Mobile Phone is often seen as having either a positive or a negative effect to its users while this research dwells on the harmful aspect of social media, but cannot avoid mentioning the benefits too. Today in our society, youths are often found accessing the web in every slight time they ascribe to as being leisure moment which derails their social ethics. Hence, the main focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Mobile Phone Usage on the morality of youths while using Oredo LGA, Edo State as a case study. A descriptive research design of exploratory type will be adopted for the study. A total of 70 respondents were selected from different study level (grades) using the study the population will comprise of all 4 schools in Oredo LGA of Edo State. The researcher will narrow the study to an accessible numbers. In each school, the stratified random sampling technique was used to select the student’s gender based on the school population. The researcher will choose to use questionnaires and interview schedules in order to collect information. In this research, the instruments used will be validated in terms of content validity. According to (Mugenda, O. M., & Mugenda, A. G., 1999) reliability in which a research instrument yields consistent results or data after repeated trials will be done through test and retest techniques. Data gathered were analysed using simple frequencies and simple percentages. It integrates both qualitative and quantitative data through various methods. Collected data is then analyzed for results and recommendations. Through the use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis, it was found that the social media phenomenon is overwhelmingly popular among Nigerian youths as well as one of the major contributors to moral degeneration in the country.

This chapter covers or outline background of study, problem statement, research objectives and question, study limitation, delimitation, significance of the study, assumptions and definition of terms in more detail manner.

1.1. Background of the study
Information and communication Technology have revolutionalized every sphere of human society especially the advent of mobile phone which has brought an information and communication revolution worldwide. The world now has become a global village where distances among nations become meaningless. People living thousands of miles away can communicate or even transact with each other instantly. In Pakistan for instance the findings of study show that the new generation there used the mobile phones for interpersonal communication. However, young generation spent more time on average using mobile phones and somewhat agreed that mobile phones reduced face-to-face interaction. Direct interaction is equally important to bring families close to each other, resolve disputes and develop a healthy society. Mobile phones can be used as a tool to strengthen these family relations. In this way a more cohesive society can be developed in this technology boom. Barely a decade ago, few policy analysts, if any, predicted that Africa will be the continent to beat in the uptake of mobile communications. A quiet revolution took place until early 2000 that many began to notice the fast growth of the mobile technology. The demand for mobile phones in Africa in the last few years has been more than most people expected and continues to expand. Operators have traditionally target urban areas, but it is the demand from rural and low income areas that have exceeded all expectations. The use of phones has already become part of African culture. As urban markets become saturated, the next generation of phone users will be rural based, and they have commenced to flood with all sorts of new types of smart phones. The arrival of the cell phone in rural areas has taken Nigeria by storm. It has turned out to be such an amazing transition happening since most people in the start, did not reckon its capacity to gradually become a lifestyle choice. It has certainly changed the way people communicate and becoming a natural necessity for people of Nigeria. This can be seen from the numbers of cell phone units sold in the past years. The cell phones in Nigeria have gone from 1 million in 2002 to 6.5 million in 2006. Some of this boost has found their way into the rural areas of Nigeria and that is what this thesis focuses on. It is not long ago that cell phone was an unfamiliar item for the many inhabitants in rural Nigeria.

Now that the issue has reached an alarming rate and as it is the tradition in our dear country whenever an issue arises, we point accusing fingers and play the blame game instead of brainstorming on how best to tackle the problem. And that is why this study was chosen to shade limelight on impact of Mobile Phone Usage on moral decadence. According to blogger (Johnston, 2013), the connection between media and morality is almost taken for granted: Plato, for example, banished all storytellers from his imagined Republic except those whose tales were “in accordance with the patterns we laid down when we first undertook the education of our soldiers” because listeners or viewers would, he thought, admire and imitate characters’ bad behaviour. Later thinkers have, for the most part, agreed with Plato, as the moral panics that have greeted new media over the centuries, from novels to comic books to video games, can attest; as well as ongoing concern about the possible negative moral effects of media, there’s also a long tradition of works created specifically to teach the morals we consider to be desirable. But while there’s been a lot of research done on how media exposure affects specific behaviours, relatively little has focused on how it influences our judgment of right and wrong.

Morality for me has more to do with how one relate with other people and to find the right and wrong in how one deals with others and to act rightly of course. The study will investigate on youth moral deterioration in Oredo LGA of Edo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it aimed at finding the gaps of “stakeholders” attribute to youth moral, deterioration; and explore the necessary approaches to restore morality.

