AUDIENCE ASSESSMENT OF BLOGS AS INFORMATION SHARING PLATFORM IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION

ABSTRACT
The 21st Century has been tagged the digital information age. The emergence and growing interest in blogs and blogging has dramatically increased recently making information seekers to bypass the traditional media access to information. This project aimed at audience assessment of blog as information sharing platform in a globalized era, with reference to Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. A survey research design was adopted. 150 questionnaires were administered to the respondents using Accidental Sampling Techniques, Descriptive Statistic, Mean and Standard Deviation was used to analyze data. From the analysis of data collected, the findings revealed that investing in blogs as information platform will spur organization to greater accomplishment and that audience preference for blog information is on the increase. Individual and institutions should therefore align their information design system to meet up with blogging platforms. However, the results shows that blogs as information platform provides the individual or organization with good information needed for planning brand positioning advertising products as well as developing better customer relationship and social interaction. Based on the findings, recommendation were made such as effort should be gear towards installing blogs experts in the institutions with a view to guiding the staff and students on the effective use of the medium as information platform and also educate them in the aspect of information management, especially in the age of globalization, also, stakeholders at all levels should maintain some degree of patronage, encouragement and demonstrate the habit of using blogs. This practice will help to sustain professionalism in the information management. 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1            Background of the Study
The advent and consequent use of information channels for services and operations have had profound impact on the users. Advances in this field have further had huge impact in the number of ways platforms of information gathering, sharing and dissemination made possible to deliver information accurately and faster, cost effective, ease of use and Really Simple Syndication (RSS), create a new and powerful push-pull publishing concept. Consequently, blogs have become widely used platforms for information delivery. The 21st Century has seen the emergence and growing interest in blogs and blogging which has dramatically increased in recent years thereby making it possible for information seekers to bypass the traditional media access to information as asserted by Casey and Sawastinuk (2007), Thelwall and Goody (2007).
Weblogs or blogs can be described as a form of personal easy to manage website with content presented in a reverse, chorological order Schrano (2004) as well as discussion and informational site publish on the World Wide Web and consisting of discrete entities. The term “Weblog” was coined by John Berger on 17 of December, 1997. The short term blog was coined by Peter Merholz in May 1999 after its first appearance in the late 1990s. Blogging is a concept publishing text on the web is combined with its syndication. The central virtue of blogging is an online market place of idea. For the purpose of this study, a blog would be defined as a form of mediated expression as well as discussion, informational and unique platform to share thoughts, feelings, opinions or experience. In all human endevours communication is certainly the most important thing man needed mostly to send ideas, messages and information. 
Digital communication took many forms including Usenet commercial online services such as Genie Bix and the early CompuServe e-mail list and Bulletins Board System (BBS) before blogging become popular.
Ashbee (2003) and Sweetser (2007) revealed that bloggers are also frequently described as influential agenda setters in the coverage of politics. This follows from the observation that blog is a form of mediated human expression and blogging a human activity that is of interest to academic, from a variety of scientific discipline.
 Edelmam and Intellissek (2005), Robert J. Key 2005 argued that many weblogs began sporadically as variety publishing because any one with an opinion about anything could create, in a matter of minutes, his or her own web site for publishing news, opinion, commentary and links to other sites.
A look at the history of blogs reveals that they have been around since the late 1990s, depending upon the interest of the author (blogger) typically focus on a single area politics, technology, health etc. A number of bloggers have received substantial media attention after being fired for positing comments critical of their employers, revealing organizational secretes, discussing their world environments or for breaking stones about organizational events that they were party to as employees Edelmam and Nielson Buzzmetrics 2005, and Rainie 2006.
Many blogs have also received media attention for timely and biting coverage of social and political issues. It is important to note at this point that blogs are weeks ahead of the mainstream media when reporting stories in their own industry/profession, comp0uters, data storage, music, politics, telecommunication etc. There are currently over 60 million blogs existing and 75,000 new ones emerging on daily basis.

