This research work was carried out to investigate and determine the influence of divorce on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Enugu education zone of Enugu state. The design of the study was ex-post facto design four research questions and two hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The population was one thousand five hundred and seventy-one students. The sample of the study was 1,571 respondents (785 male and 786 female students) out of 3,141 students in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State. There are 30 public secondary schools in the zone. Multi stage sampling technique was used in selecting 12 schools out of 30 public secondary schools in the Local Government Areas in the zone under study. These include: 4 schools in Enugu East; 4 schools in Enugu North and 4 schools in Isi-Uzo Local Government Area. Multi stage sampling technique was used in selecting 300 students out of 3,141 students in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State. It includes; 50 male and 50 female students from Enugu East, 50 male and 50 female students from Enugu North, 50 male and 50 female students from Isi-Uzo Local Government amounting to 300 as the sample size. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled Influence of Divorce on Academic Achievement of Secondary Schools Students (IDAASSS). The IDAASSS was face validated by experts in the Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The questionnaire was divided into four sections comprising a total of forty items. The instrument was trial tested and reliability estimates of 0.85. 0.77. 0.79 and 0.87 respectively. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed by the use of t-test statistics. The findings of the study showed that influence of divorce really affects the academic achievement of secondary school students in Enugu education zone of Enugu state.

Background of the Study
The common understanding of marriage is a union of a man and a woman as husband and wife with the end view of symbiotic companionship, procreation and rearing of children for the sustenance of posterity Ezeh (2012). According to Adrian (2013) marriage is the union, permanent at least by intention, of a man and a woman for the purpose of the procreation and rearing of children and mutual companionship and assistance. Marriage is the recognition by the existing social authority of the union of a man and woman as husband and wife. Marriage has two meanings: in one sense it is the ceremony or the act of becoming married; in another sense, it is the relationship itself or status of being married American Peoples Encyclopedia (2010). In this context, marriage is the legal union between a man and a woman to become husband and wife and live together without divorcing each other.

Marriage institution is an institution in which there should be harmony, love and happiness. Nwobi (2002), defined marriage institution as a legally recognized bond, established by a civil or religious ceremony between two people who anticipated living together as sexual and domestic partners.

Marriage institution is an officially and documented union accepted by a civil or religious convention amongst two people who agreed to live together as husband and wife (Dought, 2011). This means that husband and wife should live in love, harmony and happiness. Nevertheless, in some marriage institutions love, harmony and happiness are lacked due to the fact that some couples were unable to solve their marital problems that may lead to divorce.

Marital problems are those difficulties experiences or encountered by husband and wife in their union which could lead to divorce. These marital problems according to (Danladi, 2012) include financial difficulties, lack of communication, distance, understanding, immaturity, infidelity/cheating and poor sexual relationship. In marital problems like these, the idea of compatibility is thrown away. The new idea is incompatibility, thereby ushering in divorce as the final solution. Compatibility is an important element of marriage where couples live or work together without conflict Amato (2000). Where there is no compatibility because of some marital problems mentioned above, the marriage become unhappy and unsuccessful for the husband and wife, in this case they have no other alternative than to divorce. Divorce according to Omeje (2000) is the dissolution of a marital union that cancelled all legal obligations and responsibilities of marriages as well as dissolving the bonds of matrimony between the parties. Omeje (2000), stated that divorce is one aspect of marital disorganization which could, among other things frustrate the destiny of the children of such marriage. Some of the children who were involved feel deeply depressed. Wallerstein (2005) defined divorce as a family breakup that characterized with numerous problems that lead to unsuccessful marriage. The case of divorce is disheartening. It has made many marriages to loose its celebrity and splendors. Patterson (2008) stated that there can never be a single cause for any divorce rather there are several more than one reasons for divorce to take place. These include lack of communication, immaturity, infidelity/cheating, failed expectations, drug and alcohol abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, cultural and religious differences. Ugwu (2007) was of the opinion that some marriages collapse due to unfaithfulness, sex explosion, suspicion and lack of trust.