1.2. Problem Statement
There has been a marked increase of high school riots, youth always addicted to phones and unwelcomed sexual advances among youths on street and around homes. The recent news of high school student arrested at Nairobi super highway attest to this immoral behaviours on rise. They could be more unreported cyber-crimes happening around youth life. In this regard the researcher will make study and find the main causes of these immoral behaviours among youth and also find among the “stakeholders” effort in restoring moral standards (Oladipo, 2009), argued that parents are the first moral teachers and role models that young people had. Effective parenting characterized with love, care, attachment and trust between parents and children is more likely to lead to children and youths’ good moral behaviour. Nevertheless, ineffective parenting leads to children’s and youths’ bad behavior. The researcher will therefore focus parent as one of the stakeholder to promote good morals thus also administered questionnaire to them In their finding (Bonachristus, Umeogu & Ifeoma, Ojiakor, 2014) that the internet has a double edge sword characteristic in that it can be used for both good and bad. For one and on the good side, it has made education very easy and more accessible. One can be in his/her house and get a degree or socializing. How can one reconcile the two? By spending more time on the socialization networks instead of academic sites, the time meant for studying have been directed towards socializing and it negatively affects youth’s behaviours. According to (Shu-Sha A. G. and Kaver S., 2009), “internet addiction is the use of the Internet to escape from negative feelings, continued use of the Internet despite the desire to stop, experience of unpleasant emotions when Internet use is impossible, thinking about the Internet constantly, and the experience of any other conflicts or self-conflicts due to Internet use”. It is addiction that can cause students to chat while classes are ongoing and even in the church. It is addiction that will cause users to give up sleep all in the name of chatting at the expense of their programmes lined up for the next day A recent news in Daily Nation newspaper in Nigeria is not a welcome too, (Langat, 2015) stated that a group of 550 students, most of them minors, have been arrested in basement in Eldoret where they are suspected to have gone on hedonistic rampage of drugs and possibly sex.

Shocked parents said their children lied that they were going for choir practice, shopping or other innocent errands. Most probably they learn these things from glamour of social media.

1.3.1 General Objectives of the Study
To investigate and find on impact of Mobile Phone Usage on moral development among the youth in Oredo LGA, Edo

1.3.2. Specific Research Objectives
I. To find out the extent of youth involvement in social media

II. To study the impact of mobile phone usage on their moral behaviour

III. To determine the risks that comes with use of mobile phone usage on the Oredo LGA youth.

IV. To be able engage stakeholder who are moral duty bearers and find ways of mentoring the youth to be just and morally upright citizens

1.4. Research questions
1. What is the extent of youth involvement with social media?

2. What are the impact of mobile phone usage on their moral behavior?

3. What determines the risks that comes with use of mobile phone usage on the Oredo LGA youth?

4. How to engage stakeholder who are moral duty bearers and find ways of mentoring the youth to be just and morally upright citizens?

1.5. Significance of the Study
Studies indicate that moral values and behaviours are relevant to individuals, society and the nation at large. (Santrock, 2005), explains that children and youth are supposed to grow morally good for their own social and life development. Societies and nations with morally children and youths are more likely to prosper than societies characterized with immorality. Despite the negative effects caused by the gangs in the society and the nation at large, little is known or reported in different parts of the country including Oredo, how social media lure youth into crime. This is what prompted the researcher to investigate the causes for moral deterioration among youths in Oredo LGA. This research will finally answer the questions on what are negative impact of Mobile Phone Usage on moral decadence and the main purpose of this research is acquiring knowledge from the field that is not yet fully explored

The study looks at impact of Mobile Phone Usage on moral development among the youth, its findings will be relevant because it will inform parents, teachers, students and all the relevant stake holders on the impact of mobile phone usage on the moral decadence among teenagers. (Carroll, J.A. & Kirkpatrick, R.L., 2011) The result of this study thus make the youths who in this study are being referred to as teenagers, to be aware of how social media influence their morality negatively. It will also help those working with youths by suggesting some ways in order for them to relate with youth‘s social activities especially with regards of using social media sites. In line with this, those working with youths will know a way how to help them if they encountering problems arising trough social media interaction with others. The parents too will be made knowledgeable on their children‘s purpose of using social media sites and be aware how it affect their children’s moral behaviour. With enough knowledge, parents can think of possible preventive ways if their child is prone to develop a weak interpersonal relationship with other people because of too much addition and dependence of social media sites (Whiteman, 2015). Finally this study will be spring board for other researcher to take on further or use as reference. It is in view of the above; the researcher seeks to investigate the factor contributing to the moral decadence among the youth hence will seek a valuable solution to restore good moral.

1.6. Study limitations
The study is limited by time and financial resources and as result the research had to source for more financial resources and use alternative means. Since few similar studies have been done especially in institutions of higher learning, there is limited empirical literature on the area of impact of Mobile Phone Usage on moral development among the youth in the context of Nigeria. Another expected limitation is that the youth might fail to give correct information on the basis of invasion of their privacy. The researcher explained to them that the study was purely for academic purposes and not motivated by any other interests whatsoever.

1.7 Delimitations The study
was delimited to only existing schools within Oredo LGA and targeted 70 sample against a population 440 youth sample size. The study was also delimited to questioning and interviewing boys and girls who have access to internet both at home and elsewhere.

