FAMILY BACKGROUND VARIABLES AS PREDICTORS OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN OGIDI EDUCATION AUTHORITY OF ANAMBRA STATE

ABSTRACT

The study sought to find out the extent family background variables such as parents’ income, family size and parents’ level of education predict achievement motivation of primary school pupils in Ogidi Education Authority of Anambra State. To carry out the study, three research questions were posed while three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a correlational research design. The study was carried out in all public primary schools in Ogidi Education Authority of Anambra State, using primary five pupils. The population of the study comprised of all the 2015/2016 primary five pupils numbering 9,573 (4151 males and 5422 females) in the public primary schools. The sample size for the study was 957 (415 males and 542 females) primary five pupils which was drawn from public primary schools. An instrument titled “Pupils’ Achievement Motivation Scale (PAMS)” was used to elicit information on family background variables such as parents’ income, family size and parents’ level of education. Data collected for the study were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis to answer the research questions and test the null hypotheses. Coefficient of determination which is an aspect of multiple regression was used to answer the research questions while analysis of variance was used to test the null hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that family background variables including parents’ income, family size and parents’ level of education significantly (P < 0.05) predict pupils’ achievement motivation. Based on the findings of the study, conclusions and educational implications of the study were stated from where some recommendations were proffered. Finally, limitations and suggestions for further studies were made.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The basic social unit of every group is the family. The family is a universal institution bounded together by social and biological ties. Onyedineke (2011) stated that family is a very important institution that protects the child during the period of his or her biological hazards and also provides for their children’s socialization and initial education. Onyemerekaya (2002) sees family as a system organized around the support, nurturance and socialization of its members. In the same vein, Denzin (2008) conceived the family as a unit of interacting personalities living in a symbiotic manner, which is made up of parents and children, where parents are responsible for the psychological, social, educational and economic welfare of their children; while children in like manner are responsible for good behaviour within and outside the home.

The family is a primary agent of socialization of the child. It helps the children lay the proper foundations for developing their potentials and realization of their aspirations. The child learns various forms of behaviour and attitude in the family which enables him to prepare for future challenges in life. This is because family is the bed-rock of the society which provides initial training and educational foundations for the child (Okafor, 2006). Thus, family plays very vital roles in the upbringing of a child. Emphasizing the importance of the family in the educational development of the child, Garcia, (2002); Gage & Berliner, (2008) stated that pupils’ achievement motivation is affected by a number of family background variables like parents’ income, family size and parents’ level of education.

Achievement means success in a task or undertaking while motivation is the willingness to hit a target, or the internal state that energizes, arouses, directs, channels, maintains and sustains a behaviour till a goal is achieved (Gage & Berliner, 2008). The authors stated further that achievement motivation is the zeal to succeed in a particular undertaking, or the willingness to be doing something good. Achievement motivation is the need to achieve success, tendency to endeavour for success, choose goal oriented or success activities and forms the basis of a successful life. Psychologists have observed that people with a high level of achievement motivation exhibit unique characteristics such as hard work and perseverance (Woolfolk, 2007). Pupils, who are oriented towards achievement, generally enjoy life and feel in control. Achievement motivated pupils are dynamic and they have self respect. Achievement motivated people set moderately difficult but easily achievable targets, which help to achieve their objectives (Dweck, 2000). The author still maintained that achievement motivated people do not set extremely difficult or extremely easy targets in line with their parents’ income.

Parents’ income is seen as an economic and socially combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on education and occupation. Parents’ Income represents the various means through which the parents get money in order to sustain the members of the family. Income of parents has been recognized as an influential factor concerning parental involvement. The Cotton (2001) stated that the best predictor of students’ achievement is the income of the parents. According to Woolfolk (2007), parents’ income is typically grouped into four categories, below N 18,000, N18,000 to N50,000, N51,000 to N100,000, N100,000 and above to describe the four areas a family or an individual may fall into. Thus, the author observed that low income, education and family size have been shown to be strong predictors of primary school children’s achievement.

Family size is the total number of people consisting of parent and their children. It is worthy to mention that the family size is one of the factor that determine the academic performance of the students large family size creates in the upbringing of the their children and identified the problem of feeding insufficient food, poor clothing, insufficient fund and disciplinary problem. Family size in terms of number of children could be placed into three categories such as small (zero- two children), medium (three to four children and large family made up of five and above children. Parents with smaller families tend to offer their children greater intellectual and educational advantages. Blake (2007) argued that the more siblings in a family, the more diluted the parents’ attentions and material resources; while Hanushek (2007) maintained that such diluted attention and material resources lower the achievement of the pupils.

Parents’ level of education is the level of education attained by parents. This level ranges from primary, secondary through tertiary educational levels. According to Sue and Abe, (2005), most highly educated parents would want their children to obtain a quality education and reap its benefits. Educational background of parents appear to play a major role in children’s life. Li (2002) posited that the highly educated parents are more likely to insist that their children acquire academic success than those parents with low educational attainment.


Lareau & Annette, 2003 noted that parents from lower educational background are more likely to give orders to their children in their interactions while parents with higher educational background are more likely to interact and play with their children. Highly educated parents would want their children to obtain quality education and reap its benefits (Sue & Abe, 2005). Lareau and Annette (2003) found that children who are born by patents with low educational qualification have weaker language skills compared to children raised by patents with higher educational qualification. These language skills affect their abilities to learn and thus exacerbate the problem of education disparity. The authors further stated that parents’ educational background may include low educational background such as First School Leaving Certificate.......

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 139 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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