WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION AND TALENT RETENTION IN UNIVERSITIES IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
All around the world, retaining talented employees has been established to be a serious challenge to organisations in the face of hyper-competition, corporate failures, employees’ turnover, and workplace discrimination. This concern grew from the philosophical assumption that talented employees are instrumental to organizational success. The study examined workplace discrimination and its effects on talent retention.
The study adopted survey research design through the use of questionnaire as data collection instrument. Stratified sampling technique was adopted by dividing the entire universities’ population in Ogun State into four strata. The study covered three private and three public universities located in Egba, Ijebu, Remo, and Yewa/Awori.  Slovin (1992) formula for calculating sample size for finite population was adopted with sample size determination of 1282 respondents. A validated survey questionnaire was employed for collection of data. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients for the constructs were: Talent Retention (0.737), Managerial Skills (0.839), Career Development (0.790), Institutional Policy (0.778), Workforce Diversity (0.839), Work Climate (0.677) and Religion Affiliation (0.786). Quantitative method of data analysis was adopted to draw inferences about effects and relationships among variables.
The study provided both theoretical and statistical evidences to show that managerial skill has positive and significant effect on talent retention in Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria (β=32.177,  t=21.897). Career development has positive and significant effect on talent retention in Universities in Ogun State (β=0.478, t=18.362, p=0.000). When the moderating effect of work climate was individually tested, it had significant moderating effect on the relationship between workplace discrimination and talent retention (β=0.004, 29 R2=0.041, p<0.05).  Also, the individual moderating effect of religion affiliation on the relationship between workplace discrimination and talent retention in Universities in Ogun State was negative and statistically significant (R2=0.002 or 0.2%, p<0.05). However, the combination of work climate and religion affiliation had no significant combined moderating effect on the relationship between talent retention and workplace discrimination in Universities in Ogun State(β=2.827E-6,R2=0.000). There was also a significant difference in respondents’ opinion by religion affiliation on workplace discrimination in universities in Ogun State (F=1.838, 36 P=0.00). Meanwhile, when the combined influence of the variables of workplace discrimination were  tested on talent retention, the results showed that institutional policy, managerial skill and career development had significant combined influence on talent retention (R2=.552, .581, .598), but workforce diversity was statistically excluded. It was finally established from the findings that workplace discrimination had combined significant effects on talent retention in universities in Ogun State (R2=0.358, F=181.158, p<0.05).

