CHEMICAL/MINERAL COMPOSITIONS OF WATER EXTRACTS OF Hibiscus sabdariffa

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Approval page
Dedication page
Acknowledgement
List of tables
Table of contents
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE:    Introduction
1.1       Suggestions for further research
1.2       Objective of study
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.0       Scientific  Classification of roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa)
2.1       Effect on smooth muscle
2.2       Effect on blood pressure
2.3       Anticancer and antioxidant activity
2.4       Anticholesterol effects
2.5       Hibiscus sabdariffa plant profile
2.5.1   Constituents of hibiscus sabdariffa
2.5.2   Herbal medicine and plants           
2.5.3   Medicinal benefits of hibiscus sabdariffa          
2.6       Flavonoid contents of fruits and vegetables fruits
2.7       Preparation of ‘zobo’ made from Hibiscus sabdariffa
 2.8      Characteristics of roselle.
2.9       Uses of roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa)
CHAPTER THREEMaterials and Methods
3.0       Materials
3.1       Extraction procedure/plant materials
3.1.1   Plant materials
3.1.2   Extract preparation
3.2       Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination
3.3       Phytochemical Analysis
3.3.1   Preparation of reagents for phytochemical analysis
3.4       Acute toxicity study
Chapter Four: Results
4.0       Phytochemical analysis
4.1       Calcium
4.2       Magnesium
4.3       Sodium
4.4       Potassium
4.5       Manganese
4.6       Iron
4.7       Copper
4.8       Zinc

CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion and Conclusion
5.1       Discussion
5.2       Conclusion
References
Appendix 1:  Gallery of Hibiscus sabdariffa

ABSTRACT
This work was carried out to investigate the chemical properties of the water extract of zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa) drink using the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Zobo drink is a popular drink in the Nigeria, especially in the northern part of Nigeria. The result of the analysis indicated that the drink is high in vital mineral nutrients required for the healthy growth by humans and for the proper metabolic processes to be adequately maintained. Zobo drink is high, as indicated in the result, in iron – a major component of the human haemoglobin, when compared with other leaf like the popular vegetable leaf known as awa (Piper methysticum).


CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                                             INTRODUCTION
            Toward the end of the 20th century, epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses suggested strongly that long-term consumption of diets rich in plant foods offered some protection against chronic diseases, especially cancer (Wallstromet al., 2000).Because uncontrolled production of free radicals was thought to be significantly implicated in the etiology of cancer (Guyton and Kensler 1993),these observations focused attention on the possible role of radical scavenging and radical suppressing nutrients and non-nutrients in explaining the apparent benefit of such diets (Weisburger, 1991).
The realization that free radicals were similarly implicated in the etiology of many other chronic diseases (Kehrer, 1993 and Stohs, 1995), immediately focused attention on flavonoids and the foods and beverages rich therein. An unfortunate, but unintended side effect of some research works and papers was the misleading tendency of many investigators....

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EFFECTIVE USE OF A TROPICAL HOP NAMED BITTER LEAF [VERNONIA AMYGDALINA] EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF – LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED MILLET BEER

ABSTRACT
This  local  beer is  brewed  from  a   cereal  grain  called  millet,and  it  is  brewed  with  bitter  leave  extract  acting  as  hop  substitute  to  see  if  it  can  increase  the  shelf – life  of this  beer.The  production  process  include  malting, mashing, fermentation, and  maturation.The microorganisms  associated  with  fermentation  include  Saccharomyces  Cerevisiae and  Saccharomyces  Charelienia.These  yeast  hasten  fermentation  by  converting  the  sugar  in  the  beer  to  alcohol. Kunu  is  an  indigenous  alcoholic  beverages  that  is  traditionally  brewed  with out hops,and  because  of  this  it  has  a  shot shelf  life  as  compared  with  that brewed  with  the  tropical  hops.There   is  a  significant [P≥ 0.05] difference  in  chemical  properties of millet  with  hops  and  without  hops.Millet  with  hops  is  the  best  with  alcoholic  content  of  0.325 ± 0.004, total  acidity  of 0.645 ± 0.011(% lactic  acid),fixed  acidity  of  0.041± 0.002, specific gravity of 1.199±0.015 and  pH  of  4.03± 0.02.But  without  hops  we  have  an  alcoholic  content  of  0.316± 0.005, total  acidity(lactic  acid) of  0.427± 0.002, fixed  acidity  of  0.034± 0.005,specific  gravity  of  1.049± 0.007, and  pH  of  3.32±0.02.From  the  result  the beer without  hops  is  the  lowest  in  acceptance  of  chemical  properties  so  it  is  advisable  that  the local millet  beer  be  brewed  with  the tropical  hops (Vernonia Amygdalina).                                                                                                                           

TABLE   OF  CONTENT                          

Title page
Certification  page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table  of  content
List  of  tables
List  of   figure

CHAPTER  ONE                                                                                                                                                                           
1.0   Introduction
1.1  Aim  of  study / project


