Rote learning is a learning technique, in which a piece of information is learned by the repetition of the items in that information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Rote Learning in students’ Academic performance. The objectives of the study included: (1) to study the role of rote learning in listening skill; (2) speaking skill; (3) reading skill, (4)and writing skill of the students in the subject of English. To achieve these objectives null hypothesis were tested. Three hundred nineteen thousands, eight hundred and eighty one students of grade nine in Lokoja Kogi constituted the population of the study. A sample of fifty students was taken from the population. The students were pre-tested and then divided in to two equal groups of control and experimental groups. The teaching of control group remained unchanged while the experimental group was taught through Rote Learning. Different methods of Rote learning like Chunking, Rhyming, Mediation, Recital and Bridging were used for the study of experimental group. The data was analyzed by paired sample T-test and ANOVA (analysis of variance). The result showed that the students who were taught through Rote Learning showed good result than those students who were not taught through Rote Learning. The study revealed that Rote Learning had an effective role in the teaching of basic language skills in the study of English. On the basis of findings, it is recommended that rote learning can play an important role in English language learning.

1.1 Background of study
Rote learning or Rote memorization means to learn a piece of information by repeating it again and again. It means that it is the repetition of the items produced by the mouth and tongue of the students. It is consistently used by the students when they need fast learning. Like memorizing of a cell phone number or a dialogue in a drama and especially verses in poetry are the example, where the students use rote learning. Rote learning is the only method to learn poetry. Almost poetry of all human languages of the world is learnt by Rote learning. The basic knowledge of every subject is also learnt by the use of rote learning. For example translation in English textbook, forms of verb or degrees in adjective. Some other examples are the use of periodic table in the subject of chemistry, cases or statutes in the study law, anatomy in in the study medicine, tables in mathematics, and basic formulae in all sciences etc. In rote learning the student will gaze somewhere else but his tongue will repeat the words and his pen will write.

According to Mayer (2002) people are having misinterpretation about the use of rote learning. He further explains that sometimes rote learning is misinterpreted with the traditional expressions like parrot work or cramming. Some teachers are on the view, if a student learns something by rote learning, it will not give him a real concept of learning. Many new curriculum principles discourage the use of rote memorization in students’ learning.

Noah Westar’s Dictionary (2002) describes that rote learning is that type of learning which comes in the mind of the students by a frequent repetition of the items.

National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (2011) made an experimental study on rote learning. This experimental study shows that rote memorizing is a clear fact in the teaching of general science and mathematics like learning of formulae etc. The council also recommended rote learning for the learning of basic things in any subject for the students.

In most of English language teaching methods repetition of the words or rote learning is frequently used by our students. We use many terms, such as repetition and memorization that shows the state of rote learning in our learning. These methods or techniques are constantly used in second language learning in Asian countries where English is considered as international language. Especially in the learning of vocabulary rote learning is very effective.

Language has four basic skills. The very research had tried to explore how these four basic skills are affected by rote learning. These four skills are briefly discussed in the following lines.

The first one is listening. Listening comprises numerous sub-skills like listening for precise information, listening for idea, listening for over-all understanding, etc. There are many activities for listening skill. According to Oxford Basics (2001), listening skill comprises three main stages. First stage is warm up. The second stage is listen and response and the third stage is follow up.

The first one is Warm-up stage. This presents the learners to the main theme and emphases their attention, either by inciting them to make recommendations, or by the teaching of some new vocabulary. The second one is listen and respond. It is the foremost part of the activity. The listen of students to a text and answer to what they perceive in a large range of ways. We have some of the techniques for listening which are being discussed here.

The first one is Listen and complete. It is the use the information to comprehend a picture, a diagram or a map. The second one method is Listening and correct. This is to listen a text, which comprises a number of genuine mistakes. The third method is Listen and do. In this method listening comprises a series of actions or instructions and do them as they experience them. The fourth one is to Listen and draw. This method has a description of a place, a person or a thing and draws it as they hear. The fifth one strategy is to Listen and guess. In this method the students are given a detail about something and they are asked to guess the position of that thing. Like in “Stump” program on Ptv Home, the participants are given some detail about a cricket player and the participants will guess the name of that player. The sixth and the last one strategy is Listen and match. In this method students experience some hearing and then match it with some other objects, people and any other piece of importance. The next stage is follow up. In this stag the students are given the opportunity to exercise that knowledge which they have already learnt. This stage has a procedure. The procedure comprises of six elements. The first one is to explain openly what the teachers want the students to do and to examine what they have gotten. The second element is first listening. We can say model reading. Teacher read the text, play the record, act out the story the students are just listening. The third one stage is to do a task while listening a especial class. In the fourth level the teacher gives the opportunity to the students to exchange their answer each other so they can correct themselves. The fifth one is where the whole class is made to check their answer with one another. In the six levels the teacher tries to check the students work on blackboard. In this way the correction will be for the whole class.

By taking all the uses of the above methods, it is cleared that to some extant rote learning is present in all the methods of teaching English language. Translation method uses rote learning high in ratio than other methods of teaching English language. So the researcher used translation method for the treatment of the research. It is also seen that most of the students use rote learning in their study but they are not utilizing the Rote Learning exactly how it needs to be taught. The study of the basic skills of language in English is very important. Rote learning can play a good role in the improvement of these skills. Taking all the above points the researcher had explored the role of rote learning in students’ achievement in the four basic skills of English at pre nursery in Lokoja Kogi. Further the study tried to explore how can the teacher use this method of rote learning and accomplish to teach English language effectively.

To study the role of rote learning in English language teaching and learning in Lokoja Kogi, the following objectives were tried to be achieved through this experimental study.

a) To study the role of rote learning in students’ achievement in:

(i) Listening skill;

(ii) Speaking skill;

(iii) Reading skill,

(iv) and Writing skill.

The above stated objectives were tried to be achieved by testing the following null hypotheses with respect to Rote Learning.

1 There is no significant difference between the mean scores of experimental group and control group in the subject of English with respect to Rote Learning.

2 There is no significant difference between the mean scores of experimental group and control group in listening skill in the subject of English with respect to Rote Learning.

3 There is no significant difference between the mean scores of experimental group and control group in speaking skill of English with respect to Rote Learning.

4 There is no significant difference between the mean scores of experimental group and control group in reading skill in the subject of English with respect to Rote Learning.

Rote learning remained an important thing for debate in education system for the whole world. Rote learning also remained as an issue for a long time. No one can deny the importance of English language in our country. This study will very useful for all the teachers teaching English textbook at pre nursery. This study tried to explain how we can take the rote learning as a positive aspect of teaching English in Lokoja Kogi. It will help the student how they can utilize rote learning in learning basic skills of English language. The study tried to help the teachers in using rote learning technique and teach English language in proper way.

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