It was concluded that workplace discrimination truly exists inuniversities in Ogun State, Nigeria, and its dimensions; managerial skills, career development, institutional policy and workforce diversity affect talent retention. Furthermore, when religious affiliation and work climate were combined together, workplace discrimination became explicit in decreasing talent retention.  It was therefore recommended that workplace discrimination that fuels low talent retention should be discouraged.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Globally, retaining talented employees is challenging to organisations in the face of hyper-competition, corporate failures, employees’ turnover, absenteeism and workplace discrimination. The concern emanates from the philosophical assumption that talented employees are instrumental to organisational success (Collins, 2006, 2009), and a determining factor in an organisation sustainability, and competitive advantage (Porter, 2008). Public and Private organisations depend highly on the inherent experience and technical ability of their talented employees to strive with competitors (Armstrong, 2009) and to perform above average returns (Schuler, 2011, Vaiman, Scullion & Collins 2012). However, workplace discrimination has affected the retention of talented workforce in many organisations both public and private. 
The scholarly argument for talented employees retention is anchored on intellectual capital perspective (Becker, 2000) and resources based view (Penrose, 1959), and three reasons stated by Harvard Business Essential i.e. (1) the need for growth on intellectual capital, (2) the occasional relationship that connects talented employee and customer satisfaction, and (3) financial cost of employee’s turnover and lack of interruption of competitive goods and services (Chitra, 2013). In addition, Armstrong (2006 &2010) and Becker (2000) emphasised the effect of intellectual capital as human intangible assets to organisation longevity and financial success.  
Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed the difficulty in the retention of talented employees for the organisations as several employees are lured and hired with better rewards (Armstrong, 2006; Desseler, 2008; Michael & Crispen, 2009; Michael, 2008).  The after-effect has been industrial espionage and loss of intellectual property. Hence, competitive advantage is eroded when talented employees are not given chance to have a long stay in the organisation so as to maintain lack of disconnection of company’s competitive products and services in the market within which it operates (Michael, 2008).
Abbasi and Hollman (2000) indicate that in an instance of losing a talented employee by an organisation, it becomes a disadvantage to innovation, consistencies in providing quality services become vulnerable, and there exists major setbacks in services rendered to customers.  These negative effects emerged since talented employees are the progenitors of knowledge, innovation, and creativity that constitute the main advantages of an organisation over its rivals. From the foregoing, talented employees retention is fundamental to an organisation’s competitiveness (Rath & Rath, 2014).
Talented employees’ retention is confronted with challenges due to workplace discrimination in today’s business world. Proprietors, management and other employers of labour acknowledged the reality of workplace discrimination orchestrated by employees’ diversity; age, gender, marital status, social status, health status, disability, sexual orientation, religion, personality, ethnicity, race, career focus, and culture (Kossek, Lobel,& Brown, 2005). In this regard, studies in the area of discrimination have examined such characteristics in relation to organisational behavioural outcomes and performance (Channar, Abbassi, & Ujan 2011).
In spite of the worldwide acceptance of the law as an appropriate instrument for dealing with workplace discrimination challenges and the conscious efforts of organisations to rid themselves of such practices, workplace discrimination remains a global reality (Beauchamp & Bowie, 1993; Gregory & Thompson, 2010). The concern for workplace discrimination arises from the assumption that it causes disparity, organisational injustices, and inequity among employees of different groups or associations within the organisation (Robins & Judge, 2014; Jie, Ashok, Brian & Manjit, 2009).
Weiss (2008) sees workplace discrimination as a recent managerial task which demands serious attention because its after-effect amplifies the intention of talented employees to leave and hinders organisation from wining a competitive advantage. Authors who research on discrimination rarely give close attention to variables such as (1) religion affiliation (2) work climate (3) managerial skills (4) career development (5) institutional policy and (6) workforce diversity. Rather, attention has always been more on disability, ethnicity, gender, race, and sexual orientation, with others in relation to workplace discrimination (Channar, Abbassi, & Ujan 2011; Darity & Mason, 1998; Hoobler, Lemmon & Wayne, 2011).
As work environment is beginning to experience diversity in the aspect of culture, ethnicity, and religion, people’s social quality and discriminatory influence become more intense.  Consequently, employees would probably bring with them their religious beliefs and practices with them to the organisation.  According to Oliverira (2004), Mitroff and Denton (1999), and Cavanagh (1999), when organisations foster free expression and practice of religion and spirituality in workplace environment, such organisation would have a better chance to succeed.  Work climate are driven by reactivation of work environment and interaction of religions (Marschke, Preziosi, & Harrington, 2009).