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Election has become the most acceptable means of changing leadership in any given political system. It evaluates the acceptability of government and political leadership by citizens. Thus, attitude of the voters/electorates during or before any election varies from country to country depending on socio-economic-cum-political characteristics of such people or country. The study therefore, interrogates election and voting behaviour in Nigeria. The study is guided with these research questions; Are there reasons for participating in election as a voter in Nigeria, Are there factors that influence voting behaviour during election in Nigeria? The study is a qualitative and quantitative research that relied on primary and secondary sources of data collection. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics to show the impact of voting behaviour on election in Nigeria. The study found that multiple factors influence how people vote during election. Also, there are reasons why people vote, that is voting pattern runs inline in order to satisfy those religious/ethnic interest and personal immediate economic needs. Voters’ accept gratification from politicians to vote for them even when they knew that such persons are not credible. The study recommends a total overhaul of the electoral system; education/creation of awareness to the Nigerian citizens, and to make the elective positions less lucrative and attractive than what is currently obtainable. In this way, those negative factors that influence the voting pattern in Nigeria can be controlled.

1.1 Background of study
In liberal democratic theory, an election is a viable mechanism for consummating representative government and voting is the main form of political participation in democratic societies; the study of voting behavior is a highly specialized sub-field in political and social science. There is no gainsaying that credible elections constitute a major factor in democracy, democratization and good governance globally. Elections in democracies help to promote representation of popular will and to secure legitimacy of the political system. However, there is an indicative evidence of the decline in voter electoral participation- the lack of psychological involvement in public affairs, emotional detachment from civic obligations, and a somewhat reserved attitude towards political activity even at the global level. It is imperative therefore, to understand the sources and character of political abstention. Voter electoral behaviour, a subset of political behaviour, has thus emerged as a major problem in mature and emerging democracies, settled and volatile societies, large and thriving economies, as well as small and large ones.

Why do people vote? Why do they not vote? These are pertinent question; there has been much concern in the past few years that the citizens are disengaging from the political process, as shown by the continuing decline in voter turnout at all levels of elections. This leads to serious questions of legitimacy. If fewer than half of all eligible citizens vote and a winning candidate receive a little bit above 50% of the vote, what can we say about mandates and about the power to govern? Are non-voters completely disengaged, or simply engaged in other kinds of political activities that they find more satisfying and more likely to affect their lives?

Voter participatory behaviour impacts upon the electoral process and its outcome. Any serious effort at electoral reforms to bring about free, fair and credible elections must take into account the challenges, especially of voter declining participation in the electoral process. Thus, it became imperative to do a study on the nature, causes, dimensions and consequences of declining voter participatory behaviour, with a view to being adequately informed in designing future strategies to tackle its challenges in the Nigerian context. In a country trying to consolidate democracy after a long history of authoritarian military rule, strategies for mobilizing people for popular participation and effective engagement in the electoral process have to be well conceptualized and carefully designed. In doing this, peoples’ perceptions and attitudes have to be studied, analyzed, understood and taken into consideration. In any case, liberal democracy is in crisis in many countries, developed and developing (Adejumobi, 2002).

In the developed countries the level of citizen participation in the electoral process is dwindling, largely because real choice is limited and the people feel a sense of powerlessness rather than satisfaction. In developing countries, especially in Africa, elections are riddled with tension, conflicts, crises and fraud such that it is difficult to use them as a barometer of the peoples’ choice. Hence, the euphoria of the second wave of democratization in Africa is fast receding. Yesterday’s icons who led civil society in the struggles for democratic renewal have been transformed into the images of those against whom they fought. They have assumed dictatorial postures; they manipulate elections and tend towards sit-tight regimes (Adejumobi 2000).

Nigeria is in the league of less successful countries in the area of election management and outcomes: the electoral rules are either unclear, ever changing, or easily subverted; the electoral body is structurally weak and perennially ineffective; the political actors and agencies are like gladiators in their conduct; while the people are often powerless in an environment of political and electoral misdemeanor. Voting does not amount to choosing in the Nigerian environment, as electoral choices are made by political barons outside the environment of electoral norm, rules and procedure. In such circumstances, ‘winners and losers have often been determined before the contest, and voters merely go through the charade of confirming choices already made’ (Fawole, 2015:15).

The electoral system of any given country plays a fundamental role in sustaining and molding the political behavior of its citizens (Okolo, 2002). The way election is conducted in a country determines to a great extent the level of political culture, political participation and good governance in the country. Therefore, this study intends to fill this gap. This study is guided with two research questions: - 1) Are there reasons for participating in election as a voter in Nigeria? 2) Are there factors that influence voting behaviour during election in Nigeria? The objective of the study is to understand those factors which determine voting behaviour in Oyo state and reasons people give during election in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of Problem
Since 1999, when the current democratic dispensation began, Nigeria has witnessed a plethora of defections by politicians. The defection rate is widely believed to be more than any other time in the nation’s political history (Baiyewu 2012). Party defection is not a strange phenomenon in Nigeria; it characterized previous republics, though at a minimal and reasonable level. Today, reasons for this (Party Defection) are not far-fetched as supposed loyal party activists do this with reckless abandon as if this is a new virtue for relevance in party politics. Party defection is always organized with fanfare just as defectors adduce it to ‘being marginalised by former party’ or ‘craving for a platform to move the interest of the people to the desired end’, or moving from darkness to light, or being betrayed by the ruling party or with the usual quote ‘I cannot live among enemies’. In Nigeria, cases abound where a politician defect to four different political parties within one or two years, still repeating these monotonous but mundane excuses, yet incredibly, with admiration from the receiving party on each occasion. State and federal legislators elected on the platform of a particular party have also found value in mainstream politics as a way of defecting to the ruling party, thereby giving the impression that it is a taboo to be in opposition party in Nigeria. It is on these premises that the following questions are raised:

1.3 Research Question
1. What are the voting pattern in Oyo state?

2. Have parties in Nigeria acquired the strength to create the needed balance that would make Nigerian democracy strong?

3. What is the nexus between voting behavior and democratic consolidation in Nigeria?

4. What are the ills that party defections pose to consolidated democracy in Nigeria?

1.4 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this research is to bring to bare the voting pattern in Oyo state.

Subsidiary objectives of the research are as follows:
1. To expose reasons why there is the usual voting behavior especially at the peak of elections in Nigeria

2. To analyze how the constitution provisions for party defections in Nigeria have been faulty.

3. To explain who actually benefits in the act of party defections in Nigeria.

1.5 Significance of Study
This study comprises of theoretical and empirical significance. The theoretical significance of this study is that it examines the implications of the2015-2019 party defections on democratic consolidation in Nigeria. Theoretically, the study findings further reaffirms the call for a paradigm shift, the need for political parties to adhere seriously to the principle of internal democracy-cum-various mechanisms to resolve party crisis. Following that line of thought the study enriches the existing stock of literature or expands the frontiers of knowledge through its findings, therefore serves as a source of data/material to those scholars who may be interested in further studies in this area.

The empirical significance of this study will be of immense benefits to Nigerian government, legislature, political leaders, party leaders and politicians so as to bring to their knowledge the ills that numerous defections poses to the democracy which the country was supposed to uphold.

Lastly, the findings of this research will serve as reference documents for further research in the field.

1.7 Scope/limitations of study
The study focuses on the effects/problems of party defections on democratic consolidation in Nigeria. It also exposes those factors that led to party defections by majority of political actors within the time frame of 2015 and 2019 elections, and their implications on consolidating democracy in the Nigerian society.

Despite the importance of this study, it has faced several limitations which are listed below

1. Lack of relevant literature especially on the 2019 elections which would have helped to enhance the study.

2. Time constraints stand to be another problem.

3. Financial constraints was also another problem

Though this has not contravened the originality and authenticity of this study

1.8 Definition of Terms
Political party: these are organized group of people who come together to pursue specific policies and objectives with the motive of taking control of state power, by acting together as a political unit.

Democracy: this is a form of government that has to do with the involvement of the people, in the governing process of their society directly or indirectly through their elected representatives. For a government to be described as democratic, the following tenets should be observable within the polity; supremacy of the law, equality before the law, maintenance of the basic and fundamental rights, free and fair periodic elections, tolerance of opposition, transparency and accountability in governance, freedom of press, high political participation, protection of minority rights and disadvantaged groups and a strong institutional system of checks and balances.

Democratic consolidation: this could be defined as a deliberate political process that requires habituation to the norms, tenets and procedures of democracy within a polity, in such a way that the citizenry accepts it and works together towards ensuring that the uncertainty of its existence is greatly narrowed down.

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This study concerned itself with effective Chemistry practical in secondary schools. It examined whether the way practical experiences were presented by the teachers and students’ engagement in them enhanced the attainment of goals of practical work. The procedure of conducting practical work in Chemistry was of great concern and more specifically, the skills emphasised during practical work in Chemistry lessons.

The study was conducted in Isi Uzo Local Government Area of Nigeria and adopted a descriptive survey design. The main population for the study comprised all the 47 public secondary schools in the province from which 9 sample schools were selected using a combination of stratified, purposive and systematic sampling procedures.

The study utilised questionnaires, lesson observation schedules and document analysis guide to collect data. Data collection was preceded by a pilot study mainly to determine the reliability of the instruments. On analysis of data from the pilot study, the instruments were found to be reliable. Data collected during the main study was analysed utilizing Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 10.0.

1.1 Background of the Study
Today we are living in the age of science and technology. Scientific inventions and discoveries have revolutionalised our lives. Science is nothing but knowledge so obtained by observations, readings, experimentation and realization.

Science subjects constitute a major part of the subjects being offered in most post primary institutions in Nigeria today. These subjects are so important that the Federal government National Policy on Education (2004) in specific terms states that “the secondary school Education shall provide trained manpower in the applied sciences and technology’’.

The importance attached to science by the Federal government could be due to the general belief that science is capable of improving and changing skills, attitudes, and cognition by increasing pupil’s store of knowledge about themselves, their environment and their world. The development of any nation which depends on science and technology, hinges on science Education, science has been viewed as an instrument that can aid development in many countries. It plays important and dominant roles in spear heading technological advancements, promoting national wealth, improving health, and accelerating industrialization (Validya, 2003).

