HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND EMPLOYEE RETENTION IN SELECTED HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN IKEJA, LAGOS STATE

ABSTRACT
Hospitality industry is functional service sector where optimal human resources management is required for successful delivery of good and service, where productivity and retention are determine factors of overall success of an organization. Human resources is the most valuable asset of any organization, the success or failure of any organization to a large extent depends on how effective they were able to manage their human resources, their needs and working conditions must be satisfied if an organization must achieve its aims and objectives. Human resource management practices deployed in this study are training and development, remuneration, promotion and staff engagement.
The researcher used both the primary and secondary data in the course of the study. A survey research design was adopted. The population of the study comprised all hotels rating with five, four and three star hotels in Ikeja, Lagos State. Six hotels were selected using stratified random sampling, with 726 employees.  Pilot study was carried out in one of the hotel to ascertain the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. The sample size of the study was 256 employees derived using the Yaro Yamani formula for the determination of sample size. A total number of 256 questionnaires were distributed and 206 returned. Structured interview were conducted with three of the hotels manager in each of the hotels’ category. The researcher used simple percentage and regression analysis as statistical tool for the analysis.
Findings revealed that the variables of human resource management practices used in this study, Staff training and development, remuneration, promotion and employee engagement are significant correlated with employee retention. It shows that providing adequate training and development, remuneration, promotion and engagement for employees lead to increase in   retention rate an organization and reduce staff turnover.
The study concluded that adoption of human resource management practices enhances employees’ retain ability of organizations. There is need for proper coordination, control and implementation in order to achieve organization objective and at the same time reduce employee turnover which has caused great havoc in the industry.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1             Background to the Study
The hospitality industry is a functional service sector where standard human resource management is needed to enhance professionalism and efficiency in the delivery of good and service. According to Joint Hospitality Industry Congress in Lashley (2000) hospitality is defined as the provision of food, drink, and accommodation away from home. It is an interactive process that exists among customer and host which can eventually be companies or organization. The hospitality industry is among the sustainable income generating sources for economic development. Hence, this has generated interest in educational sector because of its impact on the country gross domestic product. The hospitality industry is seen as a major sector for many countries in the development of their socio-economic growth and some countries impact their economic fate within a desirable period by engaging in hospitality oriented businesses (Uddin, Das; and Rahman, 2008). The hospitality industry is central and essential to the general welfare of many countries in the world, revenue from hospitality industry is one of the main sources of foreign exchange in some regions like Fiji, the Caribbean, and Hong Kong.  It contributes to the growth of an economy by creating jobs opportunities and funding a large percentage of a country's Gross Domestic Product. It enhances the level of national income by earning foreign currencies through the goods and services supplied to foreign visitors thus improving the balance of payment (Baker, 2006).
Hospitality management includes management of hotels, travel agencies, restaurants and some institutions which are anchored on the hospitality industry. Services of the hospitality industry are usually patronized by tourists; when people eat in restaurants, lounge in hotels, go out to watch movies or engaged in similar activities. Tourism is one of the vehicles that drives Hospitality Industry while hospitality industry provides services for tourists such as transportation, accommodation needs in resorts, hotels restaurants, pubs and bars, food and beverage, recreation and leisure. The strategic importance of hospitality industry to tourism was confirmed by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) that 70% and 75% of international tourists' spending goes to hospitality services on an annual basis (Akpabio, 2007). The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) attests that hospitality employment in both developed and developing countries worldwide accounted for over 230 million or 8.7 per cent jobs (WTTC, 2006).
In the midst of an economy meltdown in Nigeria, the hospitality industry contributed 2.75 billion in 2007. 3.10 billion in 2008, 3.44 billion in 2009, 245.7 billion in 2010. 268.41 billion in 2011, 310.96 billion in 2012. 540.63 billion in 2013, 639.71 billion in 2014, and 654.22 billion into the economy according to the National Bureau of Statistics. Worland and Wilson (1988) described the hospitality industry as an establishment that includes but not limited to services in hotels, restaurants, licensed clubs and motels. Therefore this dissertation will consider hotel industry as one of the hospitality industry since it has been identified as one of the fundamental drivers of the growth and development of tourist sector in Nigeria.
Lagos has about 1329 hotels of different categories. In the last three years, many hotels have been established in Lagos such as ibis Ikeja, Intercontinental, Best Western Starfire and African Sun GRA. The survey carried out by Lagos state bureau of statistic revealed that N82, 630,620,896.52 representing 0.68% of State GDP are generated by hotel and restaurant sector (CBN, 2012). The primary importance of the hotel industry is reflected in the temporary accommodation offered. Nevertheless, extended conferencing facilities such as event halls, seminar rooms and accommodation provided to business and leisure traveler are the core values of the hotel industry. There is an expansion of existing hotels with infrastructural development such as car park, swimming pools and more new buildings with larger guest rooms, therefore, adding quality services and products as an advantage for guests apart from basic need and shelter. Food and beverages services are also a source of revenue from the guests (Oshindeyi & Babarinde, 2010).
             Human Resources is the valuable assets of any organizational success. Unlike a machine, people are responsible for financial management, maintenance of equipment and coordination of other assets in an organization. Damaged control in HRM involves heavy financial provision than others. In a hotel industry employee play an important role in the service delivery, from arrival to the moment of a guest checked into the hotel to the last moment a guest check out from the hotel. Therefore hotel employees are the most essential assets, their personal needs and working conditions must be highly motivated if an organization must realize its goals and objectives. The business of hospitality is people oriented, hospitality industry must exercise great effort to attract qualifies and competent human resources so as to achieve the organization objectives through optimum performance.(Alan & Compton, 2011). The hotel industry requires a committed labour force, therefore, effective human resource policies, and guidelines must be developed for competitive success (Alleyne et al. 2006).
Engaging professionals is important for any organization, but their retention and productivity are determined factors for the overall success of an organization. Retention  benefits contribute to an employee’s loyalty and commitment, and employers who offer these benefits show respect for the employee’s role at work and at home. Offering these benefits can contribute to a facilitative climate of support, which gives employees greater control over their work responsibilities and career goals. When employees know that their organization supports them, they reciprocate with greater effort (Galinsky & Stein, 1990).).  Research has shown that employees who are satisfied with their benefit program are three times more likely to be content with their job and to feel loyalty toward their employer than their peers are (IOMA, 2003).
In other to have a successful operation of the hotel industry in Lagos, It is essential that the main focus in the contemporary hotel industry should be on human resources management practices. It is imperative to investigate and determine the usage of human resource management practices by hotel industry in Lagos. Therefore this study will examine some human resource management practices in aspect of training and development, staff engagement, remuneration and promotion; possible ways to retain the best and competent employee to reduce staff turnover in the organization.