1.2            Statement of the Problem  
          Recently, blogs and blogging have dramatically increased as a niche community for personalized information sharing platforms. Blogs therefore supports traditional media outreach and is also an effective part of a larger outreach package, which also include press release, media interviews, social networking and public dialogue events.
          According to Fredman (2012) blogs arose in the first place because people like to express themselves. Before the internet people who wanted to express themselves needed to get published in the traditional mass media. The internet blog has changed this by bypassing the mass media gate keepers and giving everyone the opportunity to reach a large audience. Buttressing this fact, Duda and Garneth (2008) assert that blog are part of an online community of writers, creating a social environment for feedback, and allowing students and teachers to share ideas and feelings and encourage both peer and teacher reflective writing and reading, bouncing ideas and questions at one another.
          Previous research suggest the advert and importance of blogging (Lawry 2006, Hilary 2012, Sweetser 2007). Similarly, a renewed faith among bloger is the ability of blog displays to capture consumer’s attention and draw them into an information platform has guaranteed renewed interest in this communication tool in recent times (Zadah, 2012).
          An  extensive search of leading electronic journal database, including Google Scholar, EBSCO Host and Proquest, suggest that no academic research has examine audience assessment of blogs as information sharing platform in the age of globalization. Hence the need for an uncommon platform that could help fosters quick and accelerates sustainable human development.
          The core research questions that will guide this study therefore are:
·                    To what extent has blog as information sharing platform helped in the growth and development of individual organization?
·                    To what degree has blogs help in the growth and development of audience?
·                    To what degree does audience prefer blogs as information platform to others?

1.3            Objective of the Study
          The objectives of this research is to investigate audience assessment of blogs as information sharing platform in the age of globalization. The specific objectives include to:
1)                To determine the extent to which blogs as information sharing platform has helped in the growth and development of the individual.
2)                To ascertain the level of audience exposure, assessment and awareness towards the growing trend of blog and blogging.
3)                To ascertain if blogs are the most preferred information platform used by majority both in the public and private sector.

1.4            Research Questions
The following research questions were developed to guide the study.
i)                   To what extent has blogs as information sharing platform helped in the growth and development of individual organization?
ii)                To what degree has blogs help in the growth and development of audience?
iii)              To what degree does audience prefer blogs as information platform to others?

1.5            Scope of the Study
In terms of coverage, this study focuses on audience assessment of blogs as information sharing platform in the age of globalization. This means that issues relating to blogs as information platform will be explained. The target population of this study includes students, staff and various heads of information unit in Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.

1.6            Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense benefit to the organizations communities and societies to interact and connected. It will help them to know the relevance of using blogs. The research if conducted will expose the strength and weakness of audience analysis of blogs. 

1.7            Limitation of the Study
          The researcher encountered a number of problems in the course of carrying out this study. The time frame to carry out the study was rather too short; there was also financial constraint and access to relevant information sources were the major challenges encountered.

1.8            Operational Definitions of Terms
i)                   Blogs:  This is a truncation of the expression web log. A discussion or informational site publishes on the World Wide Web.
ii)                Multi-Author Blogs (AMBs): These refer to blogs developed by different member of authors and professionally edited.
iii)              Edublogs: This refers to blogs used for instructional sources or educational purposes.
iv)              Bloggers: This is related to a constant user or owner of a blog account.
v)                Threads: This refers to a topical connection between messages on a virtual.
vi)              Blogroll: A list on a website of other linked website that the website owner links are useful or interesting.
vii)           Globalization: The fact that different countries and economic system around the world are becoming connected and similar to each other because of improve communication.

viii)         Audience: The group of peoples who have gathered to watch or listen to something. 

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ATTITUDE OFF LIBRARIANS TOWARDS APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POLYTECHNICS LIBRARIES IN NORTHERN STATES OF NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this study was to identify the attitude of librarians in polytechnic libraries in Northern States of Nigeria towards information and communication technologies as well as factors that predicts such attitudes. Survey research method was used for the study. The questionnaire and observation were used in collecting data relevant to the study. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated for the study. Findings showed that:
A.                The librarians expressed positive attitude towards information technology.
B.                 Only one variable; academic qualification of polytechnic librarian, out of the three variables measured was discovered to be related to the attitude of the polytechnic librarians towards information communication technology.
C.                 It is however surprising to note that despite the strong positive attitude registered by the librarians, only limited information communication technology seemed to be available at the polytechnic libraries even as such used for library services.
D.                One out of the six polytechnic libraries used for the study gave the high positive interest of the librarians towards information communication technology, does not have a single computer technology as at March 2007.

Such a slow rate of acquisition and use of information communication technology in polytechnic libraries is not without problems. Some of the identified barriers include: financial impecuniosities, lack of adequate library legislation, un-proactive stance of polytechnic librarians, shortage of qualified librarians just to mention a few. Some recommendations were however preferred to aim at addressing the problems.