Chemistry as one of the science subjects is basic for understanding the complexities of modern technology and essential for technological advancement of a nation. This aspect of science is making significant contributions to many of the inventions that are shaping modern day, and has helped to explain many of the events being encountered in everyday life. Chemistry is one of the pre-requisite subjects for the study of engineering technological, medical and other applied science courses, in the University. Chemistry provide training for a vast range of carriers where it is either employed directly or where the skills developed can be applied in innovative ways in other fields. Despite its importance, Chemistry remain the least favored science subject among students generally, only a few students choose to study Chemistry at O. Level and subsequently at higher degree. Students performs poorly in Chemistry, lack of practical work may be an important reason for students for poor content knowledge and understanding of Chemistry at secondary school level in Nigeria (Millar, 2004).

There is a serious shortage of students and teachers of Chemistry in Nigerian secondary schools, this is generating concern among science educators, and researchers are increasingly exploring why students avoid the subject, over the years student of Chemistry in secondary school have found it extremely difficult to perform well in the subject (Nelkon & Ogbon, 1988).

Studies have been carried out to find out the cause of such poor performance. Poor performance of students in Chemistry could be linked to students practical ability (Olabanji, 1997), supported by Akanbi (2003) that poor performance in Chemistry may be due to inadequate laboratory equipment, and facilities which make the present study imperative.

Chemistry as a course of study is perceived to be experimental, the understanding of practical aspect may help students to learn Chemistry concepts. The educational objectives of Chemistry education cannot be fully realized if student’s performance in both Chemistry theory and practical are not balanced (Aina, 2011).

For the mere fact that Chemistry has been severally labeled as the most conceptually difficult subject, particularly the practical aspect of the subject, it is important to explore the underlying difficulties that might impede quality learning in the subject, in the context of Nigerian school environment. The aim of this study is to identify problems associated with conducting effective Chemistry practical in senior secondary schools in Isi Uzo Local Government Area.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this study is to make a critical appraisal of the problems hindering the conduct of Chemistry practical and advance suggestion that will enhance the effectiveness, and efficiency of the conduct of Chemistry practical in senior secondary schools within Isi Uzo Local Government Area.

A close look at the ways Chemistry practical is handled in most of our secondary schools indicate that probably students were made to merely see Chemistry as a collection of rules. However, it is assumed that proper conduct and involvement of students in Chemistry

practical has became less valued, Chemistry students are likely to be passive listeners even in the laboratory, as they watch teachers carry out the teaching theoretically or carry out demonstration or experiments (Anele, 2011).

Other assumed problems may include that students are not encouraged to consider practical work useful for the development of scientific skills and attitudes. Another problem confronting the learning and conduct of Chemistry practical in schools is the lack of equipment and facilities and their inadequacy (in some case) which hinder the effectiveness of learning Chemistry in schools (Jegede & Okebukola, 1995; Nwaokolo, 1998; Anikweze, 2000; Anele, 2001).

Allocation of time to Chemistry practical in school lesson time table is insufficient, activities to be undertaken therefore suffer. This constitutes an enormous problem to the proper conduct of Chemistry practical in school (Mistler, Dackson & Butler, 2000; Polman, 2000).

Chemistry teachers stress is another problem confronting the conduct of Chemistry practical in schools. A stress results when the teacher’s experience is unpleasant, given rise to tension, frustration, anger, anxiety, and depression, poor working conditions resulting from lack of practical equipments for conducting effective Chemistry practical have been identified as the source of stress in some part of the world (Akpan, 2001). This is not a unique case in the Nigerian context. Chemistry teachers in Nigeria find these poor working condition stressful (Jegede & Okebukola, 1995).

Other problems encountered by students in conducting Chemistry practical in senior schools include:

- Lack of good practical supervision

- Lack of practical manuals.

- Inadequate qualified Chemistry teachers in secondary schools.

- Lack of motivation

- Poor laboratory condition

- Poor Chemistry practical apparatus

- Problems in setting apparatus

- Problem in relating Chemistry practical with Chemistry theory.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To identify Problems encountered by chemistry teachers in conducting effective practical work in secondary school Chemistry

2. To describe the procedure of conducting practical work in secondary school Chemistry

1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the state of laboratories in secondary schools in Isi Uzo Local Government Area?

2. What skills are emphasized by teachers in teaching practical work in secondary school Chemistry?

3. What are the attitudes of the students towards practical work in secondary school Chemistry?

4. What are the attitudes of the teachers towards teaching Chemistry practical work in secondary schools?

1.5 Significance of the Study
provide a framework for teachers on which they could re-evaluate their instructional strategies during practical work in Chemistry for the enhancement of effective teaching and learning provide insight for the curriculum designers into the kind of practical experiences in secondary school Chemistry needed to aid sound understanding of scientific concepts and principles provide a framework for the NECO on which the council could re-evaluate their goals and objectives so that the practices during secondary school practical Chemistry were in line with what the curriculum demanded of students.