1.2             Statement of the Problem
The human resources practices are form of policies designed to attracts, develops, motivates and retains competent employees to ensure the effective implementation and the survival of the organization. It is one form of resources derived from the organization that can assist organizational members to achieve their work goals, reduce their job demands and stimulate their personal growth, learning and development. For hotel industry to achieve its target goals depends on how effective the industry are able to implement these practices.
The hotel industry in Nigeria from 2012 to 2015 has witnessed considerable growth, especially in Lagos, an economic nerves of Nigeria; because of the ever increasing programs invested in the city and unrestrained inflow of visitors from within and outside Nigeria for various reasons ranging from business, academics, and pleasure. Due to increase demand for the shelter and also the hosting of several major international events like Commonwealth, African games, Carnivals had consequently encouraged the springing up of new hotels and restaurants with quality services render to meet international standard. Ikeja area of Lagos state is a commercial town with shopping malls, pharmacies, government residential area, industrial estates as well as location of Murtala Mohammed international Airport, all these sustain the thriving of hotels market.
 Tourist sectors expenditure pattern for Lagos from 2012-2015 consistently showed that 37 percent of tourist expenditure was spent on accommodation which has spawned the development of hotels in Lagos. In spite of the contribution of this sector to economic development, the hotels often witness high turnover rate; a report submitted by International Labor Organization (2012) on labour turnover in the  World tourism and hospitality industry in year 2015 shows the quitting rate of an employee of food and accommodation sector of hospitality industry ranging from 4.1- 4.6 percent about 3, 413,000 while it is assumed that the daily growth in the hospitality industry accounts for staff movement.
It has been debated that the level which workers are comfortable with their responsibility and willingness to remain in an organization is a function of organization remuneration packages and incentives (IJABE, 2012). The inability of HRM of hospitality business to attract, engage and retain suitable employees with the right knowledge, skills, and attitude to steer the day to day operation are becoming challenging issues in the industry, the implication is that it reduces the quality of service that might equally influence the preference of customers as to where to patronize while at the same time often led to a loss of experienced hands to other sectors.
In Nigeria, efforts to get turnover rate in the industry proved relatively difficult however a sample of hotels visited revealed turnover rate from 2007 to 2017, 10 percent in five, 29 percent in four star and 28 percent in three star hotels motivated this study to examine human resources management practices and employee retention and reasons for staff turnover in selected hospitality Industry in Ikeja, Lagos State. 

1.3       Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the human resources management practices and employee retention in selected hotel industry in Ikeja, Lagos State. The specific objectives are to:
1.      identify the effect of staff engagement on employee retention,
2.      evaluate the effect of remuneration on staff retention in selected hospitality industry ;
3.      access the impact of staff training on employees’ retention in selected hospitality industry and
4.       examine the influence of staff promotion on employees’ retention in selected  
 hospitality industry

1.4       Research Questions
1. What is the effect of staff engagementon employee retention in selected hospitality
     industry?
2. How has the remuneration policy affect employee retention in selected hospitality
    industry?
3. In what ways has staff training impact on employee retention in selected hospitality    
    industry?
4. How has staff promotion influence staff retention in selected hospitality industry?

1.5       Hypotheses
H01There is no significant effect on staff engagement and employee retention in selected 
        hospitality industry.

