THE EFFECT OF BULLYING ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT
The project consist of five (5) chapters among the important content of chapter one include the introduction, background to the study, statement of problems, limitation of t he study, definition of terms and purposes of study. All these are some of the important issues discussed in the chapter. Chapter two was devoted to literature review, where different theories were put to proper explanation. Such theories as developmental theory and other theories. Facts and figures of bullying, Bullying were also included in this chapter. Chapter three focuses on methodology of data gathered. Chapter four dealt on the analysis of data and interpretation of results, while chapter five dealt with the conclusion, summary, and recommendations.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1             BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In schools, Bullying occurs in all areas. It can occur in nearly any part in or around the school building, thought it more often occurs in recess, hallways, bathrooms, on school buses and waiting for buses, classes that require group work or after school activities. Bullying or Bullying in school sometimes consist of a group of students taking advantage of or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders, who, in some cases want to avoid becoming the next victim. School Bullying is a widespread issue that affects secondary school students in three essential parts of their lives; psychologically, educationally and professionally. Bullying is a sort of aggressive behaviour against others such as, verbal by calling nasty names, physical by kicking, pushing or tripping up and social by everyone stopped talking to you.
Academic achievement is the first aspect which influences bullying at school. therefore, bullied children live within fear, self-blame,  feel weak and it affects their personality traits and self-confidence, so this situation makes them unable to study well and they might hate going to school. Furthermore, they will lose their opportunities to participate with others or enjoy school activities. Hence, they will gain less academic performance and low educational attainment. There is a strong relationship between Bullying and school quality such as class size, lack of library, sports facilities. Both bullies and victims feel more negative about school, and persistent bullying may lead to stress and depression. Bullying can lead to anxiety, low self-esteem, hopelessness and isolation. Children miss lessons or are scared to attend school. They lose concentration when they do attend. Some of the effects last long after the bullying, until they are adults.      
One adverse effect of Bullying is that it also leads to suicide. While suicide is rare in bullied children, the other effects of bullying are also devastating and last well beyond the time when the child is actually bullied. Many schools have a zero tolerance policy towards bullying, but sometimes have difficulty identifying the victims and the abusers because children are afraid to come forward. Bullying causes long-term problems such as depression and anxiety. In his essay “The long term effects of Bullying”, psychologist Mark Dombeck relays his own bullying experiences as a child, as well as the experience of his patients and then, asserts that the anger, anxiety, and depression of that moment often lingers into adulthood, causing problems with keeping a job, forming relationship and even continued victimization in abusive relationship or work environment.
Students who are bullied cannot concentrate in schools, so their grades may be a warning sign that a student is being bullied. A child’s grade may also suffer if he or she misses a lot of school due to bullying. Children who are bullied will complain of headaches, stomachaches, and overall fatigue. This issues are usually caused by mental anguish that manifest in physical ailments. Students who are bullied often use physical complaints to get out of school. additionally, they may avoid infectious from holding crime during the day. A particularly unfortunate effect of bullying is that some children who are bullied go on to victimize and harass other children. In the same way that some student begin to bully at school because they are bullied at home, children who are bullied at school will begin to look for children more vulnerable than they are to bully. It is an effort to exert any power they may have over someone more vulnerable. A bullied children, may, at the demand of his own bully become a bully to another child. 
In the light of this problem, the study is designed to assist students, teachers, parents, and concerned bodies on how to avoid Bullying in some selected secondary school in Ogbe Sec Sch, Effurun, Warri, Delta State.
           
           1.2             STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
This research is aimed at finding the causes and proposing solutions to Bullying in the school environment. The problem will investigate into Bullying by some set of students and the victims. Whether there are better supervisions during recess, launch time, and break time, whether there are class rules against bullying and class meetings. Whether there are creative solutions to helps students by classroom teachers, whether there are talks with targets, bullies and their parents.  

