This work evaluates the strategies of programmes implementation in Kaduna metropolis as they affect urbanization between 1980 – 2021, using the three selected urbanization agencies in Kaduna metropolis (the Kaduna State Director Labour Agency,

Kaduna State Agriculture and Industrialization, and Kaduna State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency) as case study. This was done through the following methodology. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents who responded to the questionnaire administered. Interviews were used to collect information from the general managers of the selected urbanization agencies. Information were also collected from the files, records and mission statements of the three selected urbanization agencies in Kaduna metropolis, identified for the purpose of this research. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage tables and the chi-square statistic was used in testing the research hypotheses. The work came out with the following findings: (i) that the state allocations to urbanization in the yearly budget is not up to 1% of the total budget, (ii) that the beneficiaries of urbanization are not involved in programmes initiation and implementation in Kaduna metropolis, (iii) that the three selected urbanization agencies have not impacted positively on industrilazation in Kaduna metropolis. The research made the following recommendations based on the findings; that for effective performance of the study agencies, the beneficiaries should be involved at every stage of the programme(s). There should be the involvement of beneficiaries of urbanization and industrialization in the process of programmes initiation/conception and implementation.

More than 70% of Nigerians live in the rural areas, hence there is a need for the government to take the issue of urbanization seriously, particularly issues related to the formulation and implementation of urbanization policy (Nzimiro, 1985:1-3, 1990 population census). Besides, there is a global concern on issues of poverty and urbanization by state governments and the United Nations.

Any attempt to improve the rural condition is a welcome development. Nzimiro (1985:5-81) argues that:

part of the reasons for interest in urbanization study is because of the increase in social differentiation between the rural and urban areas. The dwindling quality of rural life had encouraged many rural producers to escape from the suffering of rural poverty to urban misery.

The level of development in Nigeria is too low considering the amount of resources at Nigerias disposal. In the immediate post independence years for instance,

Nigerians had expected tremendous positive changes in their conditions of living. This however, was not the case. This condition of backwardness may be attributed to the level of development bequeathed to the nationalists at independence by the colonial masters who saw the rural areas as mainly sources of raw materials for export. (Rodney; 1972, Ake, 1981; Alkasum, 1986).

The modernization approach imported from the Western developed economies failed to transform the third world societies. Modernization was simply the adaptation of western institutions, structures, and values such as the Weberian type of bureaucracy, periodic elections, and excessive capital formation for investment and industrialization, etc.

Todaro and Smith (2006:435) have argued in support of this position that: Based on the historical experience of western countries economic development was seen as requiring a rapid structural transformation of the economy from one predominantly focused on agricultural activities to a more complex modern industrial and service sector. As a result, agriculture’s primary role was to provide sufficient low – priced food and manpower to the expanding industrial economy, which was thought to be the dynamic leading sector in any overall strategy of economic development.

Todaro and Smith argued further that, today, as we have seen, development economists are less sanguine about the desirability of placing such heavy emphasis on industrialization. They have come to realize that far from playing passive supporting role in the process of economic development, the agricultural sector and the rural economy in general must play an indispensable part in any overall strategy of economic progress.

Urbanization has been approached from different perspectives, using different models or approaches. Modernization for example is supported by western capitalist countries, where it is seen as the process of transformation of society from its old ways to a new one. Ujo (1994:113) argues that, modernization is a process of total transformation of a traditional society to the type of technology and associated organization that is characteristic of the advanced economically prosperous and relatively politically stable nations of the western world.

It is argued by the proponents of modernization that, third world societies are backward because they lack technological skills necessary for development. They need to adopt new western technology and institutions that are more effective and efficient. The solution to the problem, Nkom argues (1995:23) “is assumed to be in the adoption of modern technologies, institutions, managerial systems and ways of doing thing”. Some modernization scholars such as Williams, Mabogunje, Famiriyo see urbanization as agrarian transformation, where modern methods of farming are adopted with new high yielding crops that is why the Agricultural Development Projects (ADP) were introduced in the early 1980s. To Mabogunje, it is integrated urbanization where different facets or sectors are improved at the same time. Williams (1985), MabogunJe (1992) and Famiriyo (1985) have discussed extensively on this approach which involves agrarian transformation process of infrastructure provision such as construction of schools, clinics, and promotion of small scale enterprises, etc. All of these approaches are classified under the top-down strategy of urbanization. There is also the redistributive Justice model whose emphasis is on equity and social justice. The model encourages land redistribution to the poor, access to basic social amenities, and participation by the people in the formulation of rural development policies. Community development is also one of the approaches which lay emphasis on mobilization of the people for self help. The two approaches are seen as the bottom up approach. Kaduna State has adopted one or a combination of the approaches above particularly the adoption of western mechanized methods of farming under the current regime of Jonah Jang. Farm model centres managed by the Israelis, and the Kaduna Agricultural Development Programme, a World Bank initiative, with a view to transforming agriculture, which invariably translates into urbanization, using the top-down approach to urbanization, but urbanization goes beyond agricultural transformation. That is why the study of the three selected agencies are helpful if we are to understand the challenges of industrilazation in Kaduna metropolis.