The quest for religion affiliation is now very popular due to the on-going confusion about organisational identity that frequently follows an impression of lack of job security for employees in various organisations (Giacolone & Jurkiewicz, 2003).  Organisation integrity is constantly investigated  detailing human resource challenges such as business ethics, corporate contributions, community development, environmental policies, human right, and workplace success (Giacalone et al. 2003), which only a religiously motivated talented employees could answer.  The motive of religion affiliation and work climate has to do with employees giving and witnessing inter-dependence, pull and togetherness in the work environment that enables corporate organisations to craft out strategies that produce competitive advantage (Harrigton et al., 2004; Mitroff & Denton, 1999). Developing a spiritual vision through religion and comfortable work climate can quench discrimination, fasten an employee to the organisation and improve retention.
In relating managerial skills to workplace discrimination, skills and qualifications ideally speak for themselves and become one of the core aspects the managers consider in the choice of retention of talented employee; however, this is not always the case (Kadiresan & Javed, 2015). This introduces a barrier into a healthy workplace relationship which, Naidoo (2009) affirms that talented employees discriminated against in this way tends to become more stressed, demotivated, and consequently develop an intention to leave.
Furthermore, ascendancy to the higher rank is a subtle challenge while planning to retain talented employees who have much concern for career development (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wayne, 2011). Hoobler et al, (2011) explains four main stereotypical reasons why certain gender is considered not fit for the highest echelon of their career. These are: (1) glass ceiling (2) pipe line argument (3) genetic predisposition (4) 21st century work structure.  The assumptions have consequential effect on talented employees’ retention and organisation longevity.
In the global business world of today, it is certain for organisation to recruit employees from various socio-cultural and political backgrounds considering the unchangeable divergences in ethnicity, religion, race, gender, size, personalities, physical capabilities, age, and sexual inclination and others. In as much as organisation employs individuals, it is expedient that it invests on workforce diversity management to foster organisational unity that enhances competitive advantages and produce a high rate of returns on investment (Green, Lopez, Wysock, Kepner, Farnsworth & Clark, 2015).
Workforce diversity is a priceless competitive property indispensable to any organisation (Robinson, 2002; Usmani, Kumari, & Hussain, 2015). Appreciating the worth of workforce diversity is a crucial part of effective management of talented employees (Anonymous, 2001). The reality of today’s business is the indiscriminate atmosphere that allows retention of diverse talented employees to have a level play field with their indigenous counterparts. An organisation that has various talented employees performs better in a competitive market (Kundu, 2001). More so, the legislation backs the notion that talented employees be treated justifiably (Pincus, 2000). The beginning of a business contract in the workplace is supposed to be through the awareness of justice adequately informed by institutional policies.  Organisations are expected to construct standing principles and procedures to form part of their institutional policies which suggest that all employers have the obligation to treat their employees with worthiness and admiration in the workplace (Human Right Commission (HRC, 2013).
According to New South Wale Industrial Relation Agreement (NSW, 2013) on Supporting Fair and Productive Workplace, a clear institutional policy statement is described as a significant symbol of management responsibility in safeguarding not-conforming behaviours such as discrimination at workplace. However, the effectiveness of institutional policy depends on the involvement of all stakeholders coupled with corporate strategy forming an inherent fraction of the organisation. Institutional policy must carry along all personnel at management cadres to secure their interests and construct the policy with the awareness of the employees and their representatives.
Everyday operations at workplace can be a source of unintentional discrimination which is capable of hindering organisational success. For the avoidance of this, organisations may need to review its current policies to follow-up with procedures and practices that will identify areas where it needs to invest in change. A good institutional policy helps in achieving broader performance improvements as it focuses on effectiveness and efficiency at workplace. A good institutional policy defines what constitute workplace discrimination, highlights the influence on key areas such as managerial skills, career development, and workforce diversity as it relates to interaction of certain elements such as religion, gender, and work climate to sustain talented employees’ retention in the organisation, and to win a competitive edge above rivals.