           1.3             PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Having examined the problem to be investigated in the study, it is imperative to state the purpose of this study, hence these include;
i.                    To find out the negative impact of Bullying on students in Ogbe Sec Sch, Effurun, Warri Delta state.
ii.                 To find out whether students in Ogbe Sec Sch, Effurun, Warri, Delta State are really bullied in schools.
iii.               To find out why the students are bullied.
iv.               To make recommendations on the ways to stop Bullying.
v.                  To find out the extent to which it has affected the academic performance in Delta State.  
          
           1.4             SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research will enable those concerned know how to deal with the problem of Bullying and its obvious consequences on school children. These include;
i.                    It will enable the victims know why they are bullied and how to avoid being bullied.
ii.                 Schools in Delta State will now adopt measures stated to avoid bulling in their schools.
iii.               The effects of Bullying on students in Delta State will be better solved in the overall academic performance enhanced.

           1.5             LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
This study is limited to some secondary schools in Ogbe Sec Sch, Effurun, Warri Delta state. Given that a sizeable number cannot be taken due to time, the study is limited only to ten secondary schools which will be randomly selected.

            1.6             RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research project hopes to provide answers to the following questions;
      1.      Is there any difference between violence and school bullying?
      2.      Can academic achievement take place without bullying?
      3.      Does bullying affect students performance in schools?
       4.      Does supervision reduce the effects of bullying?

           1.7             SCOPE OF STUDY
This study includes ten (10) students from ten (10) schools that are mixed secondary schools. The f acts obtained will enable the researcher to see if some students are more bullied than others and the effects on the students.
      1.      Osemwende Senior Secondary School.
      2.      Joseph High School
      3.      Mattphilo Secondary School
      4.      Christ Mission School
      5.      Rezheights high School 
      6.      Sound Mentality High School
      7.      Charity high School
      8.      Great Love High School
      9.      Gold high School
     10. Sunlight High School.

          1.8             DEFINITION OF TERMS
Bullying: Bullying is the process of using aggressive behaviour manifested by the use of force or coercion to affect others, particularly when the behaviour is habitual and involves an imbalance of power.
Academic Performance: is the outcome of education- the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educatgional goals.
Victim: Is the person who has been hurt.
Depression: This is a mental state in which you are sad and feel that you cannot enjoy anything because your situation is so difficult and unpleasant.,
Concentration: this involves giving all your attention to it.

Vulnerable: Someone who is vulnerable is weak and without protection with the result that they are easily hurt physically or emotionally. 

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QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI-BATERIAL SCREENING OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MITRACARPUS VILLOSUS

ABSTRACT

The leaf extracts of  Mitracarpus villosus were screened for their phytochemical properties and anti-bacterial effects. Aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane were used as solvents for extraction of the leaf sample. The leaf sample were also screened qualitatively and quantitatively for their bioactive constituents. The aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and n- hexane extracts of the leaf of  M. villosus were concentrated at 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml respectively. The antibacterial activities of the leaf sample were tested against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum auduounii and Aspergillus flavus. The MIC and MFC of the extracts was also determined for all the bacterial species.  The result revealed that there were no significant differences in bioactive constituents of both plants qualitatively and quantitatively. Ethyl acetate extract of  Mitracarpus villosus had highest zone of inhibition of 24.50±0.71mm and 26.00±0.00mm on Candida albicans, 24.00±0.00mm and 24.00±0.00mm on Trichophyton mentagrophytes while aqueous extract inhibition was 20.00±.00mm and 22.00±0.00mm on Candida albicans, 18.00±0.00mm and 18.00±0.00mm on Trichophyton mentagrophytes respectively. No zone of inhibition was produced in Microsporum auduouinii and A. flavus in all the solvent extracts used. The combined effects of  Mitracarpus villosus plant extracts using the same solvents (aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and n–hexane) showed significant differences in all the solvent extracts at 100mg/ml of aqueous (23.00±0.00mm and 20.00±0.00mm), methanol (19.00±0.00mm and 18.00±0.00mm), ethyl acetate (28.00±0.00mm and 26.00±0.00mm) and n-hexane (20.00±0.00mm and 17.00±0.00mm) on Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes respectively.  No zone of inhibition was shown in Aspergillus flavus and Microsporum auduouinii. The MIC and MFC ranged from 50 – 6.25mg (MIC) and 100 – 6.25mg (MFC). Thus the traditional claims of the uses of the plants as anti-bacterial agents were therefore justified. 

