There has been an increase in international competitiveness in the 21st century compared to the century that preceded it. This has made it imperative for manufacturers exporting across international borders to be wary about this fact. The issue of packaging quality and effectiveness is one that has been a major setback on the export performance of products provided to the export market from Ghana. This thesis is primarily focused on the alcoholic beverage industry in Ghana and it is aimed at investigating how alcoholic beverages are packaged in Ghana, challenges faced and how packaging can enhance the export performance of companies within the industry.
In the quest to reach the above objective, both theoretical and empirical studies were conducted. The empirical part concentrated on two case companies namely, Kasapreko Company Limited and Gihoc Distilleries Company Limited with specific focus on the marketing departments of the above companies. Data collection was conducted through interviews, from available literatures and also from the internet. A comparative qualitative research method was used in gathering the empirical data with the aid of a questionnaire through an interview.
The thesis did prove the fact that not only does packaging play the traditional role of product protection, but it also serves as a tool that provides both convenience and information to the user. It serves as a strategic marketing tool that enhances the sales performance of a product. It was gathered from the empirical search that there really existed challenges within the industry under review of which included inconsistencies in the supply of packaging and packaging materials and quality, and design variations. The study of the case companies revealed that there was the use of both adaptation and standardization of packaging strategies in their international markets. The findings also pointed to the fact that the use of effective and efficient packaging helps to maximize the export performance of companies within the alcoholic beverage industry in Ghana.



1.1. Background and purpose of the study
1.2. Research objectives and questions
1.3. Limitations to the study
1.4. The research method
1.5. Structure of the study

2.1. Packaging: an overview
2.1.1. International packaging concerns
2.1.2. Levels of packaging
2.1.3 Packaging functions
2.2. Packaging and marketing strategy
2.2.1. Packaging alteration
2.2.2. Secondary use packaging
2.2.3. Category consistent packaging
2.2.4. Innovative packaging
2.2.5. Multiple packaging
2.2.6. Handling improved packaging
2.3. Packaging criticisms
2.4. Constituents of an effective package
2.5. The challenges faced in the packaging industry
2.6. Impact of packaging on the environment
2.7. Labelling and its relevance on a package
2.8. The international trade and export environment
2.8.1. International packaging considerations
2.8.2. Packaging for the export market
2.8.3. Relevance and meaning of colours on a package
2.8.4. Standardization or Adaptation: which way to go?
2.9. The linkage between packaging and export performance

3.1. Introduction
3.1.1. The research method used
3.1.2. Sampling and sample size
3.1.3. How data was gathered
3.1.4. Reliability and validity
3.1.5. Data analysis

4.1. Introduction
4.2. A brief about Ghana
4.3. The alcoholic beverage industry in Ghana
4.3.1. How alcoholic beverages are packaged in Ghana
4.4. Introduction of case companies
4.4.1. Kasapreko Company Limited (KCL)
4.4.2. Gihoc Distilleries Company Limited (GIHOC)
4.5. Findings from interviews

5.1. Summary and conclusions
5.1.1. Conclusions
5.2. Recommendations
5.2.1. For future studies
5.2.2. For alcoholic the beverage industry in Ghana

This chapter will deal with a general background to the study, also with a brief look into the research objectives and questions. The research method adopted will also be highlighted in this chapter followed by the limitations to the study and then finally, a look at the structure of the study.

1.1 Background and Purpose of the Study
The research topic deals with packaging and how it can enhance the export performance of firms in the alcoholic beverage industry in Ghana. It focuses on two case companies, Kasapreko Company Limited and Gihoc Distilleries Company Limited. It is purposed to know how the case companies package their products and how packaging enhances their export performance.

The global market has become much more competitive in the 21stcentury (Hauser, 2007,) as compared to the century before it. This has made it even more difficult to survive in the international market and it is a real force to reckon with. In such situations only the best practices coupled with innovation can give one firm an edge over the other in the struggle to win international customers. One very important element to consider is packaging and presentation of products since these elements especially the former tells a lot about a product and its contents and it is the first call for attention.

Ghanaians produce distinct products but lack the ability to really present them in the best way (Obeesi A., 2010). This prevents them from getting the best out of their produce in the international market. This is due to the high costs involved in developing quality and attractive packages and this is what will make them more competitive internationally. Apart from getting the right customer for your product, it is very important to also try as much as possible to get the best value for your product and this is where the issue of getting the best packaging comes to bare.

Packaging has in recent times become a very important tool in the marketing of products since it does more than just protect the product; it also serves as the silent sales person for the company (Packaging-Gateway.Com, 2005). It is seen as a strategy that serves two main functions. The first is to serve as a protective tool rather than a communication tool and the second function concerns the marketing communications needs and its potential impact on the purchase decision making process.

Good packaging gives one company an urge over the other and could be seen as a way to gain international competitive advantage. With the development of technology, more could be done. The export performance of alcoholic beverages produced in Ghana can be achieved not only with quality products and good communications, but it has to be complemented with good and attractive packaging that is produced at lower costs.

Ghana is a country that is full of potential to export very huge amounts of produce to the international market. This however, is always faced with serious challenges due to very intense competition from the international world with regards to issues such as price, product quality, payment terms and other trade issues. Effective packaging however, also gives a greater urge over the other and could be seen as a way to gain...

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