FAMILY FACTORS AS DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOURS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN AWGU EDUCATION ZONE OF ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

This study examined family factors as determinants of deviant behaviours among primary school pupils in Awgu Education Zone of Enugu State. To guide the study, seven research questions were posed and five hypotheses formulated. The study adopted correlational research design. The population of the study comprised of all the public primary six pupils in Awgu Education Zone of Enugu State. The population of the study was four thousand six hundred and four 4,604 primary six pupils in the education zone out of which 821 pupils were drawn as sample for the study. A questionnaire was used as instrument for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer research questions one, six and seven, while Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to answer research questions two, three, four and five. Regression analysis was used to test hypotheses one, two, three and four, while ANOVA was used to text hypotheses five. The major findings of the study revealed that primary school pupils exhibited 12 out of 15 types of deviant behaviours such as indulging in exam malpractice, not devoted to studies, Bullying weaker pupils, fighting among pupils, lateness to school, and keeping bad friends among others as identified. It also showed that authoritarian family leadership style had a significant relationship on primary school pupil’s deviant behaviour. Again it was discovered that authoritative family leadership style also called assertive, democratic or balance family leadership style had significant relationship on pupil’s deviant behaviour negatively. Moreover permissive family leadership style had also shown a significant relationship on primary school pupils’ deviant behaviour. The result also indicated that neglectful family leadership style had significant relationship on primary school pupils’ deviant behaviour. Furthermore, the result showed that family size had a significant influence on deviant behaviour exhibited by primary school pupils in Awgu Education Zone of Enugu state. It was also discovered that all the thirteen (13) strategies such as organizing orientation or public enlightenment programmes through parents-Teachers-Association meeting to educate parents on good parental child rearing practices, assigning functions to children that exhibit deviant behaviours to keep them focus on worthwhile activities, Rewarding and praising children who have good behaviour, and assigning models to role play by pupils with deviant behaviours as identified by the researcher can be used to curb deviant behaviours among primary school pupils. These results were discussed in relation to previous findings of similar studies and the educational implications of the findings were highlighted. Also recommendations were made based on family factors as determinants of deviant behaviours among pupils and the limitations of the study and suggestions for further studies were also pointed out.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Family has been universally perceived as a small but powerful unit and the oldest institution in the history of human existence that helps in the character formation of the child and moulding of behaviour of the individual in the society. This is because family is the fundamental and basic social unit for human development and also the primary agent for socialization of children. According to Macionis (2007) family is a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another including children. Family is a social unit made up of father, mother, children and blood relations (Okonkwo, 2005). Similarly, Ononuju (2005) opined that family is a unit of people tied together by bonds of marriage, birth or adoption, having in most cases a common abode. The authour also maintained that man and woman as the first members of the family have obligations towards the younger members as they arrive and that involves inculcating social norms such as love, care, cooperation and discipline among her members. Buttressing further, the author posited that when families fail in these basic functions, a faulty foundation is laid which will result in faulty adult behaviours such as corruption and all kinds of indiscipline. In the context of this study, Family can also be seen as a kinship group of two or more persons who live in the same household and are related by marriage or adoption. Family also performs certain functions for their sustainability and wellbeing.

Family performs many functions such as reproduction or procreation, protection and care of young ones, educational functions and provision of shelter (home) (Sunil, 2011). Reproduction or procreation is an essential function which the family performs in all societies. The family along with regulating the sexual behaviour in relation to the satisfaction of sexual needs secures a legitimate basis for procreation. This function of the family contributes to the continuity of family and ultimately perpetuates the human race. Family is regarded as an institution par-excellence for the production and rearing of children. No other institution tends to take care of the child like the family; the child at birth is completely helpless and may not survive without the help of the family. Sunil (2011) asserted that family provides care, protection, security (mental, moral among others) and fulfills other needs to make the child fit in the society The author also asserted that all the members of the family depend on the home for comfort, protection and peace.