CHAPTER ONE

        1.0  INTRODUCTION

        1.1      Background of the Study

Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value (Nostro et al., 2000; Tanaka et al., 2002). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008, more than 80% of the World’s population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Traditional medicine is an important part of African cultures and local medicinal systems vary among cultural groups and regions (Makhubu, 2006). Herbs are now very popular in developing countries on account of improved knowledge about the safety, efficiency and quality assurance of ethno- medicine (Makhubu, 2006). In recent years, secondary plant metabolites (phytochemicals) have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phytochemicals with good anti-bacterial activity will be used for the treatment of bacterial infections. This is because according to Arora and Keur (1999), the success story of chemotherapy lies in the continuous search for new drugs to counter the challenges posed by resistant strains of micro-organisms. Studies indicate that in some plants, there are many substances such as peptides, tannins, alkaloids, essential oils, phenols and flavonoids among others which could serve as sources of antimicrobial production. These substances or compounds have potentially significant therapeutic applications against human pathogens including bacteria, bacterial and viruses (Arora and Keur, 1999, Okigbo and Omodamiro, 2006). The development of microbial resistance to the available antibiotics has led researchers to investigate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants (Bisignano et al., 1996, Hammer et al.,1999). Antibiotic resistance has become a global concern (Westh et al., 2004) as the clinical efficacy of many existing antibiotics is being threatened by the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens (Bandow et al., 2003). Natural products either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts provide unlimited opportunities for the development of novel drugs because of the great diversity in their chemical structure. There is a continuous and urgent need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structure and novel mechanisms of action for new and re-emerging infectious diseases (Rogas et al., 2004).

The research into biologically active compounds from natural sources has always been of great interest for scientists looking for new sources of useful drugs against infectious diseases. Mitracarpus villosus is widely employed in traditional medicine in West Africa for headaches, toothache, amenorrhoea, dyspepsia, hepatic diseases, venereal diseases and leprosy (Bisignano et al., 2000). Among the folkloric uses, the juice of the plants is applied topically for the treatment of skin diseases (infectious dermatitis, eczema and scabies). Daiziel, (1937); Kerharo and Adam, (1974) observed that a lotion and a skin ointment made with the aerial part of M. villosus are used for skin infections or skin diseases and other infectious.

Previous studies by Moulis et al. (1992) reported the isolation of pentalogin from fresh, aerial parts of Mitracapus villosus which demonstrates a potent anti-bacterial activity against Candiba albicans and Trichophyton soudanense.  Other investigations (Sanogo et al., 1996) showed that different extracts of M. villosus exhibited broad antibacterial and anti-bacterial activity against standard strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans responsible for common skin infections. More recently, Germano et al. (1999) reported the hepato protective effects of Mitracarpus villosus decoction on tetrachloromethane (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in vivo as well as in vitro using isolated hepatocytes. 

       

1.2     Statement of Research Problem

The use of Mitracarpus villosus have been on the basis of trial and error in different communities in Africa without any scientific basis. Plant parts have been used in different locations for the treatment of different ailments which sometimes bring about conflicting results. Often traditional healers use plants according to their analogy and morphological similarities to the ailment being treated. For example, plants containing red juice are used to treat ailments connected to menstruation problems and bleedings (Neuwinger, 2000). There is therefore the need to ascertain the basis for the claims of the efficacy of the plants used locally in ethnomedicine.

