INFLUENCE OF INTEGRATED TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION ON MORAL BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate the impact of integrated teaching of sex education amongst secondary schools students in Kaduna State. The study raised four objectives as well as four research questions and four null-hypotheses. A survey method was employed by the study with a population of 20,385 students and a sample of 2,035 drawn from the population using multi-stage random sampling technique. The main method of data collection was through the use of a self designed questionnaire which was structured with 25 items. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to test the four null-hypotheses formulated. The major findings from the study among others showed that the integrated teaching of sex education was very popular amongst secondary school students in Kaduna and the rate of unwanted pregnancies, change in the immoral behaviour and school dropout level had drastically reduced in Kaduna. Based on the major findings the study therefore recommended that parents should be actively involved in discussing sex related matters with their children and the teaching of sex education should be made compulsory to all students at secondary school level.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
ABBREVIATIONS
DEFINITION OF TERMS
APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1                   Background to the Study
1.2                   Statement of the Problem
1.3                   Objectives of the Study
1.4                   Research Questions
1.5                   Research Hypotheses
1.6                   Significance of the Study
1.7                   Basic Assumption of the study
1.8                   Delimitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Theoretical Framework
2.2       Conceptual Framework
2.2.1    Concept of Sex Education
2.2.2    Concept of Sex Education
2.2.3    Concept of Morality Behaviour
2.3       Awareness of Sex Education among Secondary School Students
2.4       Integrated Teaching of Sex Education and Morality in Secondary Schools
2.4.1    Importance of Teaching sex education as a subjects
2.4.2    Importance of Teaching of Sex Education
2.4.3    Problems of Sex Education
2.4.4    Students‟ Opinion and Peer group Influence on Sex Education
2.5       Impact of Integrated Teaching and Skills of Sex Education
2.5.1    Impact of Sex Education on Secondary Schools Students
2.6       Empirical studies
2.7       Summary

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of the Study
3.3       Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
3.4       Instrument for Data Collection
3.4.1    Pilot Study
3.4.2    Validation of the Instrument
3.5       Procedure for Data Collection
3.6       Procedure for Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1       Analysis of Bio Data Variables
4.2       Answering Research Questions
4.3.1    Answering Research Question One
4.3.2    Answering Research Question Two
4.3.3    Answering Research Question Three
4.3.4    Answering Research Question Four
4.4       Test of Null Hypotheses
4.4.1    Test of Null Hypothesis One
4.4.2    Test of Null Hypothesis Two
4.4.3    Test of Null Hypothesis Three
4.4.4    Test of Null Hypothesis Four
4.5       Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
5.4       Suggestions for further Studies
            REFERENCES
            APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1         Background to the Study 
Teaching sex education has been in existence from the creation of man when man continues to expand with children. The whole subject has been distorted by teachers, media, parents, Pastors, Imams and even friends have shirked their resistibility by not presenting the many side of the subject, the good, the lies told to exploit others. Increasing number of people across the ideological spectrum believe that our society is in deep moral trouble. The disheartening signs are everywhere. The breakdown of the family, the deterioration of civility in everyday‟s life, rampant greed, omnipresent sexual activities at very early ages; the enormous betrayal of children through sexual abuse (Taku, 2009).
Sex education is the education that is given to individuals on sexuality behaviour. It is the process of acquiring information, attitude and belief about sex. It is education for awareness especially our adolescents about sex related issues. Sex education does not encourage early initiation of intercourse but instead can delay first intercourse and lead to more consistent and understanding what the concept is all about. It is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sex identity relationship and intimacy. It involves developing young people‟s skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour. It is widely accepted that young people have right to sex education, partly because it is a means by which they are helped to protect themselves against abuse, exploitation, unintended pregnancies and Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs) and understand their body mechanism in general, (World Youth, 2000, in Nwahizu, 2006).

