INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES AND LIBRARY 2.0 AS A GATEWAY TO INFORMATION ACCESS AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING

ABSTRACT
This study looks at the influence of social networking sites and library 2.0 as a gateway to information access and knowledge sharing in Prof. Festus Aghagbo Nwako Library, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka. The study sought to determine the various social networking sites available at PFAN library website, the extent of use of library 2.0 tools in PFAN to provide information access and knowledge sharing and the level of influence of social networking and library 2.0, in accessing library services in PFAN library. Five questions guided the study and descriptive survey were used as the research design. Also, all the 23 professional librarians in PFAN library were used as sample for the study. Data from each research question were collected and analyzed for easy interpretation. Statistically, simple mean method was used for data analysis. The study revealed that the available social networking sites in PFAN library website were Facebook, Instant Messaging, Twitter, Linkedin and blog. Also, the study showed that the extent of use of library 2.0 tools to provide information access in the library were very low. Findings from the study also revealed, that the level of influence of social networking sites and library 2.0 for accessing library services was very low and that the challenges to use of social networking sites and library 2.0 for information access and knowledge sharing were due to lack of ICT skills by librarians and cost of ICT equipment among others. Appropriate recommendations such as training of librarians in the use of ICT and social media and seeking of alternative means of funding by the libraries were made.

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AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES AND SERVICES IN THE SPECIAL EDUCATION CENTRE LIBRARIES

ABSTRACT
There are persons with physical challenges at all levels in every society. The physically challenged are those who are hindered or prevented from acting or living the way ordinary people do. Lawal-Solarin (2012), defines physical challenge as an inability to perform some or all the task of daily life, or a medically diagnosed condition that makes it difficult to engage in activities of daily life. In the view of Gobalakrishnan (2013) physically challenged could be described as those restricted, hindered or prevented to have equal opportunities with their contemporaries due to physical deformity, he said they include the visual, hearing, mobility, cognitive, language and speech impaired. Physically challenged persons can as well be described as those hindered either by physical or mental defect from receiving a normal education or even from pursuing normal vocation. The total number of people with disabilities in Nigeria according to the 2006 census were 3 253,169 and the percentage is approximately 2.32 percent of the total population of 140,431,790 in that year (Umeh&Adeola, 2013). The 2006 estimated figure notwithstanding, extent of disabilities in Nigeria has not been ascertained. Evidence of what is claimed to be the figure as given by World Report on Disability in 2011, said about 25 million Nigerians had at least one disability, while 3.6 million of them had very significant difficulties in functioning (http://www.cbm.org/Nigeria-266847.php). Physical challenge has a substantial long-term adverse effect on one’s ability to carry out usual day to day activities. Majority of the physically challenged lives below poverty line due to years of neglect by the society, especially their lack of access to paid employment. The physically challenged is often misconceived as unwell, unable to work, read and in need of help persons and people that deserve pity. Okoli (2010) lamented that disabled people are living in an environment that is hostile to their yearnings and aspirations. Indeed, concerns about the challenges encountered by physically challenged individuals have been expressed by various authors such as Ejedafiru (2011), Ilayaraja and Manoharan (2012), Momodu (2013) and many others. Of particular interest, is the fact that individuals with disabilities encounter discrimination, isolation and rejection, which can lead to frustration in some cases, and can adversely degenerate to a level that an individual may not be able to actualize his aspirations.

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ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN SELECTED LIBRARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT
The study title “Assessment of Undergraduate degree Programmes of Library and Information Science available in the library schools in Northern states of Nigeria” was embarked upon in order to investigate Undergraduate degree programme of library and information science in selected University-base library schools in Northern states of Nigeria. Six research questions were formulated and answered. A survey research methodology was adopted .and documentary sources and semi-structured questionnaire were the instruments used to collect data. The responses from the sampled of the four library schools and their lecturers under study numbering 70 were studied and analyzed, using frequency tables and percentages and suggestions are made. The study discovered the degree programmes of library and information science available are, Bachelor of Library and Information Science (B. LIS), B- Tech. Library and Information Science (LIS) and B-Tech. Library and Information Technology (LIT) The requirement for admission into Bachelor‟s Degree programme are through UTME/post-UME and Direct-entry (DE). The finding showed that qualified lecturers and fund to acquire necessary and adequate facilities, such as internet connectivity, laboratory equipment for students are inadequate. The study therefore concluded that, differences in the programmes have no significant impact on the competency of librarians produced. In view of this numbers of recommendations were made with a view to improving the quality of the Library and Information Science Programmes in the library schools.