        1.3 significance of the study

The increasing resistance to antibiotics has resulted in the research to form new organic molecules from plants with antimicrobial properties for treating diseases since some microorganisms have developed resistance to many orthodox drugs (Sofowora, 2006). There is the need to find an alternative approach in the treatment of infectious diseases. Using local plants will be a welcome development as the cost will be minimal.
The leaves extracts of Mitracarpus villosus have been reported in the treatment of various ailments such as ulcer, cancer, skin diseases e.t.c. It is therefore important to scientifically investigate these plant parts to ascertain their therapeutic potentials.
Determination of their chemical composition as well as antimicrobial efficacy against specific pathogens is important in the recognition of this plant as a potent commercial medicinal plant. Tests can determine its efficacy against a pathogen and thus, establish the minimal dosage required for the treatment of ailments.

        1.4      Aim of Study

To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and anti-bacterial of leave extracts of Mitracarpus villosus.

        1.5      Objectives

1.      To obtain the methanol, ethyl acetate, n- hexane and aqueous extracts of leaf of  Mitracarpus villosus.
2.      To determine qualitatively and quantitatively secondary metabolites present in the methanol, ethyl acetate, n- hexane and aqueous extracts of leaf of  Mitracarpus villosuss.
3.      To assess the anti-bacterial activities of the aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and nhexane extracts of single and combined leaf of E. heterophylla and M. villosus on some selected microorganisms.
4.      To determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Antibacterial Concentration (MFC) of aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts of single and combined plants of E. heterophylla and M. villosus against different species of isolated bacterial.

1.6 Hypotheses

i.                 There are no significant differences qualitatively and quantitatively between secondary metabolites present in the aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts plant of E .heterophylla and M. villosus.
ii.               There are no significant differences in the anti-bacterial activities of the aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and n- hexane extracts of single and combined leaf E. heterophylla and M. villosus on some selected microorganisms.

iii.             There are no significant differences in the MIC and MFC of aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts of single and combined leaf E .heterophylla and M. villosus against different species of isolated bacterial microorganisms