H02 There is no significant effect on remuneration policy and employee retention in
        selected hospitality industry.
H03 There is no significant impact on staff training and employee retention in selected   
        hospitality industry
H04 There is no significant influence on staff promotion and employee retention in
        selected hospitality industry

1.6       Significance of the Study
The success of every organization depends on the effective human resource practices adopted by the organization.  The organization cannot function well without adequate human resource practices put in place. To examine those factors that delineate the performance of hospitality staffs which at the same time contribute to staff turnover, employee satisfaction, and growth of hospitality industry. This study is unique as is coming at a time when there is a decline in human resources management practices in most of the hospitality industry in Lagos. Based on study that investigated the relationship between the use of 12 HRM practices and organizational performance Seonghee et al. (2006).
The result revealed that organization that employed HRM practices are subject to turnover reduction rates for the non-administrative employee. The study is set out to examine human resources management practices as it enhances productivity and job satisfaction of employees. It is expected that the study would identify areas where inadequate and inappropriate HRM practices are employed and provide a solution to optimum performance. The study would also provide scientific and empirical information that would create a robust relationship and understanding between employee and employers in the hospitality industry. The result would be helpful to top management in the development of HR practices as to ensure the sustainability of retention of the employee. It would also add to the body of knowledge in respect of hospitality industry and the effect on company's turnover. It would as the same time serve as a guide to the practitioner in the hospitality industry. 

1.7       Scope of the Study
Studying human resources practices in the hospitality industry in a single research effort may be unwieldy, for this reason, the researcher has decided to examine hotel sector as one of the hospitality industry in Ikeja, Lagos State. Ikeja been capital city and habitant of business center and many hotels, also because of its closest vicinity to the airports. This study will consider only 5, 4 and 3 star hotels within Ikeja area of Lagos for the period of 2007 to 2016. It will further concentrate on a variable item such as employment practices, remuneration policies, promotion, staff engagement and identifying challenges with the administration of these policies on employee's retention.

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms
Hospitality: Hospitality by the Joint Hospitality Industry Congress is defined as ‘The provision of food and drink, accommodation away from home' Lashley (2000)
Hotel: A commercial establishment providing lodging, meals and other guest services
Recruitment: Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening and selecting qualified people for a position within an organization.
Retention: A process in which the employees are encouraged to remain with the organization for the maximum period or until the completion of the project.
Staff turnover: as the ratio of the number of organizational members who have left during the period being considered divided by the average number of people in that organization during the period. (Glebbeek & Bax, 2004), (Price, 1977)
Employee turnover: is described as employees who have left, are leaving and will leave an institution for various reasons (Grobler, Warrnich, Elbert & Hatfield 2006, p. 125). A similar definition is provided by (Morrell, Loan-Clarke and Wilkinson 2001) who state that turnover means voluntary cessation of membership of an organization by an employee of that organization
Five star- these are hotels that have luxury settings, flawless guest service, offer only the highest level of accommodations and services.
Four star- these are hotels that have superior property and a variety of amenities, mostly large, formal hotels with smart reception areas, front desk service, and bellhop service.
Three star- these are hotels that have high service additional amenities, typically offer more spacious accommodations that include well-appointed rooms and decorated lobbies
Two star- these are hotels that meet a basic need, typically smaller hotels managed by the proprietor. The hotel is often 2 - 4 stories high and usually has a more personal atmosphere. It′s usually located near affordable attractions, major intersections and convenient to public transportation.

One star- these are hotels that meet basic budget needs, usually, denotes independent and name brand hotel chains with a reputation for offering consistent quality amenities. The hotel is usually small to medium-sized and conveniently located to moderately priced attractions. (WTO & I H & R A, 2004, p. 74).

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PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO SUICIDAL IDEATION AMONG STUDENTS IN A PRIVATE UNIVERSITY IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
Suicidal behaviour among adolescents is a prevalent issue in almost every part of the globe. Suicidal ideation being a significant primordial behavior to suicide attempts and completion should therefore be the point of intervention for any public health action to be effective. This study aimed to assess psychosocial factors as they relate to suicidal ideation among undergraduate university students.
The study adopted the cross-sectional research design. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 426 undergraduates of Babcock university, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun state, Nigeria. Validated instrument was used to measure psychosocial constructs of optimism on an 18-point rating scale, perceived social support on an 18-point rating scale, general self-efficacy on a 15-point rating scale, self-esteem on a 15-point rating scale as independent variables, while suicidal ideation, the dependent variable was measured on a 27-point rating scale. Data collected was analyzed and expressed as frequency distributions of responses, summaries of descriptive statistics of means and standard deviation and inferential statistics of Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis was used to characterize cause-effect relationships between independent and dependent variables.
The mean age of respondents was 19.32±2.22, 36.8% of respondents were males, 62.3% were females. Among respondents, the mean score of the independent variables show optimism was 12.36±2.79, perceived social support was 12.16±3.07, general self-efficacy was 10.71±2.42 and self-esteem was 9.58±2.95.Findings show that suicidal ideation had a mean score of 3.11±4.93 among respondents on a 27-point rating scale, however about 37.3% of them claimed to have thought about suicide in recent times. The result of Pearson’s bivariate correlation analysis showed negative relationships between psychosocial factors and suicidal ideation and that they were statistically significant (p-value<0.01) excluding general self-efficacy whose p-value was greater than 0.05 (p-value> 0.05). Self-esteem was the most correlated variable to suicidal ideation among respondents (r = -0.321). Lower levels of self-esteem depicted higher levels of suicidal ideation among respondents. Optimism was also significantly related (r = -0.286) to suicidal ideation and may serve as a protective factor against suicidal ideation among respondents. Perceived social support gave a significant inverse relationship Pearson’s correlation value (r = -0.220) to suicidal ideation and may infer social support as a protective factor against suicidal ideation.