The primary motivation to this study is the visible rural neglect, poverty and backwardness seen in the rural areas of Kaduna State. Over the years, statements are made by government to transform the rural areas, yet you find the rural areas with bad roads, ill-equipped hospitals, no good drinking water, insufficient schools, etc. What has happened to the policy statements, programmes and budget allocations to the rural areas? The study has identified Kaduna Agricultural Development Programme, Direct Labour Agency and Kaduna Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency, because by their objectives, they have direct bearing on urbanization in the state. It is for this reason that this research investigates the mission of the three selected agencies, their operation, and the extent of their impact on the rural conditions in Kaduna metropolis. The study also investigates the challenges faced by these agencies in the discharge of their functions.

Analysis of the Nigerian rural condition suggests that rural areas in Nigeria are in a state of neglect, with serious consequence for development in general and national development in particular (Olatonbosun, 1975). Colonial rule which gave credence to extraction of raw materials for export at the expense of food crops and other aspects of urbanization laid the foundation for rural neglect. Even though the raw materials were extracted from the rural areas, the rural areas were neglected in terms of infrastructure development. There was also too much concern on the production of cash crops rather than developing indigenous food crops such as cassava, yams, cocoyam, etc which cater for the nutritional needs of the rural dwellers (Abba and Anazodo, 2006).

This trend seems to have impacted on our post-colonial elite who saw development as simply the adoption of modernization in agriculture. This may have explained the reasons for the adoption of agrarian transformation through mechanization, importation of fertilizers, building of gigantic dams etc. as a solution to the agrarian crisis (Nzimiro, 1985, Nkom, 1985). The establishment of the Agricultural Development Projects (ADPS) in the early 1980s, the River Basins, construction of dams, etc were all aimed at propagating agrarian transformation which was seen as the major catalyst for urbanization (Otaki, 2005).

The Federal and State governments began to place high premium on creating institutions, which were perceived to bring about urbanization. For instance, the Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) was introduced by the Obasanjo regime in the early 70s, Shagari introduced Green Revolution in the 80s in which the Agricultural Development Projects (ADPS) became prominent. Babangida introduced Directorate for food roads and rural infrastructure (DFRRI), National directorate of employment (NDE), National Poverty eradication programme (NAPEP) and People’s Bank in the 90s, while Obasanjo in the fourth Republic (1980), focused on National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), and small-scale enterprises, etc. All of these institutions had their roles in urbanization, but there was no concerted effort by the federal government as a matter of policy to evolve a comprehensive approach to urbanization. In Kaduna metropolis, efforts towards urbanization include the Agricultural project, Direct Labour Agency, Kaduna Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, etc. All these have minimal impact on urbanization.

Despite several attempts by the Federal and state governments through the introduction of urbanization and industrialization such as Agricultural Developmet, Water Supply, rural infrastructure for urbanization, the rural condition has not changed much. This forms the major statement of the research problem. The study investigates the strategy adopted for industrilazation in Kaduna metropolis to find out if it has achieved the desired results or not, in the light of the aforementioned role of Agencies created in the State to accomplish the goal of urbanization between 1980-2021.

The research is guided by the following research questions:

(i) Are the programmes adopted for industrilazation in Kaduna metropolis appropriate?

(ii) Are the strategies adopted for implementation relevant?

(iii)Are the beneficiaries of the programme involved in the process of programme conception and implementation?

(iv) Are budgetary allocations to industrialization in Kaduna metropolis adequate?

(v) What are the challenges to industrialization in Kaduna metropolis?

The main objective of the study is to find out if the strategies to urbanization adopted by the Kaduna State Government promoted or retarded urbanization. The specific objectives are as follows:

i To assess the strategies of industrialization in Kaduna metropolis between 1980 to 2021, using the three selected urbanization agencies as case study.

ii. To determine the level of involvement of the beneficiaries of urbanization in the initiation and implementation of urbanization and industrialization in the state, using the three selected urbanization agencies as case study.

iii. To evaluate the extent of programmes success with respect to urbanization and industrialization in Kaduna metropolis using the three selected institutions

ie Kaduna Agricultural Development Programme, Director Labour Agency, Kaduna Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency.

iv. To recommend ways of enhancing industrilazation in Kaduna metropolis if need be.

The study is guided by the following research hypotheses.

H1: There is a significant relationship between the involvement of the beneficiaries and the successful implementation of industrilazation in Kaduna metropolis.

H2: There is a significant relationship between the activities of the selected rural

Development Agencies ie Kaduna Agricultural Development Programme,

Kaduna Direct Labour Agency, and Kaduna Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency and their level of impact on Industrilazation in Kaduna metropolis.

The study is expected to contribute to the ongoing discussion on how to improve the rural areas as it is being addressed by African Heads of State through the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) policy/framework, and the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations Organization. The study is also expected to contribute to the literature on urbanization, and development administration in particular since a critical analysis of the institutions, programmes and policies under study in Kaduna metropolis’s urbanization efforts shall enable us proffer some solutions to the development problematic and thus a contribution to development administration, in general and public Administration in particular. Also, the study is expected to benefit government/policy makers from its findings and recommendations which can help influence the urbanization and industrialization in Kaduna metropolis and Nigeria in general. The study provides academics with emperical data on urbanization and industrialization in Kaduna metropolis. Also, the general public can benefit when new strategies are adopted to change the conditions of the rural people in Kaduna metropolis.

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