1.2       Statement of the Problem
Workplace discrimination phenomenon is a serious problem worldwide and Nigeria is not an exception with reference to retaining talents. The history of Nigerian nationalism is being narrated in comparison with ethno-regionalism, gender, religion, Federal character, and discrimination sentiment (Mohammed, 2005). This experience has been cascaded into workplace discrimination both in public and private organisations. Further, social, economic disparities and geo-political demarcations have translated into unfair instruments in employment processes and the after-effect is generating tensions, conflicts, and workplace discrimination. 
In spite of the commonly espoused Government vision of building inclusive and egalitarian society, ethnic and religious intolerance, institutional policies and others have marred the progress made in post-colonial era.  This emerged from the disposition to hire employees on Federal Character with a publication that amplifies the depth and level of inter-regional inequality in employment (Remington, 2015). While the aforementioned reflected the inter-regional mind-set, the private is not isolated as evidences of institutional policies and practices have tacitly and socially excluded qualified and eligible applicants from being employed. 
Several policies and practices among private organisations have created a big obstacle to organisational potentials and success in retaining talented workers (Olurode, 2003). In most organisations there is usually no commitment to providing employment opportunity for eligible applicants or converting qualified third-party service providers to regular employees as a form of organisation’s move to motivate talented employees without reference to peoples’ connections, demands for settlement, age limitation, disability, genetic formation, pregnancy, and marital status which all have their links with  discrimination.  Evidence of this assertion is credited to Akinpelu and Oyetunji (2016) which demonstrated that recruitment procedures in public and private services in Nigeria are not based on merit rather on gender, religion, and tribal sentiments.
In addition, workplace discrimination challenges faced in private organisations in relation to talent retention today are rooted in several factors one of which is managerial skills and this can be regarded as dimensions of workplace discrimination. Many private organisations having being caught up by the current economic hardship are in a state of dilemma in retaining highly skilled workers. This is evidenced in the recent disengagement of thousands of employees in the Eco Bank, Diamond Bank, and First Bank of Nigeria Plc. In this situation, the only way of escape from loss of intellectual capital is for the private organisations to be fair and free from discrimination in their choice of retention by valuing, preserving, and utilizing optimally the technical, human, analytical, and conceptual skills in individual talents to its advantage in order to win a competitive edge above rivals. The difficult task confronted by several private organisations this day is the ability to initiate effective management strategies for the retention of talents and survival of their business. (Akinpelu & Oyetunji, 2016).
Another challenge faced by private organisations is the ability to strengthen the bond with core employees through career development. In many private organisations, employment casualization has gained a wider ground. Short term employment has secured the regular status lacking the legal rewards attached to regular employment. Casual employees are made to undergo career degradation, unattractive payment, exclusion from association and other rewards. Workplace discrimination prevents talented employees from reaching the pick of their careers as fulfilment of life and career purpose is undermined (Akinpelu, et. al. 2016).
Reflection on departure in identity and personal attributes have constituted obstacles to the achievement of workforce diversity; capturing that divergence to gain a competitive edge (Robbins & Judge, 2014; Cachon, 2005).  However, the challenges that private and public organisations in Nigeria are confronting today is the promotion of teamwork in the midst of workers hailing from different cultural settings, age, gender, education, profession, religion and appropriately tailoring their activities in line with achievement of organisational goals and objectives suggests that more effort is required to improve workforce diversity to encourage talents to stay.
Appreciating workforce diversity is essential if competitive advantage must be sustained. Productivity, effectiveness and competitiveness are maintained when workforce diversity is in place. In his assertion, Cox (2001) opines that promoting workforce diversity will encourage retention of excellent employees and help to improve customer loyalty. More so, due to the rapid expansion of private universities in Ogun State, there has been an increase in the diversity of the faculties and staff. These faculties and staff have different perspectives, cognitions and customs which are capable of being harnessed for the usefulness of the organisation in the face of unbiased workforce diversity management strategy.
Irrespective of the fact that some institutions are performing well in customers’ relation, whether or not workforce diversity is being practiced internally is uncertain. Institutions are lacking diversity as part of their core values of leadership; integrity, character, creativity and innovation, team spirit and togetherness which supposed to serve as pointers to the idea of workforce diversity is being alienated by discrimination (Duggar, 2016)