Sex and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education that are based on a written curriculum and that implemented among group of students in schools setting are a promising type of intervention to reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviours, transmission of various diseases among other things that place students at risk of infectious diseases. However, not all youths ever attend school and not all youth remain in school until they initiate sex. Thus, it is also important to reach youth who are out of school. Curriculum and group-based sex and HIV education programs can be introduced to the students to ensure completion and retention in schools. Throughout the world, they have been implemented in youth-serving agencies, housing projects, faith communities, community centers, juvenile detention centers and elsewhere. Notably, some of the sex and HIV education programs that have been found to reduce sexual risk-taking behaviour should be implemented in both school and community settings with only minor modifications of the curricula. (Jemmott, Jemmott and McKaffree, (1994); St. Lawrence, (1998). Sex and HIV education programs can increase knowledge about how to avoid HIV and STD infection and unintended pregnancy.
Integrated teaching is defined as organization of teaching matter to interrelate or unify subjects frequently taught in separate academic courses or departments. Shoemaker (1989) stated that an integrated curriculum is education that is organized in such a way that it cuts across subject-matter lines, bringing together various aspects of the curriculum into meaningful association to focus upon broad areas of study. It views learning and teaching in a holistic way and reflects the real world, which is interactive. Shoemaker, (1989) opined that using an integrated curriculum to teach is a strategy based on the premise that learning is a series of connections. The integrated curriculum can be beneficial to teachers and students, using team teaching, projects, and units to.....

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THE PLACE OF WOMEN IN ENHANCING BASIC EDUCATION IN ZANGO KATAF LGA KADUNA STATE

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the The place of women in education for development in Nigeria using Zango kataf LGA as its focus. A total of 1744 made up of 1318 women and 426 facilitators of the programme were involved in the study. Among the variables investigated are whether the women were involved in the planning of their education, the effect of community restriction and other factors on the low participation of the women in education. It was observed that the women were not properly involved in the planning  their education and the community restrictions in the form of marital obligation, cultural taboos on movement of married women, poverty and a host of other factors were constituting obstacles to participation in education by women. It was discovered that this low participation affects the women and the nation’s development in general.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
 1.1 Background to the Study  
The discriminatory practice in education which favored the male over the female was very unprogressive yet the government could not do anything to either stop or reverse it (Kema,
2003). The colonial government laid a very bad foundation for education generally and women’s education in particular. It is on record that in Nigeria, the colonial government initially did not show any interest in educational development at all. The early efforts were made by the Christian missionaries who came to evangelize to the people. 
In 1986, the federal ministry of education in Nigeria created a special unit, women’s education unit. This showed that the government was beginning to respond to the urgent need for the development of women. This special right accorded to women in education suggests that apart from women benefitting from general education, there will be a measure of encouragement to them towards specialization in sciences, engineering, and technology. Another area where the federal government of Nigeria intensified effort to develop women’s education was in the establishment of mass literacy commission. The effort of government has been complimented by the non-governmental organizations, who in several ways, especially through the offer of scholarships, and grants to secondary and higher institution female students have greatly promoted women’s education. 
Women empowerment is dated back to 1970’s and the beginning of the international women movement. Many women organizations worldwide set up credit and saving components as a way of both enabling women to increase their incomes, and coming together to address wider gender issues. The micro-credit summit programme is not only out to reach women but also to empower them. 
Women empowerment is not a modern concept. Women all over the world including countries in the south have been challenging and changing many gender inequalities since the beginning of history. These struggles have not been supported by many men who have not been outraged at injustice against women. 
Man is by nature an independent social being and cannot develop, actualize and objectify himself through labor in isolation from others and from the social environment (Mbah, 2005). Men have to interact with others to live well and to achieve more meaningful sustainable socio-economic development. The relationship between men and women has for a long time been marked by the   sub-ordination of one group to the whips and caprices of another. Women’s position being relegated to the background and placed in a dependency position makes it almost difficult if not impossible for them to take their own decision on issues and problems to affect them more especially on reproductive health. 
(Onu, 1998) opined that “women are at the heart of development. They control most of the nonmoney economy (subsistence agriculture, bearing and raising children, doing domestic labor) and taking important part in the money economy (trading, the formal sector, wage employment)”. He further stressed that everywhere world, women have two jobs, around the home and outside it. This assertion implies that women have a lot in of contribution to make towards the healthy socio-economic development of every county but women are constantly denied this opportunity by the nature of our societal organizations, and the cultural set up that makes it more comfortable for men to maintain the status quo. Today, awareness has led to the recognition of the important role women can play in national development and this calls for an urgent need to address these critical areas that have hindered full recognition of women’s talents, women’s right, women’s development and empowerment.


