This study was aimed at isolation and identification of bacteria from fomites in Godfrey Okoye University restrooms. Total number of 24 samples were collected from the different restrooms (female, male and staff toilet) including the toilet seats and door hand handles. The samples were inoculated onto MacConkey and nutrient agar and incubated at 370c for 24 hours, the colonial morphology which includes the colony colour, shape, size, surface, elevation and number of colonies formed were recorded. The isolates were gram’s stained and purified. The biochemical test conducted were catalase, coagulase, citrate, oxidase, indole, methyl red test and voges prauskeur (IMViC) . The following bacteria were identified; Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, Bacillus spp, proteus spp, Escherichia coli. In this study 75% of the isolates were positive. This result showed that the restrooms were highly contaminated with bacteria. Regular washing of hands with soap is advised, general public needs to observe proper hand hygiene and use of quality disinfectants in cleaning restrooms to reduce the spread of contagious diseases. 

Fomite is a non living object that infectious microorganisms can be deported on. Fomites when in constant contact with humans  or  natural  habitats  of  pathogenic organism  constitute  a  major  source of  spread of  infectious  diseases (Osterholm et al., 1995). The fomites  include  door handle of  conveniences, showers, toilet, hand lockers  especially those found  in public offices, hospitals, hotels, restaurants  and restrooms (Bright et al., 2010). Beside  the  day to  day  interaction  of  people,  which constitute  one  way  of spreading  disease, the major  source of spread  of  community acquired  infections are fomites (Presscott et al., 1993). Microorganisms are found everywhere, bacteria and fungi contaminate out body, our houses, work places, and whole environment .Fortunately among many billion of bacteria, only 1500 can be dangerous for our health, causing different disease such as pneumonia, otitis media, sore throat, gastroenteritis and skin infections (Eltablawy and Elhinfnawi, 2009). Microorganisms constitute a major part of every ecosystem. In these environments, they live either freely or as parasites (Sleigh and Timbury, 1998). The hand serves as a medium for the propagation of microorganisms from place to place and from person to person. Although it is nearly impossible for the hand to be free from microorganisms, the presence of pathogenic bacteria may lead to chronic or acute illness (Oranusi et al., 2013). Human   hands  usually  harbor  microorganisms  both  as  part  of body   normal flora as well  as transient  microbes contacted  from the  environment (Lindberg et al., 2004). In the university environment, students have access to service offices regularly for different purposes. Given that the door handles are not routinely disinfected, the opportunity for the transmission of contaminating microorganisms is great. Although it is accepted that the infection risk in general community is less than that associated with patients   in hospital (Scott et al., 1982). The  increasing  incidence  of  epidemic outbreaks of  certain  diseases  and  its rate of spread from one community  to  the other  has  become  a major public health  concern  (Nworie et al., 2012).
People believe that microbes are only present in research laboratories or in hospitals and clinics and thus they have a misleading feeling of security in other places. This is due to the lack of knowledge about where bacteria cause the health problem. Researchers considered that 80% of infections are spread through hands contact with hands or other objects (Al-Ghamdi et al., 2011). The main reasons are difficulties to prevent  the transfer  of  microbes  that  are  already  present  in  human  bodies  (Lues and Tonder, 2007). Hand washing is fundamental  cautionary  measure  to  protect against the spread of  diseases  and  is one of  the  primary  practices  to  reduce the transfer  of  bacteria  from person  to  person, or  from  person  to  food  contact surfaces (Chinakwe et al., 2012). It is established that unwashed hands can transmit pathogens, especially fecal pathogens, to food product after visit to the toilet. Investigation  of food borne  illness  showed  that  poor personal  hygiene, primarily ineffective  hand  washing is  an  important  contributor  to food borne  illness (Lambrechts et al., 2014). Door handles of offices in Abuja metropolis were investigated for bacterial contamination. The researchers found that 86.7 % were positive (Nworie et al., 2012).

1.2. AIM
This study was designed to determine the level of bacterial contamination of public restrooms in Godfrey Okoye University.

1. To isolate bacterial from the formites using routine culture media.

2. To identify the isolate as much as possible, to compare the male, female and staff restrooms.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 33 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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