Gender discrimination in Nigeria can be traced to the period of colonial administration and this discrimination against the opposite sex in workplaces is still predominant in our modern society (Makama, 2013). For instance, the Federal Ministerial report released by the Women Aid Collective Organisation in 2008 discloses that in the Ministry of Women Affairs, men have higher population than women. Men have 59.4 per cent population higher than women who only have 40.6 per cent population. This is the evidence of the incessant challenge pose by gender discrimination in workplace which often times lead to unrest, ill decision making and lack of productivity (Lawal, 2004). According to Azuh, Egharevba, and Azuh (2014) the failure to include women in all aspects of life is responsible for the continued underdevelopment of many organisations. Where women are downgraded, discriminated against, marginalized or ignored, it is difficult to achieve development (Egbuta, 2016).  The potentials of women are often under-utilized in work places while it has been found out that, men have dominated the workplaces.
Employees’ perceptions and feelings about physical and social work climate is also a serious cause for concern to talent retention. Workplace discrimination leads to poor work climate (Armstrong, 2007). The workplace social environment in many private and public universities is unsafe and unhealthy. These in most cases affect how well institution’s goals are being achieved when the work climate is un-conducive and lack innovation. A workplace that does not provide clarity among the group in terms of roles and responsibilities within the overall organisation, an environment where employees does not have the resources and backing they need to achieve the work group’s goals, or an environment that provides no opportunity to group members to stretch their abilities and assume some certain level of risks in providing solution to problems and find out innovative means of functioning to arrive at better performance is no doubt encountering discrimination and will find it difficult to retain its core talents (Armstrong, 2010).
The new managerial bottleneck that is calling for attention is religious discrimination. Religious discrimination dispute is developing quickly compare to any other forms of discrimination. This is reflected in the killings of about seven hundred to one thousand (700-1000) Shiite minority in Zaria, Kaduna State, as they were setting up for a religious function in December 2015 by Nigerian army. Recently in Kano, about fifteen (15) Shiite members and one (1) policeman lost their lives during the clash between the members of the sect and the police while claiming their right for freedom of worship (Adetayo & Odogwu, 2017).Earlier in the study of IFRA Nigeria between June 2006 and May 2014, it is reported that violence deaths caused by religious discrimination accounts for four thousand and forty-one (4041) people. From the year 2006 to 2009 statistic shows a rapid increase in number of death caused by religious discrimination from ten (10) to one thousand and four (1004) casualties. In the year 2010, the figure drops to seven hundred and eight (708) casualties, but in 2011, it escalates to one thousand one-hundred and seventy-nine (1179).  Year 2011 to 2014 witness a rapid increase from one thousand one-hundred and seventy-nine (1179) to four thousand and forty-one (4041) casualties. This eventually has led to migration of human capital from the north to the south and the east thereby causing increase in unemployment population in the regions and economic talent degradation in the north (IFRA, 2014). 
            As enumerated  by Ali, Ali, and Abdigani (2013), organisation’s challenge of today is surrounded with inadequate infrastructure, lack of transparency, lack of integrity, lack of continuity in programs, inconsistency in policies and regulations, brain drain, and high level of mediocrity, amplified by different forms of discrimination. These are critical factors for business success but can also deter organisation’s success.  Talented employees are extremely important to public and private organisational performance (Oladapo, 2014).  For many organisations, the strategy employed to arrest the loyalty of the talented employees is crucial to their success (Iles, 2007). The emergence of knowledge based society has made talented employees to be considered as salient drivers and requisites to the sustainability of the organisation.  Nations and organisations are still in the business of competing for the best talents in the face high turnover (Porter, 2008). 
Turnover is a popular phenomenon in higher institutions of which Ogun State is not an exception. A particular challenge faced by institutions is associated with workplace discrimination dimensions namely managerial skill, career development, institutional policies, workforce diversity, work climate, gender and religious. Porter (2008) explains the undesirable circumstance faced by many professional organisations due to competition because they ignore to admire talents better than their rivals.
According to Birt, Wallis and Winternitz (2004) the primary concern towards institutions is to follow up with the dynamic necessities of their workforce so as to gain absolute preference in the sight of the employees. Institutions need to be familiar with these qualities in order to equate their attraction and retention strategy with the demands from the employees. It is based on this premise that the research examined workplace discrimination and talent retention in Private and Public Universities in Ogun State.  A conceptual framework that may help organisations create strategies and policies to control workplace discrimination efficiently for better talent retention has been designed in this study.

