MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK PLC, ENUGU MAIN BRANCH)

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study is to examine Management by Objectives as an instrument for organizational performance with focus on First Bank of Nigeria Plc. Management by Objectives is a way of getting improved results in managerial method, whereby the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identifies major areas of responsibility, in which they will work, set some standards for good or bad performance and the measurement of results against those standards (Derek 2005: 156). Management by objectives is also called managing by objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have given impetus to its development as a system. Management by objectives prefers to a structured management technique of setting goals for any organizational unit. The major problem of this study is that management of companies in Nigeria lack sufficient techniques to make them manage effectively. Some of these tools are not used and when used they are not properly utilized. Management by objectives is not only a managerial strategy to achieve a well co-ordinated managerial goals, but it is also a popular management techniques that cut across or pervade all human activities namely business areas, educationed government, health care and non-profit organization. Unfortunately many of the organizations are yet to adopt this technique in enlisting commitment and support of their staff. The major objective/hypotheses of the study was to determine the various problems affecting management of objectives as an instrument for organizational performance and the level of participation of both managers and employees in the setting of goals to be achieved in the organization. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The major sources of primary data were direct oral interview and questionnaire which was conducted among the staff. The major instrument used in the data collection was questionnaire. The data were presented in tables as frequency distributions and in analysis. In testing the hypotheses, the statistical test of proportion (Z-test) was applied. The major findings of the study were: MBO helps to obtain total commitment of all employees to work together in order to achieve a common goal; that good and prompt salary, promotion as when due, good relationship with management and recognition of achievement improves performance of the workers and by so doing enhances organizational performance when management by objectives is been adopted. The study recommended that managers should consult his subordinates in drawing up unit objectives which goes up the hierarchy from where it is modified, collected, approved and distributed throughout the organisation. Moreso, there should be autonomy in implementation of plans once the objectives have been agreed upon, the individual should enjoy wide discretion in choosing the means for achieving the objectives without being directed by higher ranking manager. Finally, the study revealed a lot of positive implications and relevance of management by objectives to modern day management of organizations especially in Nigeria. In practical terms, the operations of management by objectives requires that each manager of a unit draws up his department objectives with his subordinates in line with the centrally stipulated corporate objectives and mission.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE
CERTIFICATION
APPROVAL
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objective of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Hypotheses
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Scope of the Study
1.8       Limitations of the Study
1.9       Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Definition of MBO
2.2       Theoretical Framework of the Study
2.3       Application of Management by Objective
2.4       Role of Management by Objectives in Organization Performance
2.5       Two Major School of Thought
2.6       Steps in Management by Objectives Process
2.7       Management by Objective-Objective Setting
2.8       Management by Objectives Characteristics
2.9       Strengths and Weakness of Management by Objectives System
2.10     Elements of the Management by Objectives System
2.11     Historical Background of the Study

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Sources of Data
3.2.1    Primary Sources of Data
3.2.2    Secondary Sources of Data
3.3       Population of the Study
3.4       Sampling Design and Determination of Sample Size
3.5       Method of Data Collection
3.6       Questionnaire Design, Distribution and Collection of Responses
3.6.1    Secondary Method of Data Collection
3.7       Method of Presentation and Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Data Presentation
4.2       Presentation According to the Key Research Questions
4.3       Test of Hypotheses

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY   OF RESEARCH FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1       Summary of Findings
5.2       Recommendations
5.3       Conclusion
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Management needs a lot of tools to be able to administereffectively in the day to day running of the business. Management by objectives is one of such tools. It is a way of getting improved results in managerial method whereby the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identifies major areas of responsibility, in which they will work. Set some standards for good or bad performance and the measurement of results against those standards (Derek 2005: 156).
Management by objectives is also called managing by objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have management by objectives refers to a structured management technique of setting goals, for any organizational unit.
Odiorne (1981:1) defines MBO as a system of management whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected, and use these objectives and expected results as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its member. Besides, Odiorne points out that management by objectives is a "system of management" an overall framework used to guide the organizational unit and outline its direction. He went further to point out that "the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives". In other words, it is a participative management procedure that requires commitment and co-operation. The definition deals with identifying the "results" that are expected. Thus management by objectives concentrates on the output of the organization evaluating people by assessing their contribution to this output. Management by objectives is a strategy where in the management sets specific goals for the employees to accomplish within fixed time period. Management by objective is a dynamic system which seeks to integrate the company a need to clarify and achieve its profit and growth goals with the managers need to contribute and develop himself. It is a demanding and rewarding style of managing a business.
Management by objectives can work in any size of organization if the procedures are understand and managers are patient in letting the system set in first. Management by objective is a effective planning, control and development system.
Management by objectives was define by Koontz and O'Donnell (1968: 485) as a technique of system or method of management whereby the superior and subordinate managers of an organization agreed on its broad goal , translate these goal into a chain of specific short term goals, defined each individuals major areas of responsibility in terms of result expected continually reviewed the accomplishment as the sole basis of assessing and rewarding them.
Management by objectives gives the employee the opportunity to participate in decision making, the limits within these limits. It assumes that the employees has been properly selected and trained, and is informed that the employee will be responsible for achieving the desired results in the organization.
Organizations are ubiquitous. According to Mullins (2005: 256), organizations are designed by people to...

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 93 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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