CHAPTER   TWO                                                                                                                                                                                    
2.0   Literature  Review
2.1  General  Description of  Cereal Crops
2.2   Origin  of  Millet  and  its  distribution
2.2.1   Botanical [Scientific  classification]
2.2.2    Diseases  and  Pest  of   Pearl  Millets
2.2.3    Grain  Composition  and  Nutritive  value
2.2.4   Other  Uses  of   Pearl   Millet
2.3  Origin  and  Distribution   of  Sorghum
2.3.1   Botanical[Scientific Classification]
2.3.2   Grain  Composition  of   Sorghum
2.3.3   Other  Uses  of   Sorghum
2.4      Hops
2.4.1   Other   Uses   of   Hops
2.5     Bitter leaves  Juice  and  its  role
2.5.1  Botanic  Classification  of   Bitter leaves
2.5.2  Composition  of   Bitter leaves
2.6     Yeast
2.6.1  Origin  and  Distribution  of  Yeast
2.6.2   Composition   of   Yeast
2.6.3   How  Yeast  is  Prepared
2.7     Water
2.8      Clarifying   agent
2.9      Adjuncts
2.10    Biochemistry  of   brewing   Process
2.10.1  Biochemistry  of  Malting
2.10.2  Biochemistry  of  Boiling
2.10.3  Biochemistry  of  Mashing
2.10.4  Biochemistry  of  Souring
2.10.5  Biochemistry  of  Fermentation
2.11     Straining
2.12    Properties   of   Beer
2.12.1  Processes  Involved  in  Beer  Production
2.12.2  Lagering
2.12.3  Types  of   Beer
2.13 Preparation  of   Local  Beer
2.13.1   Factors Affecting  both  Local  and Modern Beer
2.13.2   Alcoholic  Content  of   Beer
2.13.3   Differences  Between  Local  and Modern Beer
2.14      Packaging  and  Distribution
2.14.1   Spoilage
2.15      Importance  of  fermented Alcoholic Beverages

CHAPTER   THREE                                                                                 
3.0  Materials  and  methods
3.0.1   Materials
3.0.1.1 Chemicals  and  Reagents
3.0.1.2 Glass  wares  and  equipments
3.1 Preparation  of  samples
3.1.1 Methods
3.1.1.1 Ingredients
3.1.2  Method used to prepared local millet beer
3.1.2.1  Method used to prepared aqueous extract of  bitter leaf
3.1.3  Method  of  chemical  analysis
3.1.4  Total  acidity
3.1.5  Fixed  acidity
3.1.6 Volatile  acidity
3.2  pH   determination
3.3 Specific  gravity
3.4  Determination  of  Alcohol  content
3.5  Total  dissolved  solid (TDS)
3.6  Total  suspended  solid (TSS)
3.7   Microbial Count
3.7.1  Procedure  for  culturing in the  plate
3.7.2  Procedure for identification  of  the  organisms

CHAPTER    FOUR                                                                                                           
4.0  Results
4.1  Some  Chemical  Parameters
4.2  Total  Acidity for local Millet  Beer
4.3 Fixed  acidity for local Millet Beer
4.4  Volatile  Acidity
4.5  Specific Gravity  of  Millet  Beer
4.6  pH   value  for  local  millet  beer
4.7  Total  dissolved  solid
4.8 Total  suspended  solid
4.9  Ethanol  Content  for  Bench  Stored  Millet
4.10   Microbial  Count  for  Bench  Millet  Beer
4.10.1  Microbial  Count  for  Freezed  Millet Beer
4.11  General  Discussion  of  Results

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                                                        
5.0  Disadvantages  Associated  with Over Consumption of  Brewed Beer
5.0.1  Advantages associated  with consumption of  brewed beer
5.1   Conclusion
5.2  Recommendation
5.3  Limitations  of  Study
5.4  References
5.5  Appendix  A
5.6  Appendix   B
5.7 Appendix   C
5.8  Appendix   D
5.9 Appendix   E


CHAPTER  ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION
Beer, alcoholic brewery made from a Cerael grains known as barley and Millet.A process called Fermentation in which Microscopic fungi known as yeast is used to consume sugers in the grains to make Beers,converting them to alcohol and carbondioxide gas.This chemical process typically produce beers with an adequate level of alcohol content of about  2-6%.Over an aggregate of 70 types of  beer are available in the modern worlds todays.Each style of beer derives its unique characteristics  and differences in its brewing process.Four basic ingredients are used in brewing,which includes;grains, hops,[bitterleaves as a hop’s substitute]Yeast and water,Grains like Millet contain the natural sugers required for  fermentation.It also provides beer  with flavour,colour,body and  texture.Hops are small,green,cone-shaped flowers from the hop plant,a vine related to the nettle plant over  50 varieties of hops are grown throughout the  world, mostly in Europe,Australia and  North America.But the hops we want to used is bitterleave acting as hop’s substitute.It is mostly  grown here in Africa.Hops provides the Beer with spicy, bitter flavour  and contribute  natural  substances that prevent bacteria  from spoiling beer. Two species of  Yeast ;Saccharomyces  cerevisiae and  Saccharomyces  uvarum  and baker’s yeast.Each yeast species is used in a slightly different method of fermentation and produces a distinct  type of  beer. Throughout history, where ever Cereal grains were grown, Humans made beer with beverage for them. They used Barley in Egypt, Millet and Sorghum in other parts of  Africa, beer brewing is a major industrial revolution world wide. In 2002,In the United States,1800brewers,produced almost 175 millions barrels of  beer.Beer is deeply interlined in the fabric of Society, from the Economic to the intangible locally...

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 91 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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