Rural resources have a lot of potential which needed to be brought into full production as to uplift the values. These values can only be achieved when other resources like times, money, infrastructure, expertise and the like are applied. The high demand of products is expected to propel the application of the said resources into maximum productions which in turn increase the value of rural environment, confirming value to be a function of profit.

Unfortunately, government policies and programmes in the year past failed to reflect the need for balance rural and urban development. Thus, most development policies and programmes are urban – oriented. As a result rural dwellers have been subjected to poverty, unemployment poor infrastructure, economic and social defects. Incidentally rural dwellers stick to migration

Therefore, this study on rural infrastructures as a strategy for reducing rural – urban Migrations in Nigeria, a case study of Ndokwa East Local Government Delta, seek to identify rural infrastructures programmes/projects extent of rural urban migration and factors responsible for rural urban migration in the study area.

From the findings based on the analyzed data, integrated rural infrastructures strategy has been pin-pointed and recommended as a feasible and viable measure toward minimizing the rate of rural – urban migration in Nigeria at large and Ndokwa East Local Government in particular.

1.1 Background of study
Rural areas are key sector in every nation’s economy and their rapid development and modernization have gained the attention of policy makers and government all over the world. This is because of the sizeable majority of the population living therein. Therefore; the future of the country depends largely on it.

According to Afolayan (1995) rural areas, can be easily identified by various criteria including the level of infrastructural development i.e. road networks, educational institutions, water supply, electricity, health facilities, communication etc. Other criteria used include occupation, housing, extent of community planning etc.

Typically, rural dwellers are less vocal, characterized by a culture of poverty; at most people live barely above subsistence level (Laah et al 2022). Rural areas, in developing countries are usually deprived of the basic needs of life such as housing, medical care, postal communication, education, transport etc. specifically, rural areas refer to geographical areas that lie outside the densely built up environment of towns, cities and the suburban villages, and whose inhabitants are engaged primarily in agriculture as well as the most basic of rudimentary form of secondary and tertiary activities (Ezeah, 2005). Rural area which is the opposite of an urban area refers to the country side where population engages mainly in primary production activities like rearing of livestock (Ele2006).

About 90 percent of the rural labour workforce engages directly or indirectly in agriculture (Nyagba 2009). The rural sector of Nigeria is very vital to the socio economic development of the nation. According to Nyaba (2009), the most important sector of the Nigerian population is the rural areas. This is because the rural sector is the major source of capital formation for the country and principal market for domestic and raw materials for industrial processes (Ugwauaniyi Emma, 2022). Rural area dwellers have seen round to engage in primary economic activities that form the foundation for the country’s economic development (Abah 2010).

Given the contributions of the rural sector to the national economy, enhancing the development of the sector should be central no government and public administration. This is necessary as such would further enhance the ability of the sector for increased contribution to the overall national growth and development.

In most countries, development is most desirous in the rural areas where bulk of the population resides. The development of the rural areas signally to a greater extent the level of national devel0pment and the situation of the nation’s in the development ladder.

Rural infrastructures has therefore been described in different ways by different authors, depending on the discipline or line of the thought. This is because the approach to rural infrastructures is multi disciplinary. According to Aslam C (1981) rural infrastructures is a process aimed at developing the rural poor, their economy and institutions from a state of stagnation or law productivity equilibrium into dynamic process leading to higher levels of living and better quality of life. Similarly, Schumacher (1983) defined rural infrastructures as developing the skill of the masses to make them self reliant through instructions which supply appropriate and relevant knowledge on the methods of self-help.

According to (Aviy 1999) rural urban migration occurs at varying levels in every country. However, the challenges and projects of rural infrastructures in Nigeria have been of great concern to the different tiers of government due to the rate of rural urban migration.

Different motive, account for rural urban migration amongst rural dwellers such as socio cultural issues, where people are forced to migrate to avoid numerous social problems at their place of origin (Agyemang, 2022) poor in infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities, search for better economic opportunities such as jobs etc. Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate, rural urban migration, this view is based on the extension of road networks, from major towns to perpetual- urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.