CHAPTER ONE
Background to the Study
Library science education and training programme in Nigeria is linked to the general social and political history of the country. The mode of library education and training in Nigeria during the colonial period up to 1960 was conducted through short courses organized for the staff of local reading rooms and the Native Authority libraries. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century‟s Library Science Education in many of the former British Colonies derived its educational and professional structures from the United Kingdom (UK) standard. Carroll (2011) reported that, the British model for library science education included training in the workplace in an apprenticeship mode and eventually involved examinations in both general and specialist knowledge set by the local professional association or Library Association (LA) of U K. However, the only method of becoming a librarian in Nigeria was by taking the Associate ship of the British Library Association (ALA), either by attending British library schools or by correspondence courses offered by the British Association of Assistant Librarians or by part-time study. This was the practice after the collapse of the regional library training institute established at Achimota Ganah in 1944, to help prepare the first corps of librarians for Nigeria and other Anglophone countries of West Africa. (Ahmed 2012) The ALA training was mostly foreign-oriented and the services in the existing libraries where the products worked were not customized towards meeting the increasing local demands for library services. As more libraries were established in Nigeria to provide information support to the users, the need was expressed for trained librarians to run the services. According to Otike, (2012) initially, the early libraries were manned by expatriate librarians educated in the west; therefore something had to be done to train librarians locally. Situation was made worse with the departure of expatriate librarians immediately after independence. 1.1.2 Concept of Library and Information Science The concept of Library and Information Science (LIS) has been explained by various scholars. Singh (2008) defined LIS as a profession concerned with the knowledge and skill by which records of human communication are collected organized and utilized, the librarian is a mediator between man and the graphic records that his and previous generations have produced and the goal of librarian is to maximize the social utility of these records for the benefit of humanity. Similarly, Ozioko and Nwabueze (2010) further lamented that, LIS as a discipline concerned with the study of the principles and skills required for systematic collection, organization and use of society‟s information resources in libraries. Library science programmes focus intensively on the organizational structures that contain.

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AS A TOOL FOR ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH

ABSTRACT
The topic Impact on the information and communication Technology as a tool for Organization growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State. Before the advent of technology, the tasks in most organizations have been performed manually. And this involves the use of excessive human labour to perform them. The advents of the technologies are believed to give added impetus to organizational productivity. Specifically the study will identify the information and communication technology as a tool for Organizational Growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State. Three purpose of the study and three research questions were used for this research work related literature were reviewed and the simple percentage formula was used for data analysis. The population of the study consisted of 48 staff of First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State. A total number of 48 questionnaire was distributed to the respondents out of which were retrieved.. This research topic had been an interesting one various barriers were identified and possible remedies where suggested. Effective communication is very important and vital, It is seen from the research work that provision for adequate training also enhances effective communication. This study was carried out because of the belief that information and communication technology, which is a new business initiative and innovation, will help important marketing growth. Banks and other service organization should adopt resources/skill development policies with an emphasis of ICT training. Management should discourage any like hood that could bring about barrier to effective communication.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
  • Background of The Study
The world has become a global village and as such communication has become so fast efficient that one can communicate across the globe in a matter of seconds. This development in the communication industry, has made possible by the advent of computer, information and communication technology.
Technology in the 21st century is dominated. Today’s technological advances are faster and more fundamental, with their cost decreasing rapidly. It covers all forms of computer and communications equipment and software used to create, design, store, transmit, interpret and manipulate information in its various formats. Personal computers, laptops, television and network technologies are just some examples of the diverse array of ICT tools.
Information and communication technology is a general term that describes the process of creating, modifying, storage, transmission of information, between humans and machines alike globally, using several different electronic technologies to achieve an outcome. Organizations use information technology heavily to automate their work, making it easier and quicker to achieve their goals. Every business organization always wishes to attain a target profit a success. The attainment of the success depends largely on the adoption and management of information and communication technology in the marketing of goods and services. Modern day business literally abounds in several examples of organization and individual in different part of the world who made fortunes by seizing opportunities engendered by technological changes.
Less sighted organization operation on the same technological environment lost their fortune and in some a result of their inability to anticipate and adopt strategies that would match change brought about by technology. As a  result of opportunities created by technological changes, information and communication technology in particular, forward looking organization such as banking industry have adopted different marketing strategies aimed at achieving organization objectives.
Business operates in a world of technologies and gulping changes which create new problems, risks and opportunities which they mobilize resources to meet such changes and tap the opportunities presented for the overall success of the organization objectives, marketing strategy which will enable the business to continually adopt its operation to the realities of the market and consumers satisfaction in particulars, which is the corner stone of organizational growth.
  1. Inadequate information flow in organization also affects organizational growth.
  2. A change in technology in banking industry also affects organizational productivity because the employers and employee need special training on the job.
    • Statement of the Study
Before the advent of technology, the tasks in most organizations have been performed manually. This involves the use of excessive human labour to perform them. The problem here was not whether these organizations achieved their goals with a specific period. The essences of these organizations to make profit for the owners within a period of time the adverts of the technologies are believed to give added impetus to organizational productivity. The question is whether the introduction of ICT to most organization has added significantly to the overall growth of these organizations. Specifically the study will identify the introduction of Information and Communication Technology as a tool for Organizational Growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State.
  • Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to identify Information and Communication Technology as tool for Organizational Growth in First Bank plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State specifically the study will;
  1. Identify the place of ICT in the overall growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State.
  2. Identify the shortcomings of ICT as a tool for organizational growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State.
  3. Identify the use of ICT as a tool for Organizational Growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State.
    • Research Question
The following research questions have been asked as a guideline to the study;
  1. What are the places of ICT in the overall growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State.?
  2. What are the shortcomings of ICT as a tool for Organizational Growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State?
  3. What are the uses of ICT as a tool for Organizational Growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State?
    • Significance of the Study
  4. The study will be beneficial to First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State as a means of companion between what is used to be before ICT in foundation and now.
  5. It will also help First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State workers to embrace the new technology by way of further training.
  6. First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State will benefit through quick and accurate job performance through the introduction.
    • Scope of the Study
This study is delimited to information and communication technology as a tool for organizational Growth in First Bank Plc Ekwulobia in Anambra State.
  • Definition of Terms
  1. Bank: A financial establishment that invests money deposited by customer, pays it out when required, makes loans at interest and exchanges currency.
  2. Technology: The application of scientific knowledge for practical purpose, especially in industries.
  3. Organization: A social unit of people that structures and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals especially in society or association.
  4. Information: Knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstances or knowledge gained through study, communication, research and instructions e.t.c.
  5. Communication: The impacting or interchange of thoughts, opinions or information by speech, writing or signs.