The family also performs educational functions such as socialization of the child that starts from the home through interaction with the parents, sibling and peers. The child learns a lot in the home before school age. Shankar (2012) posited that the performance of the child depends on the family background. It is within the family that the child learns about traditions, customs, norms, and values of the society in which they belong. Highlighting further, the authour stated that if any dysfunction is seen in the family system, the functions of the family can be affected. Several family factors determine the functionality and dysfunction of the family. These factors include family structure, family size, and family leadership style.

Family factors are often referred to as those characteristics that define the families and the specific things that make up the family such as family structure, family size, family leadership styles, disciplinary practices and parental involvement among others (Henderson & Mapp, 2002). Contributing to the above assertion, Benokraitis (2007) maintained that family structure is considered as a family support system involving two married individuals providing care and stability for their biological offspring. Family structures can also be seen as substantial make up of the members in relationship to each other without respect to roles and function (Toby, 2015). In the context of this work, family structure can be referred to as various components that make up family system such as father, mother and their children. It can also be referred to as households consisting of two married parents and their biological children or their members who are related by blood, marriage, and adoption in extended family ties.
Family has many structures/types, namely: Nuclear and Extended. Nuclear family comprised of the man, the wife and their children in a monogamous relationship (Anyanwu & Ofordile, 2012). This implies a relationship that binds the father and the members of the household. Supporting the above assertion, Toby (2015) stated that nuclear family consisted of a father, mother, and their biological or adoptive descendants, often called the traditional family. From the above assertion nuclear family is the type of family which consists of the father, mother and their children while in Extended family, the members includes the husband, wife, children and other relations covering two to three generations (Anyanwu & Ofodile, 2012) Stressing further, the authors, asserted that extended family system consists of the husband, wife, children, grand parents, uncles, aunts, cousins from both sides. Furthermore, Ngale (2009) maintained that children who found themselves in extended family may experience overcrowding as a result of large family size which tends to result to low parental attention, financial hardship and this may lead the children into deviant behaviour.

Family size is the number of parents and children that make up a family, either nuclear or extended family (Farrington & Loeber, 1999). According to Bjorklund (2004) Family size refers to all siblings present in a household. Family size can also be seen as the total number of people found in the family. A family may be regarded as large size when the family members are within 7-10 and above 10, while a family may also be regarded as small when the size of family members are within 1-3 and 4-6 respectively (Arthur, 2005). This implies that family size might increase the risk of child’s deviant act. For instance, as the number of siblings in a household increases, the amount of parental attention that can be given to each child may decrease. Also, as the number of siblings increases, the household tends to become crowded, possibly leading to increase in financial hardship, and frustration (Kantarevic & Mechoulan, 2006). The reason why family size may be linked to negative behaviours or deviant activities includes absentee parents, financial hardship and broken homes (Ngale, 2009). Thus, it may appear that the larger the number of children in the family, the more they exhibit deviant behaviour. From the foregoing, the researcher may view that the more the number of children in a family, the less time, energy, and financial resources parents will have to devote to each individual child. The family also is posed with certain leadership style that governs its members.
Besides the above variables (family structure and family size) so far discussed that may affects the behaviour and socialization of children or family members, family is also posed with certain leadership styles that parents use in training their family members. Family leadership style is the aggregate of the various patterns which parents use in the up-bringing, training and rearing of their children (Okpako, 2004). In other words, family leadership styles are the methods which parents use in training their children. It is also known as parenting styles or child rearing practices. In the context of this study, family leadership styles are the different types of practices parents use to rear or socialize their children to internalize acceptable norms and values of the society that will help to mould their personality and behaviour.


Highlighting further on family leadership styles, Baumrind (1972) identified four family leadership styles to include authoritarian family leadership style, authoritative family leadership style, permissive family leadership style and neglectful family leadership style. Authoritarian family Leadership Style is perceived as family leadership style in which all the decisions and directives made are passed to subordinates who are expected to carry out these under very close supervision (Annick, 2002). Stressing further, Annick maintained that any subordinates’ attempt at.....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 112 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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