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Title Page
Certificate
Dedication
Acknowledgment
List of Content
Abstract
List of Tables

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Background and Description of the Study
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Hypothesis
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
References

CHAPTER TWO
Review of Related Literature
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Concept and Development of Information Communication Technologies in Libraries
2.2 The Types, Importance of Information Communication Technologies in Libraries
2.3 Application of Information Communication Technologies in Nigeria
2.4 Attitude of Librarians Toward Information Communication Technologies
2.5 Summary of Review
References

CHAPTER THREE
Methodology
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research Technique Employed
3.2 The Research Population
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrumentation
3.5 Administration of Research Instrument
3.6 Data Analysis Techniques
References

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Analysis and Interpretation of Findings
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Responses Rate
4.3 Descriptive Analysis of Data/Availability of Information Communication Technology and Degree of Exposure to Information Communication Technology
4.4 The Librarian’s Perception about Information Communication Technology
4.5 Analysis of Variables that can affect the Attitude of Librarians towards Information Communication Technology
4.6 Steps on Improving the Librarians Attitude Towards Information Communication Technology
4.7 Testing the Hypothesis Inferential Statistics
4.8 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Suggestion for Further Study
Appendix I
Appendix II
Bibliography
CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY
1.1       Introduction
            This thesis is on the attitude of librarians towards information  communication technology in polytechnic libraries. Polytechnic exist for the purpose of education, research and learning. Polytechnics are academic institutions established with the aim of providing theoretical and practical knowledge, which are invaluable for the training of personnel required for the technological development of the nation. Education in any academic institution cannot be optimally achieved without libraries a integral parts of the institutions. The tremendous growth of the human knowledge, matched with the corresponding increase in books, journals, reports, thesis, to mention a few, resulted in information explosion. This phenomenon has brought about the problem of how to select, organize and handle information sources in libraries vis-à-vis polytechnic libraries.
            Today, the wind of change is blowing to every direction, as we are witnessing information explosion, so also is technology changing to suit every situation. Daniel (2002) cited by Abubakar1 observed that “the siren of information communication technology is being heard loud and clear in every sphere of human endeavour”. The demands placed on polytechnic libraries by it patrons to provide adequate and current materials for teaching, research and learning calls for alternative approach to manual process of rendering services.
            Libraries attached to polytechnics fall into the category of those libraries refereed to as academic libraries. The importance of academic libraries to its parent institutions cannot be overemphasized. “They are heartbeat of any institution of higher learning” Daniel2. Academic libraries exist in higher institutions for providing educative, informative, recreational and research assistance to the tertiary institutions community. Ifidon and Nkoli3 stated that the functions of academic libraries include:
a.                   Provision of materials for undergraduate instruction, term papers and projects as well as for supplementary reading.
b.                  Provision of materials in support of faculty external and collaborating research.
c.                   Provision of materials in support of postgraduate research.
d.                  Provision of expensive standards works especially in the professional disciplines.
e.                   Provision of materials for self-development.
f.                   Provision of specialized information on the region within which the institution is situated.
g.                   Co-operation with other academic library with a view to developing a network of academic library resources that is at the disposal of all scholars.
         In other for the academic libraries to perform the above functions effectively, the use of information communication technology was clearly inevitable. Madu and Adeniran4 defined information communication technology as “the coming together of computing and telecommunication for the purpose of information handling”. The researcher observed in this study that information communication  technologies refer to equipment such as, compact disc read only memory (CD-ROM), international networks (internet), micro-computers and all its peripherals, like scanners, printers to mention few. Thus, information communication technolgies in libraries consist of all electronic infrastructure and facilities employed by libraries to improve and provide efficient services. Madu5 stated, “The first libraries that experimented the use of information communication technologies in Nigeria were the universities and research libraries. This he observed has virtually placed those libraries ahead of other libraries in the acquisition and use of information communication technologies”. The application and use of information communication technologies in information delivery in Nigeria polytechnic libraries is still at the elementary stage, when compared alongside other academic libraries such as university libraries.
            The usefulness of attitude research in the field of social psychology cannot be overemphasised. Such dominant status of attitude has made psychologist to equate it with social psychology. Accordingly, Kelman6 stated that “attitudes are a central concept and I regard the study of attitude as the legitimate pursuit in its own right and as a useful component of multi method research strategy”.
            It is pertinent for a study such as this on the attitudes of librarian towards information communication technology to be embarked on, as it will reveal the librarians’ attitude towards the use of information communication technology in polytechnic libraries in northern Nigeria. Many variables were found in literatures to correlate with attitudes. However, the ones examined in this study were age, gender, and academic qualifications of the librarians.
1.2       
            Statement of the Problem
            The demand placed on librarians to provide current information resources to users’ calls for an alternative approach to manual process of rendering library services in this information explosion age. The application of information communication technology to institutional library operations would go a long way in improving information delivery to patrons. This is imperative as the successive improvement on the manual process of information delivery have not yielded the desired result even with all the importance attached to polytechnic education in Nigeria vis-à-vis information communication technologies in libraries. The researcher observed that not much have been done to alleviate the information acquisition and dissemination problems of polytechnic libraries, as most polytechnic libraries still rely on the manual methods of information service delivery. This is so as very little application of information communication technologies have taken place. In line with the above statement, Nwosu7 stated that:
            The number of polytechnic libraries that have acquired any form of information communication technology for use could be counted on ones fingertip; as such, most polytechnic libraries are standing edifices with nothing to show for their being there in this era of information explosion.
            Essentially, the success or failure in the use of information communication technologies in any library often depends to some extent, upon the attitudes of the librarians in the library. Adomi8 observed,
            If a librarian has a negative attitude towards information technology in his library, he is unlikely to be friendly or disposed to the idea. The reverse is the case when the librarian has a positive attitude towards information communication technologies in his library.