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IMPACT OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN JOHN HARRIS LIBRARY IN UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, EDO STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums.
In the past few decades, information and communication technologies have provided society with a vast array of new communication capabilities. For example, people can communicate in real-time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP (VoIP), and video-conferencing. Modern information and communication technologies have created a "global village," in which people can communicate with others across the world as if they were living next door. For this reason, ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technologies affect society.
Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific usefulcompetencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance. In addition to the basic training required for a tradeoccupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognizes the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.
Staff training and development is a broad term covering multiple kinds of employee learning.
Training is a program that helps employees learn specific knowledge or skills to improve performance in their current roles. Development is more expansive and focuses on employee growth and future performance, rather than an immediate job role.
In recent times, the development and training of human resources has been the focus in national development. This is due to the fact that, the growth of any nation depends on the extent human development. Hence, without adequate investment in developing the human resources of the educational sector especially on the use of ICT, the possibility of national growth might be hampered.  Okpala, (2006) stated that training and development is an instrument for social and economic mobility at personal level and instrument for transformation by society at national level.
Training and development for libraries is a critical factor in a knowledge base economy where information and communication iskeyto national development. Knowledge has become the only reliable instrument of gaining competitive advantage and staff training and development has become the panacea for addressing these challenges. Currently, organizations are recognizing the need to use best training and development practices to achieve their goal. In the Boards of Alan, (2009), staffs are now seen not just as employees, but as the organizations greatest asset which when given development opportunities, will deliver services to meet the changing needs of customers. The implication of the above position is that for library staff, relevant training and development should not be underestimated.
Training plays crucial role in the attainment of organizational goals through staff. There is a correlation between organizational success and investment due to relevant training and development. Hence staff training and development can also lead to organizational change and success, Sardar (2010). Besides, the value of staff training and development cannot be over emphasized for organizations. Effective training can boost the confident of library staff. The feedback from library users can also lead to job satisfaction and motivation. Organizations’ that invest in staff training and development usually benefits from an enriched working environment with higher level of staff retention as well as increased productivity and performance, Cobblah(2015).
Due to rapid technological and organizational changes, libraries have also increased the scope of librarians` responsibilities. In order to meet the information needs of library users; the skills and services have also drastically change with staff development and continuing education (Callahan & Watson, 1995). Staff training and development in libraries is therefore intended to strengthen the capabilities of libraries to perform functions effectively and efficiently in an information technology era. Staff training and development programs in libraries encourage the growth of both individual and library. This study focuses on the impact of information technology on staff training and development in John Harris Library in University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.
The University of Benin, main library, the John Harris Library, was named after the pioneer university librarian, PROF. JOHN HARRIS, from New Zealand. The library began with the inception of the university in 1970 at the Ekehuan Road Campus. John Harris Library is an ultra-modern building with central air conditioning. The building is designed to seat about 700 readers. It provides photocopying, duplicating, laminating and binding services. The library has been computerized. Installation of other modern information technology facilities is ongoing.
With the high increase in student population, the library has embarked on an expansion programme with the establishment of faculty libraries; the Ekehuan Road Campus Library, Medical Library, Law, Engineering and Pharmacy Library are functional. A John Harris Library extension is awaiting commissioning. The library participates in interlibrary co-operation among Nigerian academic libraries.