In conclusion, this study shows that suicidal ideation although very low, is prevalent among the students of the study population and the identified psychosocial factors could serve as protective factors against suicidal behaviour. Possible interventions would require creating awareness to reduce stigmatization on suicidal behaviorand make it easy for students to seek help for their mental health.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study

Suicide is a multifaceted self-annihilating behavior resulting from a complicated interaction of several factors on a personal and environmental level. As a result of a steady rise in suicide rates over the past 50 years, the World Health Organization established suicide as a key global public health concern. Suicide with a worldwide mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 otherwise translated to one death every 40 seconds’ totaling the death of almost one million people every year (WHO, 2011) and as such constitute an important public health concern. According to WHO(2014), it was estimated that about 804,000 suicide deaths occurredglobally in 2012. It was alsoreported that a yearlyworldwide age-standardized suicide rate of 11.4 per 100,000 population (8.0 for females; 15.0 for males) have been documented.
The concept of suicidal ideation depicts thoughts that one’s life is not worth living, it may range in intensity from passing thoughts to actual well figured-out plans for killing oneself or a total fixation with self-annihilation. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States of America, in 2013 gave estimates in a research of about 17.0% of students vigorously considering attempting suicide in the previous 12 months (22.4% of females and 11.6% of males); 13.6% of some students made plans about how they would attempt suicide in the previous 12 months (16.9% of females and 10.3% of males).
These suicidal behaviors and thoughts are common among young people. However, studies on suicidal behavioral patterns in Africa have been scarce which may be due to cultural beliefs that perceive suicide to be an abomination. Omigbodun, Dogra, Esan and Adedokun, (2008) conducted a study in Nigeria that indicates suicidal behavior is relatively common in Nigeria. The study reported that the one year prevalence of suicidal attempts among adolescents in southwest Nigeria is 12%. According to the WHO Mortality Database, about 75% of suicides in the world occur in low and middle income countries, although national-level data are unavailable for most of these countries (WHO, 2014), most of which are developing countries in Asia, Africa and South America. According to Randall, Doku, Wilson and Peltzer, 2014, the true scope of the issue in Nigeria and West Africa as a whole is hidden by incomplete surveillance and probable socio-cultural issues surrounding suicide and its related stigma.
Suicidal behaviors as with other disease outcomes are mediated by factors which could improve or degrade the quality of life of the individuals that are affected. The mental state of the individual is a function of psychology which may be influenced by several social associations between the individual and the components of the environment. This interaction is termed psychosocial and as such serve as factors (psychosocial factors) that affect the mental health of the individual. The term “psychosocial factors” is developed from two words “psychological” and “social”; by combining the Merriam-Webster’s dictionary (1997) definitions of psychological, “of or relating to the state of mind and behavior of an individual or a group”; social “of or relating to human society” and factor “an agent” or “something that actively contributes to a result”. The definition of psychosocial factors is then: an agent of the mind or behavior of an individual or group that actively contributes to a result. The concept of psychosocial factors is complex to grasp because it reflects the individuals’ perception, experiences and reflects many considerations unique to that particular individual. Some of these considerations refer to the state of mind of the individual i.e. psychology, while others relate to the social setting in which they find themselves hence the concept of psychosocial factors.
These factors either increase the risk of an individual developing a particular disorder that may be addictive (risk factors) or that reduce such risks (protective factors). Psychosocial interactions have been shown to be responsible for certain outcomes such as: anxiety, depression and substance abuse which are common among in-school adolescents (WHO, 2014). However, these outcomes are known risk factors for suicide. For the purpose of this study psychosocial factors would be represented by four variables: Optimism (life’s orientation towards life’s events), perceived social support, general self-efficacy and self-esteem; all of which are significant phenomena experienced by students especially when stressed by academic work load as well as the influence of significant others.Optimism depict individuals who are optimistic and express expectations that all things they will experience would be to their advantage. This facilitates to improving one’s mental health and wellbeing. Lack of optimism, would deplete the individuals’ mental health creating a situation that would establish depression; a risk factor of suicide.
Perceived social support offered by friends, peers and family members constitute a protective factor against suicidal ideation (Sanchez-Teruel, Garcia-Leon & Muela-Martinez, 2013). Feng, Li and Chen(2015), reinstated Bandura(1997), that self-efficacy is believed to give the individual confidence that he or she can cope and act effectively under stressful conditions, which is a trait of an individual with good mental health and wellbeing. Self-esteem is also a psychosocial factor that gives a sense of self-worth for an individual and depicts how much the individual values his or her life in present circumstances. It has been reported to be a mediator of suicidal ideation especially among students in the university (Eskin, 2012).