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NIGERIA ECONOMIC POLICY UNDER THE MILITARY 1983-1993

ABSTRACT
            Nigeria’s economic policy under General Ibrahim Babangida was one in which Nigeria played active role in the crises in West African sub-region especially Liberia and Sierra-Leone.  Nigeria’s involvement in the internal affairs of other countries got rekindled in 1988.  First was to settle the border conflict between Burkina Faso and Mali.  In this instance, Nigeria brokered a peace agreement acceptable to both sides but which was frustrated by France using Code d’ivore.
            Nigeria renewed interest in global and African affairs throughout the period of General Babangida.  Nigeria’s economic minister shuttled between Tripoli and Abidjan each time there crises in Africa who are French speaking people.  Nigeria negotiated more with former colonial powers than the country that crisis is emanating from.  Our former colonial masters still exercise much influence than the other African countries.
            Today, Nigeria has responded to virtually all the calls by the United Nations, African Union, ECOWAS and other bodies for peace and conflict resolution.
            Also, Nigeria has as well responded to the calls of distress by countries that are undergoing one natural disaster or the other. nigeria recently demonstrated such swift response by providing aids to earthquake ridden Chile and Haiti.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY’
Africa as noted by Chaplan (1966:376), “is an important strategic arena in contemporary world politics”.  Osuntokun (1999:19) argues further “being the most populous black country in the world, Nigeria is being compelled to shoulder willingly and unwillingly the leadership of the black world.  This led to Nigeria’s feeling that she had a responsibility far beyond her borders as noted by Joe Nanven Garba…”  In all our dealings with international organisations we are guided not by selfish national interests, but a high sense of responsibility and concern for countries (particularly in Africa) whose needs in some respect are greater than ours”.
Ambassador Jolaoso stated further that Africa has always been the centre-piece of Nigeria’s economic policy, with West Africa being the most crucial sector of this piece.  He further stated that since economic policy, represents the initiatives or responses by a country to issues which directly affect the interest of the country to that extent, it is related to the domestic as well as the international system.
Aghahowa (2007:59) posits that “the nature of man compels interaction and mutual dependence.  According to him, man cannot survive in isolation, therefore, the associational tendencies of man manifest locally, nationally and globally.
Nigeria’s understanding of her leadership position in Africa compelled Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa to declare while answering questions on Africa’s involvement in the cold war:
“We shall make every effort to bring them together so that having been made aware of the danger we may find a way to unite our efforts and prevent Africa from becoming an area of crises and world tension”.
Nigeria in the African continent belongs to the global world of interdependence.  Its relations externally can best be illustrated thus:
“If you drive a ford Escort, chances are that your transmission was made in Japan, your wiring in Taiwan, your door lift assembly in Brazil, your steering gears in Britain, and assorted other parts elsewhere?.
A states economic policy is not operated in a vacuum.
            How far has Nigeria been able to carry out this rather uneasy responsibility and what have been the obstacles to Nigeria’s proclaimed position as “the giant of Africa?”
            It is the position of this research paper, therefore, to examine Nigeria’s economic policy over the years and General Ibrahim Babangida’s era vis-à-vis development in the International system.
            According to Mr. Kunle Adeyemi of the Ministry of External Affairs, Nigeria as a result of her size, status and economic potential has a number of corresponding responsibilities she cannot shy away from.  This responsibility is more significant considering that one of every five African is a Nigerian while one of every six black persons is a Nigerian.  This in fact is the basis of Nigeria’s historical responsibility to Africa and the black diaspora.
            The economic policy of Nigeria as a merchant state was to consolidate traditional external market for Nigeria’s cash crops, establishing favourable conditions for attracting economic participation in the economy and then of course, adopting an international image required to attract and sustain the good will of economic friends and donors.
            According to Vital (1968:100) “while economic policy traditionally speak of a well planned action as that most economic policy behaviour of states shift from the general to certain specifics, because of the exigencies of time”.  He further stated that, the realities of states behaviour decisions and policies being formulated in a disjointed fashion, largely in response to immediate pressures and event in a number of separate structures and issue areas.  The resume here is that, while long term planning characterizes economic policy of developed nations, majority of the developing countries like Nigeria deal with issues as they arise/approach.
            While presenting a paper on Nigeria’s economic policy at the National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NPSS) Kuru, Jos, Dr. A. Gana asserts that imperialism is the major obstacle to the realisation of Nigeria’s economic policy practice negates her economic policy principles because of her flirtation with imperialism and that, despite Nigeria’s non-aligned economic policy posture, she is closely aligned to the West.
            The many facets of Nigeria’s economic policy to a given extent is influenced by the nature of its population.  In the old era, nation’s power was calculated by its population.  This was so because it determined the strength of nations particularly its influence on the number of mobilisable people for wars.  Nigeria’s large population of more than 140 million people is attractive to the economic merchant class.  A commitment to non-alignment inspite of a pronounced pro-western streak as well as strong Afro-centrism and was not merely on orientation, it was also seen especially from the 1970’s as a national call for leadership of the Africa continent.
            To some extent, this was backed up by certain notable economic policy achievement in the areas of liberation of Africa from the shackles of colonialism, the anti apartheid struggle, the formation of the Organisation of African Unity, now African  Union and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and of course, Nigeria’s leadership role in various areas of international economic relations as they affect the African continent.  One significant area where Nigeria displayed decisive involvement in the fratricidal war in Liberia is the initiative of Babangida that informed the ECOMOG operation in Liberia.  This was of course a reflection of many interests and values.  Again, General Babangida came up with Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986