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study was carried out in Isi Uzo Local Government Area in the southern part of Nigeria.

It was conducted in few selected secondary schools and involved only Chemistry teachers and few selected Form three students in Isi Uzo Local Government Area.

It focused only on the practical aspect of secondary school Chemistry. It is however clear that the overall grade in NECO Chemistry is a contribution of both theory and practical examination and given as a grade for performance in Chemistry.

It was not possible to generalize the results to the whole country since the study was conducted only in a few selected secondary schools in Isi Uzo Local Government Area.

It was not possible to generalise the results to Chemistry since only the practical aspect of secondary school Chemistry was considered in this study.

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This study focused on ‘Role of health communication messages in creating awareness on Cholera Outbreaks in Ebonyi State’. Cholera as we all know had from time to time besieged Ebonyi State leading to the death of hundreds and thousands affected and infected. The dreaded illness has continued to increase in our society despite all efforts to put a stop to it, hence this study which looked at what radio with its enormous power can do to put a stop to the disease. The research work adopted two theoretical frameworks in carrying out the research. The theories are Social Responsibility and Agenda Setting Theories. In the research methodology, survey research method was used in data gathering. In the survey, three local government areas of Ebonyi State were randomly selected from the three senatorial zones of Ebonyi State namely: Ezza North, Ohaozara and Ohaukwu. For easy understanding, tables were used in the data presentation of the study. According to the findings of the research work, radio plays a significant role in shaping the health life pattern of its audience in general but the health policy makers do not liaise with radio health programmers during disease outbreak like cholera. Therefore, this study recommends that they should be synergy between radio health programmers and health policy makers, if the battle against cholera outbreaks in Ebonyi state must be worn.

Keywords: Radio, Cholera Outbreak, Ebonyi, Nigeria.

1.1 Background of study
It is health that is real wealth and not piece of gold or silver. (Gandhi, 1927). Sanitation is a long-standing, public health issue. When early people settled in communities and started to cultivate crops and raise animals, sanitation became a primary concern for society. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease worldwide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. Good basic personal hygiene and hand washing are critical to help prevent the spread of illness and disease. Keeping hands clean helps prevent the spread of germs. Hand washing with soap is the best way to reduce the number of germs on them. Bad sanitation and poor hygiene have to coincide with people carrying the Vibrio Cholerae before cholera outbreak could occur.

Cholera is one of the most widespread and deadly diseases of the 19th century, killing an estimated tens of millions of people. It is estimated that cholera affects 3-5 million people worldwide, and causes 100,000-130,000 deaths a year as of 2010. (WHO report, 2010). This occurs mainly in the developing world. More than 100,000 people die from the disease every year, with the majority of cases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cholera remains both epidemic and endemic in many areas of the world.

Recently, cholera outbreak engulfed Nigeria. Ebonyi State as one of the 36 states of Nigeria is not an exception to this as 20 persons lost their lives in different Local Government areas of the state. According to Ebonyi State Director of Public Health and Disease control, Chris Achi, “Some of the Local Government Areas affected are: Abakaliki, Izzi, Ebonyi, Ohaukwu, Ishielu, Ezza North and Ohaozara”. It is my desire to ascertain the role of health communication messages in curbing cholera outbreaks in Ebonyi State that necessitated this research work.

Cholera is a natural disease of epidemic proportion. It is caused by a comma-shaped rod like, motile, Gram negative bacterium called Vibrio cholera, with the characteristics of acute water diarrhoea, vomiting, muscle cramps and severe dehydration (Kaper, 1995). It is an ancient disease reported globally and associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. “This live threatening infection has an estimated annual burden of 204 million cases in endemic areas” (Ali, 2012:90). “The world has experienced seven major pandemics of this disease since the early 19th century” (Faruque, 1998:102). “The first six were caused by toxigenic strains of classical (CL) biotype, serogroup 01, which was reported to have originated from India, while the current 7th is caused by V. cholera 01 of the EI tor biotype” (Zhang, 2014:58).

According to World Health Organisation Report (2012:77), “In Africa, majority of cases between early 1990 and 2013 occurred in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania and South Africa. In Nigeria, the first recorded case of Cholera was in a village near Lagos, on 26th December 1970 with 22,931 cases and 2,945 deaths”.

The relevance of good health to man, has been emphasised by Anibueze (2008). According to him, “Look to your health, and if you have it, praise God, and value it next to good conscience, for health is the second blessing that we mortals are capable of; a blessing that money cannot buy”. It is the premium value placed on health as a precious gift that society cannot afford to neglect issues related to it. The situation explains why health is treated with utmost care by countries and government all over the world.