1.2 Statement of the Problem
Suicide has unique epidemiological characteristics that make it an important public health concern. It is the fourth leading cause of death globally among youths 15 to 19 years of age and the tenth leading cause of death for adolescents 10–14 years of age (WHO, 2014). However, these figures do not include suicide attempts, which are up to 20 times more frequent than completed suicide (WHO, 2011) which implies that suicidal ideation or thoughts would be more frequent than attempted suicide. People who experience suicidal ideation and those who make suicide plans are at increased risk of suicide attempts, and people who experience all forms of suicidal thoughts and behaviors are at greater risk of completed suicide (Handley, Inder, Kay-Lambkin, Stain, Fitzgerald, Lewin, Attia & Kelly, 2012). Considerably, the majority of young people who experience suicidal ideation will not go on to take their lives initially.
According to a publication of The Youth Coalition of the ACT(2016),from the result of focus group discussions it could be inferred that young people are typically reluctant to seek professional help for mental health problems and as suicidal ideation increases, their intention to seek help decreases further, thus the difficulty in detecting individuals with suicidal thoughts. However, any report of suicidal ideation should be taken seriously. When suicidal ideation is mild, and is only discussed casually between peers, it can be found to be associated with significant symptoms of depression which is common and some other psychologicaloutcomeswhich includes substance use or abuse that may be easily overlooked. Furthermore, young people experiencing persistent, severe suicidal ideation are at increased risk of attempting suicide.
Evidence from literature provides that suicidal ideation and attempts among young persons in schools, homes or communitiesare mediated byseveral psychosocial factors (Sanchez-Teruel, Garcia-Leon & Muela-Martinez, 2013; Feng, Li & Chen, 2015).According to the American association of suicidology, (2014) depression which is one of the outcomes of psychosocial interactions, is associated with about 50% of suicide worldwide. However,literature search for studies conducted in Nigeria are yet to elucidate predisposing issues (suicidal ideation), its’ dynamics, the factors responsible or how it may have led to suicidal plans, attempts or suicide itself which is said to be under-reported. At this rate,interventions cannot be effectively carried out as any concept without a framework would lack empirical support for any intervention to be effective.This study intends to assess psychosocial factors (Optimism, Social Support, General Self-efficacy and Self-esteem) related to suicidal ideation among students of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun state.


1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess the psychosocial factors related to suicidal behaviour and suicidal ideation among students of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State.
The specific objectives are to:
     1.      determine the level of suicidal ideation across socio-demographic factors among the students;
    2.      assess the level of Optimism (level of attitudinal disposition of students towards life events) among the students;
      3.      evaluate the level of Perceived social support among the students;
     4.      measure the level of General Self-efficacy among the students;
      5.      determine the level of Self-esteem among the students and
      6.      identify which of the psychosocial factors play a significant role in determining suicidal ideation among the students.            


1.4 Research Questions
1.      Is there a significant difference in the level of suicidal ideation across socio-demographic factors of the students?
2.      What is the level of Optimism (level of attitudinal disposition of students towards life events) among the students?
3.      What is the level of Perceived social support among the students?
4.      What is the level of General self-efficacy among the students?
5.      What is the level of self-esteem among the students?
6.      Which of the psychosocial factors play a significant role in determining suicidal ideation among students?


1.5 Justification for the Study
Research on suicidal ideation is particularly scanty in Nigeria. However, a previous study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behaviour done in Nigeria showed a 20% prevalence of suicidal behaviour among a sample of adolescents aged 10-17 (Omigbodun, Dogra, Esan & Adedokun, 2008). This validates that suicidal behaviour constitutes a course for concern among public health professionals regarding vulnerability of youths to poor mental health outcome and mortality. Hence, this study intends to provide a better understanding of the behavioural pattern called suicidal ideation and the influence of its related psychosocial risk factors.
Generally, research on suicidal behaviour has been conducted amiss conceptual frameworks based on behavioural theories to identify human actions or inactions and associated factors that contribute to suicidal behaviour. This study would attempt to assess, using a well-structured instrument, common psychosocial risk factors leading to suicidal ideation among university students based on behavioural theories that would provide understanding for primary preventive measures or primordial care against suicide. Also, measures would be taken to elucidate protective factors that may prevent suicide or suicide attempts even though suicidal ideation may be evident among students of Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun state.
At the end of this study, the findings would provide a better understanding for the dynamics of psychosocial factors known to be associated with suicidal ideation. The study may provide rationale as to why in-school students experiencing suicidal ideation would rather not commit suicide despite its burden on their mental health. This would go a long way to provide basis for an intervention to promote mental health for students experiencing suicidal ideation and also improve their living conditions by enabling them make conscious decisions to prevent suicide.
This study would enlighten health workers or professionals alike in understanding factors responsible or that influence suicidal ideation and show where the need for an intervention would be required among students. The results would also be useful for other researchers interested in understanding mental health or setting up health programs for mental health.


1.6 Hypotheses
The study hypothesizes that;
H1:There is a significant relationship between Optimism (the level of attitudinal disposition ofstudents towards life events) and suicidal ideation among the students.
H2:There is a significant relationship between Perceived social support and suicidal ideation among the students.
H3:There is a significant relationship between Self-efficacy and suicidal ideation among the students.
H4:There is a significant relationship between Self-esteem and suicidal ideation among the students.