             Negative attitudes of librarians towards the use of information communication technology in libraries could hinder their introduction in the libraries. There is need to understand the disposition of polytechnic librarians towards information communication technology. In line with the above, studies on attitudes of university librarians by Uwaifo9 revealed “that university librarians have positive attitude towards  ICTs”. This the researcher observed  may been the contributing factor to the acquisition and use of ICTs in university libraries.
1.3       
            Research Questions
            This study was embarked to answer these research questions:
1.                  What types of information communication technology are available in the polytechnic libraries
2.                  What are the attitudes of librarians in the polytechnic libraries toward information communication technologies?
3.                  what steps can be taken to improve on the attitude of polytechnic librarians in respect of information communication technologies?
            
             1.4         Hypotheses
                               Hypotheses were formulated for the study they are:
1.                  There is no significant relationship between the ages of polytechnic libraries and their attitude towards information communication technology.
2.                  there is no significant relationships between the gender of polytechnic librarians and their attitude towards information communication technology.
3.                  there is no significant relationship between the academic qualifications of polytechnic librarians and their attitude towards information communication technology.

 1.5             Objectives of the study
                  The objectives of the study are to:
1.                  identify the information communication technologies available in the polytechnic libraries
2.                  identify the attitude of librarians towards information communication technologies in the polytechnic libraries.
3.                  ascertain whether age, gender and academic qualifications have influence on polytechnic librarians attitude towards information communication technology

1.6              Significance of the Study
                  The research is aware of the importance of information communication technologies in modern library practice. This study would serve as a source of reference for studies in the area of information and communication technology, attitudinal studies and polytechnic education in Nigeria; for libraries of polytechnic libraries, students of library schools and researchers who have interest in this field of study. The research findings could also reveal the exact attitudes of polytechnic librarians towards information communication technology. The findings of this study would expose the variables that affect librarian’s attitudes towards information technology and show the necessary steps that could be taken to motivate librarians towards information and communication technologies in Nigerian libraries.
            It is hoped that the governments and management of polytechnic institutions vis-à-vis libraries will be well informed on the attributes and usefulness of information communication technologies to the entire academic environment when applied to library functions and services.
         
           1.7    Scope and Limitation
            The study was concerned with the attitudes of professional librarians in polytechnics towards information communication technologies; it was aimed at identifying the variables that determine such attitudes, hence the study covered only six polytechnic libraries in Northern States of Nigeria, after which generalization of findings was however made to include the entire Polytechnic libraries in Northern Nigeria. Interestingly, incessant strike action embarked upon by Nigeria polytechnics was inimical to the research process. In addition, inaccurate information on actual number of respondents (Professional Librarians) in some of the selected sampled population such as polytechnic libraries acted as hindrances to the study as this was against the number of expected respondents got before the commencement of the study. This is so as it was discovered in polytechnic libraries visited, there exist limited number of professional librarians. However, the research study was limited to professional librarians of polytechnic libraries in Northern states of Nigeria.
       