1.3       Objective of the Study
The general objective of the study is to examine workplace discriminations and talent retention in universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
1.      assess the effect of managerial skills on talent retention in universities in Ogun State.
2.      examine the effects of career development on talent retention in universities in Ogun State.
  1. evaluate the individual and combined moderating effects of religious affiliation and work climate on the relationship between talent retention and workplace discrimination in universities in Ogun State.
  2. assess the respondents’ different opinions on workplace discrimination by religious affiliation in universities in Ogun State.
5.      examine the extent to which the variables of workplace discrimination (managerial skills, career development, institutional policy, and workforce diversity) influence talent retention in Universities in Ogun State,  and
6.      assess the effect of workplace discrimination variables (managerial skills, career development, institutional policy, and workforce diversity) on talent retention in universities in Ogun State.

1.4       Research Questions
  1. What is the effect of managerial skills on talent retention?
  2. To what degree does career development affect talent retention?
  3. What is the individual and combined effect of religious affiliation and work climate on the relationship between talent retention and workplace discrimination?
  4. What level of significance is the respondents’ difference in opinions on workplace discrimination by religious affiliation?
  5. To what extent do managerial skills, career development, institutional policy, and workforce diversity as dimensions of workplace discrimination influence talent retention?
  6. What is the effect of workplace discrimination variables on talent retention?
1.5       Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H0 1: There is no significant effect of Managerial skills on talent retention in universities in       Ogun State.
H0 2:  There is no significant effect of career development on talent retention in universities in Ogun State.
H0 3:   There is no individual and combined effect of the moderating variables (work climate,
           religious affiliation) on the relationship between talent retention and work place
           discrimination in universities in Ogun State.   
H0 4:     There is no significant difference in respondents’ opinions by religious affiliation on workplace discrimination in universities in Ogun State.
H0 5:     There is no significant combined influence of managerial skills, career development, institutional policy, and workforce diversity on talent retention in universities in Ogun State.
H0 6:     There is no significant effect of workplace discrimination on talent retention in universities in Ogun State.