1.7 Operational definition of terms
Suicidal Ideation
Suicidal ideation refers to thoughts that life is not worth living, ranging in intensity from fleeting thoughts through to concrete, well thought-out plans for killing oneself, or a complete preoccupation with self-destruction.
Psychosocial Factors
For this study; psychosocial factors refer to variables of optimism, perceived social support and self-efficacy that may influence the development of suicidal ideation culminating into distinct suicidal behavior.
a.      Optimism: Optimism is the generalized positive outcome expectancy of the student towards life’s events.
b.      Perceived social support: It is the student’s subjective view of how other people, in particular families or peers, are available to meet and/or assist with meeting the individual’s needs for comfort and support.
c.       General Self-efficacy: It is the student’s assessment and subsequent ability to respond to life events and/or changes in the environment.

d.      Self-esteem: It is the student’s reasoning regarding self-worth either negatively (low self-esteem) or positively (high self-esteem).

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THE POLITICS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF OYO STATE

ABSTRACT
This study is to examine the influence of politics on solid waste management and identify all those political issues that have affected the management of solid wastes in some chosen local governments in Oyo state between 2011 and 2016.  The objectives of the study are to examine the influence of economic, social, cultural and political factors on solid waste management in the state. The method of award of solid waste management contracts to Public Private Partnership (PPP) and to assess the ability of local governments in terms of finance to manage solid wastes.  The study was also undertaken to evaluate the effects of politicization of solid waste management on the residents of Oyo state.
Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for the study with the use of both qualitative and quantitative data.  The sample size was 400 and the instruments for collecting data was a self-designed questionnaire, interview guide and review of existing literatures.  The study  covers 6(six) local governments in Oyo state namely, Akinyele, Surulere, Ibadan North East, Orire, Ibarapa central and Ido local governments.  These local governments cover the geo-political zones and cognisance was also taken of the low, medium and high density in terms of solid waste generation.  Stratified sampling was used to divide the population into sub-groups while the respondents were selected in proportion of age, level of education, financial status and profession.  25 respondents were interviewed.  ANOVA and regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses.
The findings indicated that Ho1:shows the joint effect of independent variables (Economic factor, Social Factor, Political Factor and Cultural Factor) to the prediction of the Effects of Politicisation of Solid Waste was significant.  Also H02 shows in the table that there was significant relationship between Effects of Politicisation for Solid Waste Management and Ineffectiveness of Local Government to manage Solid Waste (r = .476*, N= 354, p<.05).