Biological and cultural factors are combined to drive the principles of achieving optimal health. In countries where Cholera is endemic, there are myths and divergent perceptions on the real cause(s) of the disease. Consequently, there are variations in approach towards the control and containment of the epidemic in Africa, while some people believe that cholera is as a result of “miasma” (bad air) as postulated in the 19th century, or “anger of the gods”, others are of the opinion that it is due to the presence of witchcraft and black magic. (Erinosho 2001). These wrong perceptions have their consequences on disease management. Like in other countries of the world, recurrent episodes of cholera in Nigeria in general and Ebonyi in particular could be stopped if the predisposing factors and aetiology are well understood. This has not been the case because at each outbreak, effort at ameliorating and controlling the epidemic are reactive, unfortunately evidence of sustainable practices is lacking.

The role of mass media in education, information and enlightenment of the people on health related issues like HIV/AIDS, Cancer, Hypertension, Cholera among others has been identified by communication scholars and health policy makers. One the means of doing this by the mass media, is through the dissemination of health programmes on radio. In Ebonyi State, there have been a lot of health programmes ongoing on radio stations (Ebonyi State Broadcasting Corporation, (EBBC) or Radio Nigeria Unity Fm, Abakaliki). Inspite of public enlightenment programmes, there are still much number of Cholera cases in the state. This frequent and regular cases of cholera outbreak in the state drew the attention of the researcher of this work to determine the role radio plays in curbing disease outbreak(s) and the role radio is expected to play in curbing cholera outbreaks among residents of Ebonyi State.

1.2 Statement of Problem
There is no do doubt that millions of people globally perish annually due to cholera outbreak. (WHO Report, 2010). Cholera has been identified as one of the greatest enemies of humanity across the world for its devastating effects, socially, economically and politically, ranging from economic hardship to lose of lives. In Ebonyi State, the situation is not different. Cholera has become a major health issue that kills people regularly in the State. Despite different palliative measures taken individually and collectively from both local, state and national levels, the disease still ravage our society unabated. Such palliative measures which were misdirected includes; the organisation of seminars, administration of drugs only to mention but few. The above measures failed due to the reach, irregular nature and corrupt tendencies of personnel used.

According to Nwokocha (1999), radio has grass root appeal. Its messages can be translated into local languages and dialects. More so, radio receivers are also relatively cheap and affordable even in rural areas. The portability of radio sets and the fact that they can be powered by ordinary batteries (apart from electricity) brings to the fore, radio’s added advantage over other mass media”.

Despite the above advantages of radio in mobilizing and enlightening the people on the dangers, preventive strategies and treatment of cholera, Cholera has continued to kill many people in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. This is not just unconnected to inadequate radio health programmes on cholera but also on the time schedule for such health programmes. More to that, language of such health programmes are in most times inappropriate for the category of audience such programmes intends to reach.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
On a general note, the research has the objective to examine effectiveness of radio in creating awareness on cholera outbreak in Ebonyi State. Be that as it may, the following are the specific objectives of this research study;

i. To find out whether radio station in Ebonyi state air programme on health issues on Cholera

ii. To ascertain whether the people in Ebonyi understand the content of health programmes of radio stations in Ebonyi State.

iii. To know whether the time schedule for health programmes especially on Cholera in Ebonyi State radio stations is appropriate for it.

iv. To determine the extent health programmes of radio stations in Ebonyi State influence people’s way of living, health wise.

v. To find out if there is a synergy between radio health programmers and health policy makers in curbing cholera in Ebonyi State?

1.4 Research Questions
To find out the role of health communication messages in curbing cholera outbreak in Ebonyi State, the researcher formulated the following research questions;

RQ1: Do radio stations in Ebony State air health programmes on issues of Cholera?

RQ2: Do people understand the content of the radio programmes?

RQ3: Is the time schedule for health programmes especially on Cholera by radio stations in Ebonyi State best appropriate for it?

RQ4: To what extent do health programmes on radio influence people’s way of living in Ebonyi?

RQ5: Is there a synergy in radio programme drafting and health policy makers in curbing cholera in Ebonyi State?

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This study attempts to assess the effects of motivation on employee performance using field data collected at Government House in Abuja. Correlation technique was employed to find out the relationship between two variables. Regression technique also was used to find out to which extent one variable affect the other using coefficient results. Correlation results for salary is 0.589, Transport benefits 0.421, medical benefits 0.395, extra duty allowance 0.421, carrier achievement 0.562, promotion benefits 0.672 and correlation for recognition is 0.407 which reveal existence of positive relationship between motivation and employees’ performance and therefore implying that the increase in motivation will lead to increase in employees’ performance. This situation insists on increasing attention to employee motivation practice in order to improve employee performance. The findings suggest enhancement of current motivation package by incorporating both intrinsic such as promotion, recognition, support for carrier achievement and extrinsic motivation factors such as salary, extra duty allowance, transport allowance, medical benefits will help optimum utilization of human resources as well as increasing employees’ performance. Furthermore there is pressing need to develop organisation motivation policy that will help the Government management properly handling motivation function.

1.1 Background to the Problem
Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting human behavior. Motivation not only affects other cognitive factor like perception and learning but also affects total performance of an individual in organization setting. This is the reason why managers should attach great importance to motivation in organization (Prasad, 2005).

