Title Page
Approval Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Acronyms

1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Research Problem
1.3       Aim of the Study
1.4       Objectives of the Study
1.5       Research Questions
1.6       Hypotheses
1.7       Scope of the Study
1.8       Significance of the Study
1.9       Limitations of the Study
1.10     The Study Area
1.11 Accessing Homeownership in Nigeria through Incremental Building

2. 1      Defining and Conceptualising Housing Affordability
2.2       Affordable Housing
2.3       Housing Stress
2.4       Incremental Housing
2.5       Formal and Informal Housing
2.6       Benefits and Risks of Homeownership
2.7       Housing Affordability Measures and Indicators
2.7.1    Ratio Measures
1)         House price – to – income ratio, PIR
2)         Rent–to–income ratio, RIR
2.7.2    The Residual Income Approach
2.7.3    Housing Affordability Index, HAI
2.7.4    Ratio vs. Residual Income: Criticisms of the Ratio Measures
2.8       Applications of Housing Affordability Measures
2.9       Determinants of Housing Affordability
2.10     Causes and Consequences of Housing Affordability Problems
2.11     Urbanisation and Housing Problems across Countries
2.12     Nigeria’s Urban Housing Sector
2.12.1   The Public Sector Housing
2.12.2 The Private Sector Housing
2.12.3   The Housing Finance Market
2.12.4  The Urban Land Market
2.13     Housing Microfinance
2.14     Case for the Housing Affordability Model
2.15     Conceptual Framework
2.15.1   The Concept of Housing
2.15.2   The Concept of Housing Affordability
2.15.3   Defining Income and Housing Costs Variables

3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population for the Study
3.3       Sampling
3.3.1    Sample Size Determination
3.3.2    Sampling Technique and Procedure
3.3.3    Survey Strategy
3.4       Survey Instrument
3.4.1    Validation of Instrument
3.4.2    Reliability of the Instrument
3.5       Deriving the Explanatory Variables
3.6       Analytical Framework
3.6.1    Logistic Regression for the Housing Affordability Model
3.6.2    Other Statistical Tools for Data Analysis
3.6.3 Path Analysis for the Housing Affordability Model

4.1       Descriptive Statistics
4.1.1    Demographic Variables
4.1.2    Households’ Current Housing Expenditure Variable
4.1.3    Basic Non-housing Expenditure Variable
4.1.4    Household Income Variable
4.1.5    Self -Assessment of Housing Affordability by the Respondents
4.2       Inferential Statistical Analysis
4.2.1    Path Analysis for Housing Affordability
4.2.2    Exploratory Factor Analysis
4.2.3    Description of Variables for the Model Specifications Response Variable – Housing Affordability, HA Explanatory Variables
4.2.4    Building the Housing Affordability Model
4.3       Results
4.3.1    Determinants of Housing Affordability
4.3.2    Measuring Housing Affordability in the Senatorial Districts
4.3.3    Measuring Housing Affordability across Income Distribution
4.3.4    Measuring Housing Affordability across Educational Levels
4.3.5    Measuring Housing Affordability by Land Ownership Status
4.4       Discussion of Results
4.4.1    Determinants of Housing Affordability Prioritising the Housing Affordability Indices
4.4.2    Housing Affordability Outcomes across the Senatorial Districts
4.4.3    Housing Affordability Outcomes across Income Distribution
4.4.4    Housing Affordability Outcomes across Educational Levels
4.4.5    Housing Affordability Outcomes by Land Ownership Status

5.1       Summary
5.2       Key Findings
5.3       Policy Implications of the Research
5.4       Implications for Practice, Teaching and the Society
5.5       Conclusions
5.6       Contribution to Knowledge
5.7       Suggestions for further Research

Housing affordability is an issue at the centre of housing policy debates. The conventional housing affordability models that deal with access to homeownership are based on the housing market practices prevalent in the Western countries where homes are usually purchased with formal mortgages. These measures are not suitable for markets in developing countries like Nigeria where homes are usually built incrementally with informal financing. The study built a housing affordability model for measuring access to homeownership by the incremental building process practiced in Nigeria with focus on Kaduna State. Data was collected through a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 450 households selected through the stratified random sampling. The binary logistic equation and its diagnostics were used to build the housing affordability model. The one-way ANOVA and the two-sample t-test were also used to analyse the data. The results indicated that household income, savings, and education are determinants of housing affordability with positive impact. Conversely, household size, current housing expenditures, non-housing expenditures, cost of land, and building cost relative to income are determinants of affordability with negative impact. Geographical difference in housing affordability in the state is not significant. However, significant affordability differences exist across household income distribution and educational levels of household heads, and between households that own residential land and those that do not. Policy that empowers households to make greater savings will be the most effective in improving housing affordability. The study concluded that households’ housing affordability is shaped by household finance and demography, housing costs and costs of household necessities and that the solutions to housing affordability problems are located within and outside the housing sector. An integration of measures that support household savings and wealth creation, ease access to residential land, and bring down urban house rents and costs of household necessities is necessary to improve urban housing affordability.


Housing affordability is a central issue in the contemporary housing policy debates. It is an important subject in both academic and policy research. It is one of the topics that have dominated housing discussions in the past three decades. In fact, the question of housing affordability is one housing issue that has attracted global concerns, generating discourse at national and international levels across countries, both developed and developing. The importance of housing affordability in human settlement cannot be over-emphasised. This thesis presents the outcomes of a research on housing affordability in Nigeria, focusing particularly on the affordability of accessing homeownership. This chapter presents the introductory aspects of the work.

1.1           Background to the Study
In recent times, the growing urban population and the poor housing conditions of the vast majority of urban dwellers in developing countries have become an important issue in global discourse. Many of these countries are experiencing severe pressure on urban housing as a result of mismatch between their housing provisions and urbanisation trends. In many countries in Africa, rapid urbanisation and rising urban housing costs coupled with high rate of urban poverty, weak governance, and inefficient public services have continued to aggravate the situation. Africa’s annual urban population growth rate of 3.23 percent in 2011 (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2012a), makes it the fastest urbanising continent in the world. Demographic growth has continued against a considerable and constantly increasing housing deficit (UN-Habitat, 2010). Thus, housing shortages, poor housing qualities, slums, and squatter settlements are commonplace.

Housing is an important social and economic good. It is both an investment and consumption good, and indeed an essential commodity. Its importance cannot be over-emphasised. It is a tangible asset that provides established property rights to its owner and for which there is a ‘deep’ secondary market (Berry, 2000). The significance of housing goes.....

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