         1.8      Operational Definition of Basic Terms
            The following terms are defined as used in the study: -
            Attitude: - This refers to Librarians’ individual frame of minds affecting their thought or behaviour most times exhibited outwardly towards the ICT.
           Information communication technology: These refers to the combination of computing and telecommunication facilities used for the selection, acquisition, manipulation, storage and transfer of information such as computers, international network, micro opaque, slides, reprographic machines, transparencies, etc.
            Librarian: This refers to a person with HND, B.Sc and higher qualifications in library and information science, who works with information resources in the library.
           Polytechnic Library: This was used throughout the study to mean all libraries attached to the polytechnic as an institution.




REFERENCES
1.                  M.B. Abubakar, “Availability and age of information technology for education and training in Nigeria library school” An MLS Thesis, Bayero University, Kano. 2002.
2.                  O.J. Daniel, Virtual Library for Nigerian Librareis” Journal of Nigerian Library Association Vol. 36. No. 2, 2002, pp. 55.
3.                  S.E. Ifidon and G.N. Nkoli, 40 years of academic and research library services in Nigerian, Past, present and future. In Nigeria library association. 40th Annual national conference and AGM. A compendium of papers presented June 16th – 21st, 2002, Pp. 22.
4.                  E.C. Madu, and T.N. Adeniran, “Information Technology”. Uses and preservation of resources in Libraries and information centres, Oya: Odumatt Press 2000.
5.                  E.C. Madu, “Automation and Service Provision in Libraires and Information centres in developing countries”. Technology for information management and services: Modern Libraries and information centres: Madu, E.C. (ed) Ibadan, Evi-Coleiman Publications, 2004, Pp. 4.
6.                  H.C Kelman, “Attitudes are alive and well gainfully employed in sphere of action” American Psychologists (Vol. 29). 1974, P. 310.
7.                  Nwonsu Obiora, Application of Information and communication Technology in Polytechnic/ Monotechnic Libraries in 21st Centuries. A paper presented at the National Workshop by NBTE, Kaduna for polytechnic and monotechnic libraries in Nigeria 16th – 17th November, Kaduna 2000.
8.                  E. E. Adomi, “Attitude of Staff towards Library Exercise: Delta State University Library, Abraka” Nigerian Libraries: 2002, (36:2): 27

9.                  S.O. Uwaifo, Attitude of Nigeria University Librarians towards the application of information technology in university libraries. MLS Thesis, Bayero University, Kano 1992 pp 23. 

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ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF LIBRARY INFORMATION RESOURCES BY UNDERGRADUATE MEDICINE STUDENTS. A CASE STUDY OF IGBINEDION UNIVERSITY, OKADA