1.2 Statement of the Problem  

The major problem facing the Zango kataf LGA and every other community in Nigeria is that of deprivation of women’s right to participate in their full capacity in educational activities just like their male counterparts. This hinders their ability to operate in their full capacity in educational development project in the local government, like every other local (rural) area. The literate women in Zango kataf LGA outnumber that of the illiterate but still create little ignorance among some of other women defending their rights 
Another major source of problem is the men controlling the affairs of their families, prevents or sanctions their wives from participating or partaking in some activities of women from the local government. 
Some men whose wives are appointed or elected leader stopped their wives in such leadership roles thereby compounding the problems of women organization in the Zango kataf LGA. 
Another source of problem is lack of finance. This affects the organizational structure of men as a result of the fact that majority of the women are house wives who depend on their husbands. There is need for the women to finance themselves independently so as to stand a better chance to assist in their homes and also in the society. Also incompetence in management and control of women organization by their executive hinders their development and efforts. At times some women leaders seem to antagonize one another when working together towards achieving a set goal. Child bearing also affects women in participating in other activities.


1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this study is to examine the place of women in enhancing basic education in Zango kataf LGA kaduna state.. 
The specific objectives the study would want to achieve are as follows:
1.            To investigate the extent of involvement of women in the planning of their education.
2.            To identify community restrictions that contributes to the low participation of the women in adult literacy education.
3.            To investigate the other factors responsible for the low participation of the women in education programmes.
4.            To assess the effect of the low participation in literacy education on national development.
5.            To examine and suggest strategies for encouraging women’s participation in literacy education.


1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study will be guided by the following research questions:
1.            To what extent are the women involved in the planning of their education?
2.            What community restrictions have contributed to the low
participation of the women in literacy education?
3.            What other factors are responsible for the low participation of the women in education?
4.            What are the effects of the low participation in literacy education by women on national development?
5.            What strategies can be employed to encourage women’s
participation in literacy education?


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 The findings of this study would benefit the planners and facilitators of women education. The government, policy makers, community leaders, the women and the society will also benefit.  The benefits to the planners include the increase in knowledge of the way of life of the women (their psychology) through interaction with the women, which would bring about an appropriate curriculum for women education.  This would also improve the planner’s strategy in planning rural education.
 The skills of the facilitators in this field, especially teachers and instructors should improve if the strategies discussed in the study  (The PRA and SARAR) are properly adopted. The government should also benefit in that, it would be brought nearer to the community making it easier for the interpretation and implementation of policies to the women. The government through the discoveries of this research would be able to modify and supplement the existing mode of life by supplying programmes, which would require to be incorporated to improve the culture of the women for their living.  When the government is brought nearer to the community it may even convince the community to release their resources to support education programmes.


SCOPE OF THE STUDY

      The study is restricted to place of women in enhancing basic education in Zango kataf LGA in Kaduna State.

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DESIGN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR BUSINESS A CASE STUDY OF ONLINE SHOPPING STORE

ABSTRACT

This project is a web based shopping system for an existing shop. The project objective is to deliver the online shopping application into android platform.
This project is an attempt to provide the advantages of online shopping to customers of a real shop. It helps buying the products in the shop anywhere through internet by using an android device. Thus the customer will get the service of online shopping and home delivery from his favorite shop. This system can be implemented to any shop in the locality or to multinational branded shops having retail outlet chains.

If shops are providing an online portal where their customers can enjoy easy shopping from anywhere, the shops won’t be losing any more customers to the trending online shops such as flipcart or ebay. Since the application is available in the Smartphone it is easily accessible and always available.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURE
LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
PROJECT OBJECTIVES
PROJECT OVER VIEW
PROJECT SCOPE
STUDY OF SYSTEMS
MODULES
ADMIN
MODERATOR
USER

CHAPTER TWO
SYSTEM ANALYSIS
EXISTING SYSTEM
PROPOSED SYSTEM
SYSTEM REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
SYSTEM OBJECTIVES
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT

CHAPTER THREE
SYSTEM DESIGN
INPUT AND OUTPUT DESIGN
INPUT DESIGN
OUTPUT DESIGN
DATABASE
SYSTEM TOOLS
FRONT END
BACK END
TABLES
E-R DIAGRAMS
DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS (DFD)
SCREEN SHOTS
SAMPLE CODE

CHAPTER FOUR
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
This project is a web based shopping system for an existing shop.
The project objective is to deliver the online shopping application into android platform.
Online shopping is the process whereby consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller in real-time, without an intermediary service, over the Internet. It is a form of electronic commerce. This project is an attempt to provide the advantages of online shopping to customers of a real shop. It helps buying the products in the shop anywhere through internet by using an android device. Thus the customer will get the service of online shopping and home delivery from his favorite shop
                               PROJECT OBJECTIVE:
The objective of the project is to make an application in android platform to purchase items in an existing shop. In order to build such an application complete web support need to be provided. A complete and efficient web application which can provide the online shopping experience is the basic objective of the project. The web application can be implemented in the form of an android application with web view.