1.2. Statement of The Problem
Given the contributions of the rural sectors to the economy, enhancing the development of the sector should be a priority to the government and relevant stakeholder. This is necessary as such would further enhance the ability of the sector for increased contribution to the overall national growth and development. Unfortunately, over the years, the development strategies and efforts in Nigeria has been more urban based resulting in the relative neglect of rural areas as evidenced by dearth of basic infrastructures in the rural areas such as good roads, well equipped and functional hospital, electricity, pipe borne water use (Abah 2010). Abunyi and Nnamani (2011) also noted that rural poverty persists in Nigeria despite the prosperity created by the country’s oil wealth as evidenced by the difficulty experienced in getting back daily needs such as food, water and shelter. Lack of these basic life needs in the rural areas has made a number of urban dwellers migrate to urban centres with high hopes of improving their standard of living.

According to Abah (2010), the deplorable condition of the Nigerian rural sector is emphatic and more worrisome is that even the few policies and programs put in place and implemented by government over the years have not resulted in significant improvement in the development of the rural areas of Nigeria (Ezeah, 2005). Incessant and excessive rural urban migration has brought a lot of socio- economic difficulty both in rural and urban areas. McCarthy (2004), opined that excessive urbanization leads to high rate of urban congestion, crime and poor sewage disposal system, safe and portable drinking water, electricity and other amenities, chronic unemployment with the attendant creation of large slums and shanty towns. Many developing countries including Nigeria have made several attempts to resolve these problems of rural under development and dissertation.

In Nigeria from the colonial period till date, successive administrations have tried to reform the rural areas where over 75% of Nigerians live in for the sake of attaining balanced growth and development, and discourage rural-urban migration to no avail (Omonigho, 2022).According to Nwallezo (2004), the Nigerian population is growing at an annual rate of 2.8 percent that of the urban population is growing at 5.5 percent. It’s pertinent to note that this rate is among the highest world today. This therefore calls for urgent measures to be taken towards fast travelling rural infrastructures to reduce urban population explosion.

1.3 Research objectives
1. To find out the causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Ndokwa East

2. To outline which LGA programmes and policies would enhance the economic wellbeing of the Ndokwa East community

3. To find out the current state and level of implementation of the identified Rural infrastructures and activities in Ndokwa East

4. To find out how Rural infrastructures initiative can reduce the rural urban migration in Ndokwa East

1.4 Research Questions
This study sought to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the possible causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Ndokwa East?

2. Which LGA programmes/policies would enhance the economic wellbeing of communities in Ndokwa East?

3. What is the current state and level of implementation of the identified Rural infrastructures in Ndokwa East?

4. How can rural infrastructures reduce rural-urban migration in Ndokwa East?

1.5 Significance Of The Study
This study will help beam the search light on rural infrastructures and its substantive development of rural infrastructure as strategy for reducing rural urban migration in Nigeria.

The study seeks to find out the socio economic and cultural causes of rural urban migration in the study area and its implications on rural infrastructures with respect to the study area, this will help in highlighting strategies adopted by the community members to cope with the situation and what can be done to curb situation. This research study will also help reveal the extent of the problem to relevant stakeholders so that they can rise to the occasion and put in measures to develop the rural urban migration. Finally, this research work will add to the existing body of knowledge on the importance of development of infrastructure as a strategy for reducing rural urban migration in Nigeria.

1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study will cover the rural infrastructures and its impact on development of rural infrastructure as a strategy for reducing rural urban migration in Nigeria. The special reference to the actual influence it has on the socio economic activities and lives of rural dwellers, causes of rural-urban migration and measures put in place by relevant stakeholders to combat the winners of rural-urban migration in the study area. The study will also cover all the rural areas and incidence of rural-urban migration in Delta.

1.7 Definition Of Terms
RURAL AREA: a geographical local area located outside cities and town with a relatively low population density and small settlements.

MIGRATION: movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semi- permanent residence.

RURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: the process of improving the quality of life and economic well being of people living a relatively isolated area.

RURAL –URBAN MIGRATION: is a process of population shift from rural areas to urban areas with attendant increase in proportion of people living in an urban area.

INFRASTRUCTURE: basic physical and organizational structures and facility needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 67 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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