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the use of library resources in private university libraries. The study amongst others aimed at determining the availability of information resource in the private university libraries. A questionnaire was carefully designed in line with the objectives and research questions formulated. The sample comprised of 224 Medicine undergraduate students in Igbinedion University, Edo State. The data collected were analysed and using the frequency counts, tables and percentage statistics. The findings revealed the following: while information resources like text books (97.6%) and journals (89.6%) were actually available to Medicine students, crucial ones like electronic information resources and database (42.7%) were not available. Result also revealed the low degree of accessibility of library materials in private universities. This low level of accessibility is as a result of non availability of the resources. It was found that except for newspapers and periodicals, all other library information resources that were reported to have low degree of accessibility in the private university also have very low level of usability by the students. Meanwhile, majority of the students (93%) are not satisfied with information resources like periodicals and oral information (97.4), except for the use of thesis and projects. Lastly, result shows that library information resources in the private universities have positive impact on users. Based on the findings, it was recommended the need to regularly evaluate library resources and services they render so as to find out if the users’ needs are being met by the available materials.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
Libraries were storehouses and quarries of knowledge, held in books (Akande, 2009). Human endeavour of many kinds, including education, research, invention, business and leisure, has always depended to some extent on access to information, or on what other people have known or said, and for many centuries books have been the containers for holding and transmitting these information. Books were created to be communication devices for texts, and libraries existed to store, organise and make them accessible in large quantities (Hoare, 2006). Those who have founded and funded libraries, or donated collections to them, have done so in the knowledge that they have been augmenting reservoirs of knowledge for which there is no substitute. The value of libraries has often been measured in terms of the size of their stock; more books means a greater reservoir, more comprehensiveness of coverage. There have been other sources of information but when looking for authoritative, cumulative and trustworthy places to find it and look after it, civilization has turned to libraries.
According to Rathinasabapathy (2005) the library is an important intellectual resource of the academic community, and helps them to fulfil the curriculum requirements and to promote studies and research. The library, however, includes the totality of human and organized materials resources available in both book and non-book format for providing and obtaining needed information (Ahuauzu, 2002).
Jubb and Green (2007) observe that academic libraries have for centuries played critically important roles in supporting research in all subjects and disciplines within their host universities or colleges. Opara (2001) posits that the library stands in the same relationship to the society as the memory of an individual by making available and accessible to its users information required for teaching and independent study. The main purpose of an academic library as stated by Aina (2004) is to support the objectives of an academic environment in the areas of learning, teaching, research, and service.
Oyesiku and Oduwole (2004) assert that in academic communities, libraries are indispensable. Guskin (1996) notes that the use of university libraries promotes active learning, thus contributing to students’ ability to think critically and work well independently or in group. An academic environment without a library is tantamount to a person without a brain.
The university library is set up to serve its parent institution and  considered as an organ around which all academic activities revolve and therefore the library can aptly be described as the heart of the university. The role of a university library to the parent institutions could be seen as:
·         Acquisition of materials to support learning and teaching process in the University.
·          Provision of materials necessary for research and to meet the requirement of faculty.
·         Cooperation with other university libraries with a view of developing a network of academic library materials which will be at the disposal of all students and teachers.
·         Open the door to a wide range of materials that lie beyond the borders of one’s own field of specialization. 
·         To bring information resources to door step of student and scholars together under conditions which encourage reading for pleasure, self discovering, personal growth and sharpening of intellectual curiosity.
However for the schools educational objectives to be achieved through  the library, the library materials and services must be made available to the students and teachers users readily on request.
Proper dissemination of these materials is only possible if the documents are in good and usable condition since information bearing materials will not last forever in their usable state demand for their proper usage. The use of library materials in this study refers to the utilisation of the materials and services in the library for the purpose of research, learning amongst others. It would be pertinent to discover whether academic libraries are indeed living up to their objectives. The effectiveness and efficiency of services provided in academic libraries are mainly determined by library users. In the works of Behling and Cudd (2007) assert that the library user is regarded as the most logical source to determine whether the library is playing its role satisfactorily or not in terms of services rendered. Therefore, carrying out regular surveys on user needs at regular intervals on various aspects of library usage will be an invaluable guide in determining the future directions of library developments. Students, lecturers and researchers in academic institutions rely on libraries to provide the information they need in support of teaching, learning, research and knowledge  dissemination, which is a fundamental reason for the libraries’ existence. 
The effectiveness of library resources and services can be measured in various ways. Nwalo (1997) citing Ene (1997) states, "libraries are judged by set objectives. [And] application of set standards to measure the quality of operations." On the other hand, we can use both qualitative and quantitative techniques in determining the effectiveness of a library. Irrespective of whether the effectiveness is quantitative or qualitative, parameters are set to be judged by users, who are in the best position to evaluate the effectiveness of the library services and materials. Students, faculty members and researchers of academic institutions should have an interest in evaluating library materials since they are provided to satisfy their information needs.  The effectiveness of a library is also gauged or assessed by its resources – human and material and the services it offers through these resources. There is therefore the need to regularly evaluate library services to find out if patrons’ needs are being met by the available materials. For this reason most university libraries have collection development policies which they adhere to. This is because a system of information is relevant only if it affords access to the right kind of documents. Similarly, Nwalo (1997) asserts that the library’s services effectiveness is measured in terms of the satisfaction expressed by its users. Libraries are one of the most important steps in the research process and with the right resources and services; academic librarians can give scholars a great advantage in terms of authentic information.  Fabunmi (2004) described quality in library services as including information customized to meet individual needs. He further stated that qualitative library services are timely in delivery, meet their specific needs, are easy to understand/use, and are delivered by courteous and knowledgeable staff. 
However, Ogunsheye (2012) re-emphasized that neither a good book nor a good library can make the individual educated. It is the successful use of the books and libraries that makes the well informed, stable and well adjusted learned individual. It has been observed that in most schools where library exists, emphasis is on physical features, collection and budgets and not on the effective utilization of the library materials and services. In order to ascertain the extent to which academic library has helped in academic achievement, it is therefore, imperative to evaluate the use of library materials and services provided.