                             PROJECT OVER VIEW:

The central concept of the application is to allow the customer to shop virtually using the Internet and allow customers to buy the items and articles of their desire from the store. The information pertaining to the products are stores on an RDBMS at the server side (store).

The Server process the customers and the items are shipped to the address submitted by them. The application was designed into two modules first is for the customers who wish to buy the articles. Second is for the storekeepers who maintains and updates the information pertaining to the articles and those of the customers. The end user of this product is a departmental store where the application is hosted on the web and the adstrator maintains the database. The application which is deployed at the customer database, the details of the items are brought forward from the database for the customer view based on the selection through the menu and the database of all the products are updated at the end of each transaction. Data entry into the application can be done through various screens designed for various levels of users. Once the authorized personnel feed the relevant data into the system, several reports could be generated as per the security.....

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A LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS TAXATION IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
 Nigerian Tax System has undergone significant changes in recent times. The Tax Laws are being reviewed with the aim of repelling obsolete provisions and simplifying the main ones. Under current Nigerian law, taxation is enforced by the 3 tiers of Government, i.e. Federal, State, and Local Government with each having its sphere clearly spelt out in the Taxes and Levies (approved list for Collection) 2015.
This paper discusses the pros and cons of the legal and regulatory framework for telecommunications tax in Nigeria. Some of the issues faced in the sector includes; lack of statistical data, poor tax administration, and inability to prioritize tax effort, multiplicity of taxes and increase in underground economy. It also proffer challenges so as to engender an efficient and effective tax regime in Nigeria.
Nigeria practices a Federal system of government and by implication its tax policy can simply be referred to as that of a fiscal federalism. The tax jurisdiction of the various tier of government is spelt out in the constitution but sometimes with some overlap. Matters of difference are referred to the Joint Tax Board or the Board of Appeal commissioners.
Nigeria operates a three-tier government with certain fiscal responsibilities delineated to each level. The 1999 constitution has classified governmental responsibilities and powers into exclusive, concurrent and residual categories and specifies the right of each tier of government to exercise authority over the items in the lists.
The National Assembly is empowered to issue legislation on the taxation of incomes, profits and capital gains. It is also imperative that the National Assembly has the right to issue legislation on tax of any of the 67 subject matters on the Exclusive Legislation List in addition to the customs duties, excise duties, export duties and stamp duties specifically mentioned in the List.
The whole process makes for the administrative convenience, quick decisions and implementation, independence and people friendly since they can easily get to the grass root. However, this is not without some setbacks as it brings about uneven economic development of the country. The inequitable allocation of taxes make some States and local government very backward in the scheme of things since their only hope is on the insufficient periodic allocation from either the Federal or State government as the case may be.

Thus, the telecommunications operators are confronted with multiple levies (e.g. annual operating levy, information technology levy, spectrum fees, national number plan fees and various other fees imposed by state and local governments) on the same stream of income. Different tiers of government have enacted regulations imposing additional taxes/levies on these operators. While some of them are illegal, others are oftentimes based on opinion that telecom operators are cash cows and should willingly submit to any form of levies or charges imposed on them. This trend needs to be evaluated, considering the intent of NTP to eliminate multiple taxation at all levels and this can be curbed through proper regulation of telecommunication laws in the sector and other laws concerned in the telecommunications sector.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Table of content
Table of Statutes
Table of Cases
Abbreviation
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the study
1.2       Statement of problem
1.3       Literature review
1.4       Aim and Objectives
1.5       Research Questions
1.6       Methodology
1.7       Scope of the study
1.8       Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO
STRUCTURE OF THE NIGERIAN TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Structure of the Nigerian telecommunications sector
2.3       The impact of taxing policies on the telecommunication sector
2.4       Telecommunication in Nigeria
2.5       The distribution of network-providers under telecommunication sector
2.6       The type of legislation used by taxing authorities in the sector
2.7       The major government parastatals that are authorized by taxing authorities in the sector
2.8       The regulation of taxing policies in the telecommunication sector
2.9       Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE
REGULATORY PROBLEMS
3.1       Introduction
3.2       The problems and prospects faced in the telecommunication sector
3.3       The deregulation of taxing policies in the telecommunication sector
3.4       The problems of multiplicity of taxes in the telecommunication sector
3.5       The attitude of taxing authorities towards the telecommunication sector
3.6       Conclusion

