toward their employer than their peers are (IOMA, 2003).
In other to have a successful operation of the hotel industry in Lagos, It is essential that the main focus in the contemporary hotel industry should be on human resources management practices. It is imperative to investigate and determine the usage of human resource management practices by hotel industry in Lagos. Therefore this study will examine some human resource management practices in aspect of training and development, staff engagement, remuneration and promotion; possible ways to retain the best and competent employee to reduce staff turnover in the organization.

1.2             Statement of the Problem
The human resources practices are form of policies designed to attracts, develops, motivates and retains competent employees to ensure the effective implementation and the survival of the organization. It is one form of resources derived from the organization that can assist organizational members to achieve their work goals, reduce their job demands and stimulate their personal growth, learning and development. For hotel industry to achieve its target goals depends on how effective the industry are able to implement these practices.
The hotel industry in Nigeria from 2012 to 2015 has witnessed considerable growth, especially in Lagos, an economic nerves of Nigeria; because of the ever increasing programs invested in the city and unrestrained inflow of visitors from within and outside Nigeria for various reasons ranging from business, academics, and pleasure. Due to increase demand for the shelter and also the hosting of several major international events like Commonwealth, African games, Carnivals had consequently encouraged the springing up of new hotels and restaurants with quality services render to meet international standard. Ikeja area of Lagos state is a commercial town with shopping malls, pharmacies, government residential area, industrial estates as well as location of Murtala Mohammed international Airport, all these sustain the thriving of hotels market.
 Tourist sectors expenditure pattern for Lagos from 2012-2015 consistently showed that 37 percent of tourist expenditure was spent on accommodation which has spawned the development of hotels in Lagos. In spite of the contribution of this sector to economic development, the hotels often witness high turnover rate; a report submitted by International Labor Organization (2012) on labour turnover in the  World tourism and hospitality industry in year 2015 shows the quitting rate of an employee of food and accommodation sector of hospitality industry ranging from 4.1- 4.6 percent about 3, 413,000 while it is assumed that the daily growth in the hospitality industry accounts for staff movement.
It has been debated that the level which workers are comfortable with their responsibility and willingness to remain in an organization is a function of organization remuneration packages and incentives (IJABE, 2012). The inability of HRM of hospitality business to attract, engage and retain suitable employees with the right knowledge, skills, and attitude to steer the day to day operation are becoming challenging issues in the industry, the implication is that it reduces the quality of service that might equally influence the preference of customers as to where to patronize while at the same time often led to a loss of experienced hands to other sectors.
In Nigeria, efforts to get turnover rate in the industry proved relatively difficult however a sample of hotels visited revealed turnover rate from 2007 to 2017, 10 percent in five, 29 percent in four star and 28 percent in three star hotels motivated this study to examine human resources management practices and employee retention and reasons for staff turnover in selected hospitality Industry in Ikeja, Lagos State. 

1.3       Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the human resources management practices and employee retention in selected hotel industry in Ikeja, Lagos State. The specific objectives are to:
1.      identify the effect of staff engagement on employee retention,
2.      evaluate the effect of remuneration on staff retention in selected hospitality industry ;
3.      access the impact of staff training on employees’ retention in selected hospitality industry and
4.       examine the influence of staff promotion on employees’ retention in selected  
 hospitality industry

1.4       Research Questions
1. What is the effect of staff engagementon employee retention in selected hospitality
     industry?
2. How has the remuneration policy affect employee retention in selected hospitality
    industry?
3. In what ways has staff training impact on employee retention in selected hospitality    
    industry?
4. How has staff promotion influence staff retention in selected hospitality industry?

1.5       Hypotheses
H01There is no significant effect on staff engagement and employee retention in selected 
        hospitality industry.

H02 There is no significant effect on remuneration policy and employee retention in
        selected hospitality industry.
H03 There is no significant impact on staff training and employee retention in selected   
        hospitality industry
H04 There is no significant influence on staff promotion and employee retention in
        selected hospitality industry

1.6       Significance of the Study
The success of every organization depends on the effective human resource practices adopted by the organization.  The organization cannot function well without adequate human resource practices put in place. To examine those factors that delineate the performance of hospitality staffs which at the same time contribute to staff turnover, employee satisfaction, and growth of hospitality industry. This study is unique as is coming at a time when there is a decline in human resources management practices in most of the hospitality industry in Lagos. Based on study that investigated the relationship between the use of 12 HRM practices and organizational performance Seonghee et al. (2006).
The result revealed that organization that employed HRM practices are subject to turnover reduction rates for the non-administrative employee. The study is set out to examine human resources management practices as it enhances productivity and job satisfaction of employees. It is expected that the study would identify areas where inadequate and inappropriate HRM practices are employed and provide a solution to optimum performance. The study would also provide scientific and empirical information that would create a robust relationship and understanding between employee and employers in the hospitality industry. The result would be helpful to top management in the development of HR practices as to ensure the sustainability of retention of the employee. It would also add to the body of knowledge in respect of hospitality industry and the effect on company's turnover. It would as the same time serve as a guide to the practitioner in the hospitality industry. 

1.7       Scope of the Study
Studying human resources practices in the hospitality industry in a single research effort may be unwieldy, for this reason, the researcher has decided to examine hotel sector as one of the hospitality industry in Ikeja, Lagos State. Ikeja been capital city and habitant of business center and many hotels, also because of its closest vicinity to the airports. This study will consider only 5, 4 and 3 star hotels within Ikeja area of Lagos for the period of 2007 to 2016. It will further concentrate on a variable item such as employment practices, remuneration policies, promotion, staff engagement and identifying challenges with the administration of these policies on employee's retention.

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms
Hospitality: Hospitality by the Joint Hospitality Industry Congress is defined as ‘The provision of food and drink, accommodation away from home' Lashley (2000)
Hotel: A commercial establishment providing lodging, meals and other guest services
Recruitment: Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening and selecting qualified people for a position within an organization.
Retention: A process in which the employees are encouraged to remain with the organization for the maximum period or until the completion of the project.
Staff turnover: as the ratio of the number of organizational members who have left during the period being considered divided by the average number of people in that organization during the period. (Glebbeek & Bax, 2004), (Price, 1977)
Employee turnover: is described as employees who have left, are leaving and will leave an institution for various reasons (Grobler, Warrnich, Elbert & Hatfield 2006, p. 125). A similar definition is provided by (Morrell, Loan-Clarke and Wilkinson 2001) who state that turnover means voluntary cessation of membership of an organization by an employee of that organization
Five star- these are hotels that have luxury settings, flawless guest service, offer only the highest level of accommodations and services.
Four star- these are hotels that have superior property and a variety of amenities, mostly large, formal hotels with smart reception areas, front desk service, and bellhop service.
Three star- these are hotels that have high service additional amenities, typically offer more spacious accommodations that include well-appointed rooms and decorated lobbies
Two star- these are hotels that meet a basic need, typically smaller hotels managed by the proprietor. The hotel is often 2 - 4 stories high and usually has a more personal atmosphere. It′s usually located near affordable attractions, major intersections and convenient to public transportation.

One star- these are hotels that meet basic budget needs, usually, denotes independent and name brand hotel chains with a reputation for offering consistent quality amenities. The hotel is usually small to medium-sized and conveniently located to moderately priced attractions. (WTO & I H & R A, 2004, p. 74).

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