1.6       Rationale for Hypotheses

Hypothesis One
There is no significant effect of managerial skills on talent retention
Previous findings have agreed that there is a significant relationship between managerial skills and talent retention (Armstrong, 2006; Armstrong 2010; Becker 2000; Chitra, 2013). A possible reason for this is what is being described as a profound effect of human intangible assets to organisational longevity (Becker, 2000), which was said cannot be overemphasised when it comes to retention of talented employees (Porter, 2008). However, Michael (2008), Desseler (2008), Armstrong (2006), and Convey (2005) also argued that retention of talented employee is strenuous no matter the incentives or rewards supplied. The study examined whether discrimination was a source of disincentive to work. The finding reaffirmed the assertion that where there is no discrimination, skills and competencies can be developed, rewards to work cannot be denied and a sense of humiliation, frustration and powerlessness cannot take over the work place. It was through this line of reasoning that the researcher hypothesized that there is no significant effect of managerial skills on talent retention.
Hypothesis Two
There is no significant effect of Career Development on talent retention.
The work of Rita (2013 on the role of talent management on organisation performance found that learning and development in organisations is a constant struggle viewed as an administrative exercise rather than as a competitive advantage.  The authors submitted that during strong economic times, it is easier to ignore deficiencies in the career management process, but during economic downturn, the need to identify and develop top talents for critical roles has never been more important. It was based on this reasoning that the researcher hypothesized that career development is of no significant effect to talent retention.
Hypothesis Three
There is no individual and combined effect of the moderating variables (work climate and religious affiliation) on the relationship between talent retention and work place discrimination
Previous studies discover agreement of work climate, employee attitudes and behaviours.  Findings state that work climate relates with positive and negative behaviours.  Therefore, workers who see their work environment to be non-supportive and not admiring are likely to display negative behaviours (Wolfs, Dulmus, & Maguin, 2012). 
Similarly, a survey report conducted by the Society for Human Recourse Management (SHRM) (2008) on religion/spirituality in the workplace (Faith at Work) survey to examine what organisation are doing in terms of religious accommodations, and to determine the impact of religious accommodation in the workplace shows that at least 12% of the respondents still believe that there are no religious/spiritual diversity among its employees.
Also, in Maina and Onsongo (2013) from a survey conducted on employee attitudes towards organisational diversity on business performance from the perspective of the small and medium enterprises.  It was found that 38% were occasional and seldom victims of gender discrimination in the organisations. The researcher infers from this line of reasoning and hypothesized base on the above reasons that there is no significance effect of the moderating variables (work climate and religious affiliation) on the relationship between talent retention and work place discrimination.
Hypothesis Four
There is no significant difference in respondents’ opinion by religious affiliation on workplace discrimination
The study reveals that application of the spiritual mind set in a workplace will support creativity and innovativeness of employees, which in the other way round lifts productivity, resulting to better overall performance (Marschke, Preziosi, & Harrington, 2009). Different   researches on spirituality in the workplace (Giacolone & Juriewicz, 2003) discover that when people discover a sense of worth in their work endeavours and feel involved in a spiritual climate, they feel excited with vigour and concentrate more on the progress of the organisation.  According to Morrison (1996) and Loden and Rosener (1991), organisations that operate religious diversity properly benefit in higher returns and possess the ability to retain core talents. From this line of taught, looking at spirituality as being closely linked to religion, the researcher hence hypothesized that there is no significant level of differences between the opinion of the respondents and moderating effect of workplace discrimination by religion.
Hypothesis Five
There is no significant influence of workplace discrimination (managerial skills, career development, institutional policy, and workforce diversity) on talent retention

The literature has demonstrated that the ideas of non-discrimination and equal opportunity have for years been enlisted among international community's key principles including conventions of the United Nations and the International Labor Organisation (ILO). These ideas are rooted in universal principles of human rights, fundamental freedoms, and equality enshrined in numerous international instruments (International Finance Corporation, 2006).             Human resources mobility has risen through economic globalization, while organisations are searching for means of retaining talents, enhancing employee performance, making corporate image better and actualising corporate goals. Organisation has become a global system that works within and as well relates across the globe (Weihrich & Koontz 2001).  From this line of thought, the researcher hypothesized that there is no significant influence of workplace discrimination (managerial skills, career development, institutional policy, and workforce diversity) on talent retention.

Hypothesis Six
There is no significant effect of workplace discrimination (managerial skills, career development, institutional policy, and workforce diversity) on talent retention

Labour Regulations (2007) establishes the illegality to discriminate in hiring, promotions, termination, or other aspects of employment, and on the basis of a person’s diversity. In other words, an employer cannot discriminate against any individual when it comes to the practices within the workforce arena.
Schwalbe (2007) opines that the achievement of any organisation rests on human resources. The act of managing human resources efficiently is the obligation of the senior managements who must procure a vast awareness of the needs of the workforce at every point in time (Wanjau & Jones, 2013).  From this line of thought, the researcher hypothesized that there is no significant effect of workplace discrimination (managerial skills, career development, institutional policy, and workforce diversity) on talent retention.