CHAPTER FOUR
REFORMS TOWARDS THE TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Reforms to the relevant and appropriate taxing levies in the telecommunication sector
4.3       The effect of the proposed tax bill: Benefits to the sector
4.4       The reforms of taxing policies towards multiple taxation in the telecommunication sector
4.5       Conclusion

CHAPTER FIVE
FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Findings
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendation

Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1              Background to study
The Nigerian telecommunications sector is one of the prime segments of the information and communication technology sector. Nigeria has one of the leading telecom markets in Africa. The Nigerian Telecommunication sector has evolved over the years to an oligopolistic market structure[1].
 The sector includes a strong multinational presence. The leading players are MTN, a South African based multinational company,[2] Airtel (an Indian based multinational telecommunication), Glo (a Nigerian multinational company) and 9mobile (formerly called Etisalat).
The sector over the years has contributed immensely to Nigeria’s economy and the lives of Nigerians. The advancement of mobile phone usage from basic telephone to a new enhanced service and the introduction of new technology within diverse sectors of the country have seen the sector grow massively. The sector has experienced rapid growth and has introduced easier banking services (bank mobile apps) and access to e-learning platforms to Nigerians.
1.2              Statement of problem
The Nigerian tax system is faced with many challenges[3] such as multiplicity of taxes, evasion of taxes, and abuse of taxing power and so on. The major challenges are focused on trade and petroleum taxes; however neglecting the direct as well as indirect taxes that are broad based such as tax from Value Added Tax (VAT).[4] Tax administration is challenging due to high level of illiteracy, low awareness of tax and insufficient orientation.[5] Apart from the contribution and impact of the operators in this sector, the telecoms sector is a sector that must continuously be supported in all ramifications including its fiscal. Apart from the irregular challenges of the different businesses within this sector, some major areas in the sector are faced with fiscal challenges and they are expected to be duly corrected with the aid and passive involvement of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS)[6]; deductibility of expenses, input VAT and multiple taxation.
Other challenges inherent in the Nigerian tax system include; absence of tax statistics; failure to prioritize tax efforts; poor tax administration; regulatory challenges; structural problems in the economy; underground economy and complexity of the tax laws. These are further explained below;
 It is common that the basis of deductibility of expenses for a company operating in the telecommunications sector is the Wholly, Reasonably, Exclusively and Necessarily (WREN) expenses that are incurred in generating profits of the business are deductible under the Companies Income Tax Act (as amended). There are occasions where business expenses such as non-receipted discretionary payments[7] are incurred by these operators.
These expenses are sometimes huge and arise as a result of the peculiar nature of the industry. FIRS had often times taken fixed positions during tax audits/investigation exercises in relation to tax deductibility of these expenses. A more positive disposition by tax authorities to the sector's apparent business realities will be appreciated.
Presently, under the VAT Act (as amended), the scope for the input/output offset machinery is limited to input VAT incurred on goods purchased or imported directly for resale and goods which form the stock-in-trade used for the direct production of any new product. The certainty is that these conditions for allowable input VAT may be too restrictive.
There are arrangements within the telecommunication sector exerting pressure on this provision of the VAT Act for amendment. For instance, Telecommunication Service Providers (TSP) deploy network infrastructure through subcontractors who provide and maintain infrastructure on their behalf. TSPs are not permitted to recover VAT charged by the subcontractors from their output VAT despite significant VAT costs incurred on materials.
One of the clear objectives of the National Tax Policy (NTP) is the elimination of multiple taxation in all forms which manifests within the Nigerian economy. Whilst the challenge of multiple taxation is not limited to the telecommunications sector, the degree of exposure is high.
Thus regrettably, telecommunications operators are still confronted with multiple levies (e.g. annual operating levy, information technology levy, spectrum fees, national number plan fees and various other fees imposed by state and local governments) on the same stream of income. Different tiers of government have enacted regulations imposing additional taxes/levies on these operators. While some of them are illegal, others are oftentimes based on opinion that telecom operators are cash cows and should willingly submit to any form of levies or charges imposed on them. This trend needs to be evaluated, considering the intent of NTP to eliminate multiple taxation at all levels.
1.3    Literature Review
Today, many businesses in Nigeria influence the output of the telecommunications sector; and various writers and authors have different opinions towards it. For instance, numerous advanced products in the financial services industry (internet banking, mobile banking etc.) rely heavily on internet access. Also, many on-line retail platforms have emerged and as far as telephony is concerned, the gap between the rich and the poor has virtually disappeared and only rear its ugly head in the choice of handsets or other gadgets that individual users deploy in communicating. For instance, a Nigerian entrepreneur in the sub-urban areas in 2014 is superior to top level government functionaries or top business executive pre-2001 by virtue of quality and quantity of information available to him through his handheld device.
The revolution in the telecoms sector has constantly challenged our imagination on the possibilities and associated benefits that a turn-around in the power sector can deliver to the Nigerian economy. There is profound envy of those who invested in the telecommunications sector to make this happen as if they did not deserve the returns on their investment. This is accompanied by the tireless feeling amongst Nigerians that the sector can still do more. Investments are still required to remove dropped calls, enhance faster internet access or connectivity etc.
As earlier noted, many treatises have been published on this subject matter, few of which are worthy of mention here. They include: Telecommunications in Nigeria: the next frontier by Ernest C.A Ndukwe[8], The Telecommunication Revolution in Nigeria[9] by Ernest Ndukwe, Telecoms, Media & Internet Laws & Regulations [10] by Udo Udoma & Belo-Osagie: Olajumoke Lambo & Godson Ogheneochuko; Tax Policy Reforms in Nigeria by Ayodele Odusola; Tax System in Nigeria – Challenges and the Way Forward[11] by Leyira Christian Micah, Chukwuma Ebere, Asian Umobong; Trends in Telecommunications Regulation[12]- Ashish Narayan (International Telecommunication Union); Taxpayers Rights Protection In Nigeria by Oluwole Oke (August 2012); The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria[13] (CFRN) and codified tax laws; The Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act[14] (FIRS Act); Multiplicity of Taxes in Nigeria: Issues, Problems and Solutions[15] by Abiola Sanni; Tax policy reforms in Nigeria[16] by Odusola, Ayodele; Nigerian Tax Offences and Penalties[17] by M.T. Abdulraqaz........