Divorce has been in the society for quite a long time. Amato (2000) lamented that it is disheartening that people brought from two different families in affection as husbands and wives should end up in divorce. According to Gac (2008), there are high rate of divorce worldwide. Gac (2008) further asserted that divorce rate has been of great increase since the early 1960s. Commenting on the divorce rate Odebunmi (2007) maintained that divorce is on the increase in Nigeria.

The issue with divorce is not more of the impact it will have on the couples, because they may have other partners. The crucial issue involved is the fate of the children who need a lot of parental care as they are growing. Most of the positive and negative character traits of the youth or adult is usually traced or attributed to the upbringing from the family. Nwobi (2002) asserted that children do not understand the idea of divorce in all ramifications because of special love they have for either of their parents. Nwobi further stressed that when there is divorce, children from such family always notice that everything is now different in their homes in terms of basic facilities, education, social and religious services even the new set of people they will be interacting with. Divorce affects children in their physical development and social functioning because such children will no longer be train in the way they supposed to be trained. In some cases, children from divorced family are being trained by their relation, friends who may not be able to care and cater for their physical, socio-economic and educational well-being of those children. Lach (1999) stated that children are made to suffer hardship, social control, lack of financial support and inadequate protection. These often encourage the children to indulge in delinquent acts like drug addiction, child abuse, picking pockets, truancy and prostitution. In support of the above assertions Dought (2011), maintained that children of divorced homes were usually not having good relationship with their parents as compared to the children whose parents live together. This unhealthy relationship affects the children virtually in everything they do including their moral and academic achievement.

Academic achievement is the extent to which students make success in academic work. Globe and Bishop (2001) perceived academic achievement as something one does or achieves at school, college or university, in class, in a laboratory, library or field of work. Idundun (2002) stated that academic achievement is the overall academic performance of a student in the school. It is assessed by the used of teacher’s rating, tests and examination. From this assertion, academic achievement has to do with some measure of success one is able to attain after learning experience. As such, Smith (2011) lamented that children of divorced parents are prone to academic problems like drooping out of school along with psychological, emotional, socio-cultural and economic problems when compared to the children whose parents remain married and live together.

Psychological problems have a lot of influence on the husband, the wife and children as a result of divorce which is always devastating. Kowalski (2003) defined psychological problem as a psychiatric disorder showing symptoms such as persistent feelings of hopelessness, dejection, poor concentration, lack of energy, inability to sleep and sometime suicidal tendencies. An individual is faced with psychological problems if very negative feelings stay permanently on top of one’s mind. Psychological problem is a serious mental illness for which professional helps and sometimes medications are needed to get rid of it. Commenting on the consequences of divorce on children Ugwu (2007), maintained that the children may later grow up to be threats to the society. Divorce is a life-changing event for children. It turns their world upside down. Kelly (2000), maintained that children of divorce homes are at greater risk of teenage pregnancy, prostitutions, rapes, political toggeries, cultist, dropping out of school, depression, divorce in their own marriages and joining the ranks of welfare recipients.

On the other hand, Corak (2001) lamented that they show depression over the divorce and changes taking place in their lives especially in their academic performance and sexual relationship much earlier than their mates in a stable family environment. According to Wolfinger (2000) there is always a feeling of great happiness or condition of enjoyments, pleasant anticipation and supports that exist among family members of a stable family because it always lays a sound foundation for the children’s future life. Rapoport (2005) maintained that providing stable family environment and attending to children’s need with a positive attitude is a yardstick to academic achievement. Amadi (2000) stated that student academic achievement in various school subjects appear to be degenerating. As mentioned early, children of divorced homes seem not to do well at school and are emotionally and psychologically disturbed. Lansford (2009) stated that the overall stress of the change in the family structure might distract a child from school activities and consequently affect his or her academic achievement. Divorce affects the academic achievement of students in many ways. These include potential reductions in both the quantity and quality of parental inputs on their academic achievement and parental guidance or oversight with respect to disciplinary.....

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