1.2             STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is evident that there is a general dissatisfaction with the conduct of Nigeria’s economic policy.  However, in the conduct of Nigeria’s economic policy, there is an over emphasis on subjective factors.  In this light, Nigeria’s economic policy under General Babangida became problematic because of the level of Nigeria involvement in Regional issues.  Many people viewed the ECOMOG operation as an undue disobedience of the international law of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries by the mediation committee members of ECOWAS and Nigeria in particular.  This Babangida initiative has been criticised by many Nigerians because of the scale of involvement, particularly in a period of economic crisis, and more so when “Economic Diplomacy” became the major stand of economic policy.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
            This research work is mainly seeking to do the following:
1.                  Examine the background of Nigeria economic policy of the post independence era.
2.                  Analysing the economic policy of Babangida’s regime and the factors responsible for its style and orientation.
3.                  Identify the political and economic implications of Babangida’s economic policy for the country.
4.                  Examine the relationship between dictatorship and economic policy orientation.
5.                  Suggest lasting solutions for purposeful and result oriented economic policy formulation and implementation.

1.4       RESEARCH PROPOSITIONS/HYPOTHESIS
            for the purpose of this study, the following propositions are generated:
1.                  That the nation’s external image was an attempt at asserting Nigeria’s presence and importance in the sub-region.
2.                  That 5 members ECOWAS standing mediation committees was sponsored by General Babangida through the Banjul Summit to deal with the Liberian crisis.
3.                  That Nigeria’s extra-continental interference and interventions became an urgent necessity, and indeed a responsibility.

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
            The major significance of this study is that it will examine and highlight the reasons behind the economic policy of General Babangida.  It will also suggest some ideas on how political leaders can manage crisis to avoid repeating mistakes of the past.  The research also hopes to contribute to the academic literature on Nigeria’s economic policy through a coverage of a turbulent period in Nigeria recent history.

1.6       SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF STUDY
            While acknowledging the myriad of problems posed by the spectacle of the economic policy of Nigeria towards other countries, this research limits itself to the issue of the Nigeria’s economic policy.
            Thus, for a time frame, we locate our research from 1983 to 1993 in order to achieve an objective, unbiased and elaborate analysis of Nigeria'’ economic policy under General Babangida.

1.7       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
            The analysis of this study will be based on historical analysis, using secondary data.
            Historical analysis is necessarily employed because we must look at the past in order to best appreciate and analyze the present and where, if necessary, predict the future analysis of secondary data will be useful in this regard.



REFERENCES
Adeyemi, K. (1984). “Keynote Address on Nigeria’s economic policy”.  Summaries of Proceedings of a Seminar on Nigeria’s economic policy, National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies, Kuru, Jos, Idakula Press.

Aghahowa, J.O. (2007).  “International Relations and economic policy”.  Lagos:  Chisanmo Publishing.

Aluko, O. (1981). “Essays in Nigerian Policy.  London: George Allen and Unwin Publishers.

Chaplan, C. (1996). “African and the International System.  The Politics of State Survival”.  Cambridge: University Press.

Gana, A. (1984).  “Economic Policy Objectives of Nigeria” in Tyoden S.G. (Ed).  Summaries of Proceedings of a Seminar on Nigeria’s economic policy, National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies, Kuru, Jos:  Idakula Press.

Idang, G.J. (1973). “Nigeria, International Politics and economic policy, 1960 – 1966”.  Ibadan: University Press.

Jolaoso, (1984). “Nigeria African economic policy” in Tyoden S.G. (Ed.) Summaries of proceedings of a seminar on Nigeria’s economic policy, National Institute for Policy and strategic Studies, Kuru, Jos.  Idakula Press.

Offor, U. (2005).  “Nigerian economic policy under General Ibrahim Babangida”.  Unpublished Bachelor’s Thesis, University of Benin, Benin City.

Osuntokun, O.I. (1998). “Nigerian Economic policy in Global Historical Perspective.  Lagos: Unilag Press.


Vital, D. (1968). The Making of British Policy.  London:  Macmillan Press.

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