OBJECTIVE OF ESTABLISHMENT OF JOHN HARRIS LIBRARY:
The overall objective of establishing John Harris Library is defined as follows:
To offer a current and up-to-date collection of print and non-print materials, research and teaching needs of all library users. This translates into the following more specific objectives:
·                     Provision of current information to users in a quick and cost effective manner
·                     Provision of balanced perspective on knowledge based issues
·                     Provision of alternatives to formal learning in form of material support for continuing education
·                     Provision of value services, which improves information delivery
·                     Satisfying the information needs of the community
·                     Locating and assisting in the development of relevant information or materials
·                     Pairing information outreach with other activities in which the populations already engaged e.g. workshops, conferences, community events etc and

1.1        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Information Communication Technology (ICT) is changing the work of libraries and information centers. More than ever, university libraries need this technology. An increased number of users, a greater demand for library materials, an increase in the amount of material being published, new electronic formats and sources, and the development of new and cheaper computers are some of the reasons for the growing need for ICT in University Libraries. University libraries have not made equal progress in this area. Librarians, library patrons and supporters, and, above all, the government, must help develop ICT-based libraries to meet the changing demands of the users.
Despite these importance, usefulness of ICT in libraries, it is observed that there is a problem of absence of ICT based information services delivery, even when there is evidence of ICT’s in John Harris Library that have resulted to computerized library system.
Similarly, observation by the researcher also show that library staff in university of Benin are faced with the challenge of rapid technological advancement, increased demands from the university communities for innovative services and the University libraryis observed to be changing in response to changes in teaching, learning and research activities but it was observed that there is a dearth in staff training and development programs to keep the librarians abreast of new developments in librarianship for effective and efficient service delivery using ICT. 
However,it has been revealed that studies relating to this area are very scanty and no similar study has been carried out in universities in Edo State, Nigeria to the best of knowledge of this researcher. Therefore, the problem of this study is to investigate the impact of ICT to staff training and development to improve provision of effective library and information services in John Harris Library in University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of Information Technology on staff training and development in John Harris Library in University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria. Specifically the study seeks to:
1.       Determine availability of staff training and development programs in libraries.
2.       Identify the types of staff training and development programs in John Harris Library, University of Benin.
3.       To identify the benefits of staff training and development programs in John Harris Library, University of Benin.
4.       Ascertain the effect of ICT on staff training and development programs on libraries.
5.       Identify the challenges that affect staff training and development programs in John Harris Library, University of Benin.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study seeks answers to the following questions:
1.  To what extent are staff training and development programs available in John Harris Library, University of Benin?
2.  What are the types of staff training and development programsexisting in John Harris Library, University of Benin?
3.  What are benefits to be derived from staff training and development programs for library staff in John Harris Library, University of Benin?
4.  Does ICT use affect staff training and development programs?
5.  What are the challenges that affect staff training and development programs in John Harris Library, University of Benin?

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that the findings of this study will be of benefits to librarians, researchers, university management, stakeholders, management of university libraries and library schools.Also, it is hoped that this study will assist librarians and library management to fill the gap that exists between staff training and development programs in University Libraries. Practically, it is hoped that the findings from this study will provide university libraries access to current and timely resources that will enhance effective discharge of services by librarians.
It is expected that the findings of this study will be useful to practicing librarians by exposing them to the type of ICT competencies they need to possess in order to perform optimally in the profession. Similarly, it will also assist Curriculum Developers in the department of Library and Information Science to provide useful information about the type of professional training required by modern information workers. This will help them to plan a rich academic course content that will incorporate ICT competency training programmes.

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers the types of staff training and development programs that are available, reasons, effect and challenges of staff training and development programs. This study is also limited to John Harris Library in University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.

1.7     OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are hereby defined in the context in which they are used in this study:
Impact: in this study, refers the measure of the tangible and intangible effects (consequences) of entity's action or influence upon another.
Staff: in this study refers,a group of people who work for an organization, in this case, a university library.
Academic Library: in this study refers the library that is attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students.
Staff Development: in this study, refers the process of assisting managerial library staff to perform non-routine jobs toimprove managerial, administrative and decision- making abilities and competence.
Training:in this study, refers teaching of lower-level or technical library staff on how to perform their jobs.
Information Communication Technology: in this study, refers the use of modern electronics to render library services. 

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