[1] a small number of firms have the majority of market share
[2] According to Proshareng Technology, MTN a South African based multinational company has a market share of 37.21% in the nation’s economy.
[3] Leyira, L. M., Chukwuma E.  A.U& Asian  Tax System in Nigeria- Challenges and the Way Forward. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, Vol. 3, No. 5, 9-15 (2012).
[4] A. Odusola, .  Tax Policy Reforms in Nigeria- Research Paper No 2006/3, United Nations University-World Institute for Development Economics Research. (2008)
[5] G.N Ogbonna,  Burning Issues and Challenges of the Nigerian Tax Systems with Analytical Emphasis on Petroleum Profits Tax. A Publication of the International Academy of Business and Behavioral Sciences, United States Of America (USA), Vol. 1, No. 1, 80-100.(2009)
[6] A statutory body established by virtue of section 1(1) of the Federal Inland Revenue service (Establishment Act) - No 13 of 2007.
[7] payments to various groups for approvals or security of their equipment or employees
[8] OFR, FNSE, FNIM, CEO (NCC) at the new age seminar; May, 2005.
[9] Lagos Business School’s Centre for Infrastructure, Policy, Regulation and Advancement (CIRPA) December 2011.
[10] 11th Edition of The International Comparative Legal Guide A practical cross-border insight into telecoms, media and internet laws and regulations
[11] A research paper for the Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
[12] ACMA ITU International Training Program July, Sydney, Australia
[13] Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999.
[14] Federal Inland Revenue Service Act (FIRSA)  2007.
[15] A research paper for the Department of Commercial and Industrial Law (University of Lagos), Nigeria.
[16] Research Paper, UNU-WIDER, United Nations University (UNU), No. 2006/03.
[17] 2nd edition; 2014 (Lagos State University).

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