Motivation seems to be one of the most important tools for retaining employees and increases productivity. Organizations design motivation systems to encourage employees to perform in the most effective way and attract potential candidates. One of many ways to motivate employees is to give rewards and incentives for good performance (Memmott and Growers, 2012).

Every human being has got a push behind him/her to do something, organization with wise management should conduct research on such human behaviors as well as effective and efficient way to achieve organization objective. In such situation motivation becomes important as it makes better utilization of resources and workers abilities and capabilities (Scott, 1987).

Motivation is among crucial factor towards increasing the performance so as to achieve organization goals. Low motivation or complete lack of motivation at any organization within Nigeria or across the world leads to high employees’ inefficiency, turnover, fraud, corruption, absenteeism, and indiscipline at work. Good Supervisors and Managers maintains positive attitude by valuing employees and treating them fairly through designing supportive environment which motivates employees. The key to create the efficient motivation system is by answering the question on what really motivate employees (Memmott and Growers, 2012).

The significance of employee motivation is influencing employees to behave in a certain ways, motivation can ultimately decide the success or failure of an organisation. If an organisation knows why its employees come to work on time, stay with the an organisation for their full working lives and are productive, then the organisation may be able to assure that all of their employees and such understanding is essential to improve productivity. This imply that organisation success depend heavily on motivation and managers must understand what motivate their employees to perform better (Matsei, 2008).

Motivation function is among major task that should be handled by every organisation with better performance dreams. Motivation is a major task for every manager in creating the will of work among subordinates. Workers in any organization need something to push and keep him/her working for an organisation therefore an employee should be motivated to work for an organisation, if no motivation given then the quality of work or all work in general will be distorted (Mbogo,2013).

Pay and incentive in public service aim to compensate for work done, motivate and retain employees to avoid the need for expensive recruitment and training for replacement. It is in this context that The Government of Nigeria continues with efforts to motivate its workforce (Nigeria Public Service Pay and incentive Policy, 2010).

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Employee’s and organisation performance mostly depends on employee motivation. Low motivation affects employees and organisation performance. Motivated employees’ are royal, committed, and productive and provide good services to the organisation. Employer should exercise employee motivation through the series of rewards for job well done and better organisational performance (Sevanson, 2011) Although the Government of Nigeria has made an effort in enhancing compensation in the Public services but the increase did not result in convergence between public service pay level and those of the labour market comparators. A sizable gap still remains.

However the study on staffing problem in Nigeria conducted in 2008 on staff motivation, attraction and retention revealed that there some motivational problem existing in public services including lack of special incentives, lack of supplementary income opportunities, lack of quality housing, inaccessibility to social services such as education, health, water and electricity in working environment (Nigeria Public Service pay and incentive policy, 2010).

Some of researchers have just expressed problem of motivation in public sector in their studies, for example Gisela, (2014) conducted a study on “effects of motivation factors on employees’ job performance” and found existence of mismatch of employer rewards and employee’s need that affects employees peformance.

Despite the fact that Medium Term Pay Policy and Medium Term Pay Reform Strategy recognized the importance of non-pay factors in improved work performance due to motivation derived no system approach have been developed till now to incorporate them into the public service Also, pay and incentive levels in the public service especially for technical, professional and lower group cadre are still low leading to poor performance and low job satisfaction. For employees to carry out their duties effectively they have to be well motivated both intrinsically and extrinsically. A well-motivated employee seems to undertake tasks for his/her own sake (Nigeria Public Service pay and incentive policy, 2010).

Therefore completion of this study will improve motivation practice in public sector so as to improve employees and organisation performance.

1.3 Research Objective
This part constitute general objective and specific objectives.

1.3.1 General Objective
To assess the effects of motivation on employees’ performance at Government House.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives
i) To identify different type’s motivation offered at Government House.

ii) To examine the relationship between motivation and employee performance.

iii) To determine challenges towards effective motivation practice at Government House.

1.4 Research Questions
i) What kind of motivation tools offered at Government House?

ii) What is the relationship between of motivation and employee’s performance?

iii) What are challenges toward effective motivation at Government House?

1.6 Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no positive relationship between salary and employees’ performance

H0: There is no positive relationship between support in carrier achievement and employees’ performance

H0: There is no positive relationship between employees’ recognition and performance.

H0: there is no significance difference between motivation among ages of respondents

1.7 Significance of the Study
Completion of this study intended to help employer to develop new regards towards motivation function in public sectors through development better motivation program that will help to improve employee performance and organizations performance.

Also the study was to contribute in knowledge acquisition for academicians when undertaking further studies in the relevant field with readily evidenced academic materials.

Furthermore the study intended to help Government policy maker to develop efficient Public Service pay and incentive policy so that it brings greater positive effect on employee performance.

1.8 Scope of the Study
The study covered Government House located in Abuja as a public sector where selection of the particular institution was based on accessibility to researcher for data collection and limited time and financial resources.

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