The conclusion reached from the results and finding is that there is politicisation in the solid waste management sector and it is having a negative effect in the performance of the sector.  It was therefore recommended that political will is necessary for there to be effective performance of solid waste management in the state.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1.      Background to the Study
Human's existence is highly connected to the environment and the importance of the environment cannot be overemphasised.  The environment has created a comfortable habitat for man through science, technology, religion and politics.  Albeit the environment is a pre-requisite for good and sound health, ignorance of humans to laws of nature and over-exploitation of natural resources have negatively impacted on the environment.  Factors such as overpopulation, industrialisation, urbanisation, citizens' life-style, rural-urban migration, globalization, social development, unchecked technological advancement, resources exploitation, intensive agriculture and lack of adherence to environmental regulations have further aggravated the problems of the environment (Ross, 2012).
One of the dreadful consequences of population growth and urbanisation is the problem of solid waste management. This is because, as population increases, so does the unhealthy by-products, which are in form of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes resulting from human's activities. The issue of solid waste management is a global concern and many nations, especially developing nations are struggling to find permanent solution to the problem inherent in solid wastes.  In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, about 178 governments converged together and agreed that a more sustainable solid waste management was needed in both developed and developing nations.  The discussion centred on looking for ways to minimise wastes, maximise reuse, recycling and promote sound environment with ability to have a proper disposal and treatment system of solid wastes in all nations of the world. Although many nations are making incredible efforts towards achieving a proper solid waste management system and practice, not much has been achieved in many developing nations even twenty four years after the conference.  Solid waste management still remains a significant environmental challenge in many places in developing countries and especially in Nigeria. In many parts of Nigeria, wastes are still disposed in undesignated areas, open places, gutters, rivers, sometimes on road medians causing environmental and public health problems (Bhatia, 2013).
Various governments of the world, particularly developing countries are finding it extremely difficult to have an effective solid waste management. This is because so much garbage is still lying uncollected in the streets causing inconveniences and environmental pollution resulting in serious health risk.  Many nations are beginning to realise that the factors responsible for the low performance of solid waste management are social, economic, political, technological and cultural. An important factor which has been neglected in the issue of solid waste management is political will and support from the three tiers of government.
The indiscriminate littering and dumping of wastes among the people in many developing countries is inimical to solid waste management and does have negative effects on the environment. The aim of solid waste management is to prevent or reduce the impact of waste on human health and local amenity and to maintain cleanliness and public health of a community.
The management of solid wastes has become not only one of the most challenging environmental issues but also a serious political issue that has remained unresolved in many parts of Nigeria.  The method of collection, transport, treatment and disposal of solid wastes is relatively a difficult problem in many parts of the nation. Research bodies and policy makers all over the world are concerned on what should be the best approach to solid waste management since most efforts being made by professionals in many cities, local governments, States and federal authorities have proven unsuccessful.
The extent to which waste management is effective and sustained depends greatly on the system of governance and the nation's political will and machinery. This will range from the national, through State to the local governments. All tiers of government is involved in the issue of solid waste management in formulating laws and ordinances as requirements for the disposal of solid wastes and even in the management of wastes.  Environmental issues are handled by the Ministry of Environment at the federal and State levels and Environmental Health department at the local government levels in Nigeria (Arinze, 2014).
As observed by Ajani (2008), the methods adopted for solid waste management in many places in Nigeria and in particular in Oyo State have not matched up with the challenges of solid wastes, as wastes generation exceeds collection capacity.  Oyo State is part of the 36 States in Nigeria and has an estimated population of seven million people. Governments at all levels in Oyo State have not been able to device adequate plan or policies that will resolve the challenges of solid waste management and it appears that Oyo State does not have a proper waste management scheme as management of solid waste in every part of the State has been a great challenge for decades.  It is evident that solid waste management in Oyo State is plagued with inefficient collection methods, insufficient coverage of the collection system, improper disposal, lack of institutional arrangement, insufficient financial resources, absence of bylaws and standards, inappropriate technology, poor data information for planning, wrong attitude of waste generators amongst others. These challenges are causing serious health concern with significant environmental, social and health costs in Nigeria and especially in many local governments of Oyo State, where there are dumping of garbage by road sides, in rivers and many other open spaces which facilitates breeding of disease vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats and other pests.
The Oyo State governments have continued to make concerted efforts to curb the challenges plaguing solid waste management sector in the State. In 1984, the Federal government of Nigeria introduced the monthly sanitation exercise for every last Saturday of every month to allow people take care of their surroundings.   The Oyo State government, became part of the programme and the people of Oyo State were made to observe the exercise while officials of the Ministry of Environment go out to monitor the activities of the public.
Between 1988 and 1996, the Oyo State government implemented the Oyo State Urban Rehabilitation Project which was a programme designed for: Channelization of the Ogunpa river, establishment of the Ibadan Solid Waste Management Authority and Rehabilitation and Urban renewal of Yemetu Aladorin, Mokola and Ogbere rivers.  Oyo State has a long history of flooding as a result of solid waste management problems.  Most of the flood disasters in the State have been as a result of the indiscriminate dumping of solid waste in the Ogunpa and other rivers in the State.  Examples of such floods are that of 1902, 1924, 1956, 1960, 1963, 1978 and the most devastating of them all before that of August 2011 was the one of 1980 that claimed so many lives and destroyed properties worth millions of naira.  This made the Oyo State government to approach the World Bank for the rehabilitation and chanellisation of the Ogunpa River in 2011.
In 1997, there was an initiative by the State government to turn waste to organic fertilizer.  The plant for this was commissioned in 1998. Also, in 1999, the Oyo State government introduced Kerbside Sweeping in preparation for the World Youth Soccer Tournament.  From thence, street sweeping, registered refuse collectors to collect refuse all became parts of the efforts of the government to curb the challenges of solid waste in the State.  There was also the introduction of refuse drums and containers for the residents to collect and empty their refuse. 
In 2009, the Oyo State government increased the routine maintenance of Urban Roads Environment in Ibadan metropolis from 40 to 52 and also increased the monthly allocation of the Ministry from N3,348,879.4 to N9,856,003.38.  Between  2009 and 2010, additional sweepers were employed and the State government bought additional trucks.  Also bought were the smaller trucks called Ro-Ro for routs that are too small for the big trucks to ply.
The 2011 flood was not really caused by the Ogunpa but as a result of overflows of other rivers such as,  Ona, Ogbere and Dandaru which was also a great calamity to the State.  The flood led the State government to approach the World Bank for funds to finance infrastructures in Oyo State.  The funds from the World Bank made the channelization of the Ogunpa river possible.  But in spite of all the efforts, Oyo State is still plagued with serious solid waste management problem.
Thus this study focused on examining the problems of solid waste management in Oyo State from the standpoint of politics, the practitioners involved in the management, the socio-cultural practices and biases amongst the practitioners and their impacts upon the environment.

1.2       Statement of the Problem
Successive administrations in Oyo State have continued to make concerted efforts towards curbing the menace that arises with the challenges of management of solid wastes and have devised different kinds of mechanisms to control the proliferation of solid wastes in the State some of which were mentioned above, but most of the efforts have proved ineffective and yielded little results and it appears there is no effective permanent solution to this perennial problem.  The Ogunpa disaster in 1980 during the tenure of late Chief Bola Ige which claimed over 200 lives and damaged properties worth millions of naira (Etuonovbe, 2014) and the occurrence of sporadic flooding in many parts of the State during raining seasons, has made it obvious that there is urgent need for a strong political wheel to drive and re-engineer the entire process of waste management in the State.   For it has been discovered that the floods are largely caused by lack of proper waste disposal system, indiscriminate dumping of wastes and poor urban planning in the State resulting in blockages of curvets, drainages and river courses.
Oyeniyi, (2011) postulated that Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State, has been described as one of the dirtiest in Africa.  Suffice to say that the indiscriminate dumping of solid wastes on streets, in gutters, culverts and other places resulting in flood, causing destruction of roads and other infrastructures and sometimes loss of lives during rains is a growing cause of concern in many parts of the State.  Going through the city from Elizabeth Road in Mokola through to Sabo, from Sango to Ojoo, going through the Iwo road axes, Molete and other parts of the State, the heaps of solid wastes on the roads create an unpleasant sight, oozing out terrible stench, causing damage to the environment and endangering public health.  In addition, from the research carried out by Bakare (2014), Nigeria generates around 3.2 million tons of solid waste annually and only about 20-30% is collected.  The research went further to State that, from this amount, Ibadan alone generated 579,723 tonnes in the year 2000 and 996,102tonnes in 2010 and it is estimated that by year 2020 it would have increased to the tune of 1,114,000 tonnes of solid wastes.
Several agencies are often involved in solid waste management at the federal, State and local government levels.  The problem however, is that these agencies are not given clear roles or functions in solid waste management.  And this has sometimes led to duplication of efforts and lack of effective legislation on solid waste management.  In addition neglect of the economic, social, political, cultural and psychological factors in the area of formulating and implementing policies/programs to ensure environmental sustainability is of immense importance and is a great problem in the issue of waste management in the State.
The study identified those policies, laws, institutional, political, socio-cultural, financial, economic and technical aspects of solid waste management that should be given optimum attention with all seriousness. The study also presented a critique of the current solid waste management practices, policies and politics in some selected local government councils in Oyo State.