1.2       Statement of the Problem
The foremost objective of the university library is to bring information resources to the door step of students and scholars, to encourage reading for pleasure, self discovering, personal growth and sharpening of intellectual curiosity. However for the university educational objectives to be achieved through the library, the library resources and services must be made available to the students and teachers users readily on request. As a result of this, a university designs its program of study and provides the necessary infrastructure as to meet these goals. It is in light of this that facilities and services in the university becomes an integral part of the university system, the library is undoubtedly the most significant of them all.
It is pertinent to emphasized that neither a good book nor a good library can make the individual educated. It is the successful use of the books and libraries that makes the well informed, stable and well adjusted learned individual. It has been observed by the researcher that in most public institutions where library exists, emphasis is on physical features, collection and budgets and not on the effective utilization of the library materials and services. Little of such research has been carried out in private universities in Nigeria. In order to ascertain the extent to which academic library has helped in academic achievement, it is therefore, imperative to evaluate the use of library materials and services provided in Igbinedion University Library. This is a gap that this research intends to fill.

1.3       Objective of the Study  
The main objective of this study is to assess the use of library resources by undergraduate Medicine students in Igbinedion University, Okada. The specific objectives of this study are:
i.                    To determine the availability of information resource in the private university libraries
ii.                  To determine the extent  of accessibility to library resources in private universities in Edo State.
iii.                To explore extent of using the library information resources by undergraduate medicine students in university libraries under study.
iv.                To determine the extent of user satisfaction towards the use of library information resources.
v.                   To determine the impact of library resources in private universities have on the users.
1.4       Research Questions
In carrying out this study, the researcher intends to put forward the following questions, which will guide her in conducting the study. These include:
i.                    Are there adequate information resource available to undergraduate medicine students in the private university libraries?
ii.                  What is the degree of accessibility to the library resources in private universities in Edo State?
iii.                What is the extent of using library information resources provided by undergraduate medicine students by the university libraries under study?
iv.                What is the level of satisfaction derived by users from using library information resources?
v.                  What impact does library resources services in the private universities have on the users?

1.5  Scope Of The Study
This study covers only undergraduate medicine students in private universities in Edo State. The study will also cover areas of materials and services assessment with emphasis on print and non print materials in the libraries. The study will also look at the impact of the services rendered on the users who medicine students of Igbinedion university.

1.6 Significance of Study
This study, it is hoped will enhance performance in libraries by enlightening professional librarians and paraprofessional librarians on the importance of qualitative materials and effective service delivery. The study draws the attention of the librarians on what areas of collections needs urgent attention in respect to availability and usability. Also, it is hoped the findings, will help to reduce further redundancy in library services. The expected benefit of this study will lie mostly in the students whom often utilise library materials and services for learning and research. The study will help them get acquainted with the diverse services that could help them get the desired information needed.

1.7       Limitations of the Study
This study will be limited to undergraduates Medicine students of Igbinedion University, Okada. The study will not transcend the confines of assessment of library materials and services in the libraries of this institution.  Since the study is limited to only one private university in Edo State, it cannot cover all the private universities in Nigeria therefore, generalising it to the entire private universities in Nigeria might not bring out the real situation of library services in the universities. 
Finance is also a major limitation of this study. In other words, getting adequate materials for this research was an hectic task, thus, the researcher ensure that she does everything she could by modifying certain areas of the limited literature available regarding the subject under investigation. This was achieved by breaking the variables in the study and taking conscious effort at sourcing for related literatures linking to the study. 

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Library: A facility housing resource materials of all human endeavour of many kinds, including education, research, invention, business and leisure.
Service: the task or duties offered by librarian for the benefit of the organization (institution) and users.
Service delivery: the quality of the job rendered by the librarian.
Academic library: This is an institution that collects and manages all book and non-book materials or resources and performs specialized services within the university system.
Materials: refers to all information bearing resources ranging from text books, newspapers, journals, maps etc.  
User: as used in this study refer to those who utilize the library resources such as students, researchers, and public.
Private universities: are institutions of higher learning that are owned by individual(s) and fully funded by the individuals.
Archive: A non-circulating collection preserved for historical purposes.
Database - A collection of articles, or records, stored in electronic form.

Reserves - Books, articles, or other materials that an instructor has assigned for a class to read and therefore placed on reserve in the Library. 

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 53 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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