1.3       Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study was to investigate the politics of solid waste management in local governments of Oyo State.  The specific objectives are to:
    1.          examine the social, economic, cultural and political factors on solid waste                                        management in Oyo State;
    2.          assess the ability of  local governments in terms of adequate funding to                                           effectively manage solid waste in Oyo State;
   3.           appraise the engagement of Public Private Partnership (PPP) as solid                                                wastes consultants based on their competence and pedigree; and
   4.           evaluate the effect of politicization of solid waste management on the                                            residents of Oyo State.

1.4       Research Questions
Based on the Stated problems of the study, the following research questions were raised:
1.         How do social, economic, cultural and political factors affect  solid waste management in Oyo State?
2.         Why are local governments in Oyo State not able to effectively manage      solid wastes?
3.         How does the engagement of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) affect          the performance of solid waste management in Oyo State?
4.         What are the effects of politicization of solid waste management on the      residents of Oyo State?

1.5       Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested at 5% level of significance:
H01:      There will be no joint effect of independent variables of economic,                                     social, political and cultural factors on politicisation of solid waste management.
H02:     There is no significant relationship between solid waste                                            management and ineffectiveness of local governments to manage solid wastes.

1.6       Significance of the Study
Many studies have been carried out on waste, waste management and solid waste management, but this research is different because it is carried out to specifically review the effects of politics on solid waste management and why there is still so much garbage on our streets in spite of all the strategies in waste management that have been put in place.  More so, not many publications have been written to provide the type of information needed on ways to tackle solid waste management problems in developing countries especially in Africa where the political systems and institutions are still evolving. That is, those processes that could address solid wastes management problems of African continent with its political nature and system which is different from that of developed nations where political systems and institutions have been entrenched to ensure that the institutions function irrespective of whichever party is in power ensuring minimal or no political intervention in solid waste management.
The study would therefore make recommendations that researchers and policy makers can use to proffer solutions to the observed lapses in the entire process of solid waste management by critiquing each segment of the process to ensure effectiveness of performance which should result in a healthier and cleaner environment. In addition, the study would examine the socio-political relationships between interest groups and stake holders involved in solid waste management which would in turn help decision-makers, policy makers and should be useful for future researchers of the environment in local governments of Oyo State.

1.7    Scope of the Study
This research work was a general appraisal of the 33 local governments in Oyo State of Nigeria but focus was made of six local governments in the State.  These local governments were chosen from all the senatorial districts in the State and these are: Oyo Central Senatorial district - Akinyele Local government (Moniya) and  Surulere (Ireesaadu) Local government, Oyo North Senatorial district - Ibadan North East Local government (Iwo-road), Orire Local government (Ikoyi-Ile) and Oyo South Senatorial district, Ibarapa central (Igboora) and lastly, Ido local government (Eleyele - Eruwa road).  These local governments were chosen as they cover the geo-political zones. The six local governments have been chosen taking into cognisance the low, medium and high density in terms of solid waste generation based on the population of the local governments.  The study covered the period between 2011 - 2016 being the period the State government placed emphasis on its resolve to curb environmental challenges in the State.

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms
The major terms used in this research work are hereby explained thus:
Solid Waste:  Solid wastes are those wastes that are not in liquid or gaseous form but are solid in form.  They are all the rubbish, refuse, garbage, trash and materials no longer in use and are ready to be discarded.
Politics:  This is the ability to participate in decisions of the State and also employ political power to produce intended effects on other people.  Politics can also be defined as the authoritative allocations of values for a society. That is, the political activities within a State which answer the questions of "who gets what, when and how".
Environment:  The environment from a literary point of view, is generally viewed as encompassing the natural world including flora and fauna and human civilisation.
Solid waste management:  This involves management activities associated with generation, storage, collection, transfer, transport, reuse, recycling, processing and disposal of solid wastes.

1.9       Chapter outlay of the Study

This research work has been presented in five chapters. Chapter one contains the introduction, the background to the study, Statement of the study, the research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study and objectives of the study. Chapter two discussed the theoretical framework and review of relevant literatures while chapter three  discussed the research methodology and the research design, sample and sampling procedure.  Chapter four is the explanation of data while chapter five is the summary, conclusion and has offered recommendations.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 119 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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