1.7       Scope of the Study
This study concentrated on workplace discrimination and talent retention in public and private universities in Ogun State, Nigeria.  Ogun State is comprised of four geo-political zones namely: Yewa, Remo, Ijebu, and Egba. Apart from the permanent indigenous dwellers of the state, there are crops of non-indigents attracted from various part of the country by education, professional activities, health, hospitality and commercial business.  In other words, virtually all major tribes in Nigeria including Hausa-Fulani, Igbo, Yoruba, Ijaw, Kanuri, Annang, Tiv, Ibibio, Etsako, and Efik have their presence represented in the state.
In this study, the population of the Universities in Ogun State were partitioned according to geographical zones out of which six universities representing all the zones were taken as sample of the total number of fourteen universities established in Ogun State.  They were Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Bell University, Ota, Covenant University, Ota, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Ilara, and Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun. The researcher worked within this frame due to the wide geographical spread of the phenomenon, time limit, and financial constraint on the study. Also, not all these universities had developed to the level of securing diversified human capital as common in the ones selected. Other reasons for concentrating on the selected universities were due to their higher population, longer years of operation, and popularity.  There is tendency that the target institutions would assess the subject matter without bias due to heterogeneous nature of the population. The whole population of the study stood at 6457.The researcher believed that the scope is adequate in appraising workplace discrimination and retention not only in the study area, but also in the whole of the country, Nigeria.

1.8       Significance of the Study
Managerial Practices
This study empirically reviewed workplace discrimination to address the problem of talent retention in private and public institution universities in Ogun State Nigeria. This would be of benefit to organisations in the areas of management practices, specifically in the management of human behaviour and talent motivation towards retention. It would help public and private institutions to come up with policies that would preserve equality in practice.
Government and Society
There is no doubt also that this study would be of immense benefit to the nation’s policy makers at the local, state and federal government level who would borrow some of the findings in ensuring the institution and implementation of policies in favour of workplace discrimination orientation and talented employee retention.  Government and Society’s knowledge would be enriched from the outcome of this study by coming up with solutions to discrimination and retention problems through initiating policies that could prevent workplace discrimination in various institutions. It is believed that discrimination exists not in a vacuum, it is within the society.  The absence of discrimination in every institution is a success to the society.
Scholars
The study would as well be of immense benefit to the scholars, political analysts and investors. It would add to the body of knowledge by suggesting empirical evidences on influences, effects, and relationship among the variables which served as decision model for invention and innovation. 
Economy
Stemming from the global economic regression across the world, this study would offer great benefits to every sector of the global economy, but much more important to the researchers is the Private and Public universities in Ogun State, Nigeria.  The most difficult problem of economic development depends absolutely not only on building capital equipment to increase productivity in areas like manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and industry, but in talent development and retention. 
Talent retention is the key to the growth of any sector of the economy be it aviation, finance, education and commerce.  Talent retention is the balm for healing economic diseases of the nation. It is so because proper exploitation of national resources and establishment of different types of industries are done by people who have distinguished themselves and displayed expertise in their vocation or profession. The burden of foreign debt can be reduce drastically when talented employees are in state and the idea of borrowing for a long period will also reduce and freedom from foreign aid would surface. More specifically, this study would be an eye opener to Nigerian Public and Private Institutions in examining their capacity at ameliorating failures in talent retention.

1.9       Operationalization of Variables
The predictor variable- this is referred to as Workplace Discrimination (X), while Talent Retention is referred to as predicted variable (Y). From the study variables,
Y=f(X)
Y=Talent Retention (TR)
X= Workplace Discrimination (WD) i.e. X = (x1, x2, x3, x4,).  Or (MS+CD+IP+WD)  ƩX
Where
x1 =Managerial Skills (MS)
x2 =Career Development (CD)
x3 =Institutional Policy (IP)
x4 =Workforce Diversity (WD)


Y= f (x1)
Implicitly
TR= α01MS+µ…………………………………………………………………………… (1)
Where
α0 = Constant term i.e. the level of talent retention when management skill is not available or
       zero.
α1= Coefficient of managerial skills.
µ= Error term i.e. the value of other extraneous variables not included in the model.

Y= f (x2)
Implicitly                         
TR=β0+ β1CD+ µ…………………………………………………………………………… (2)

Where
β0 = Constant term
β1= Coefficient of Career Development
µ= Error Term (Stochastic variable)

Y=f(X)
Implicitly
Individual and combined moderating effect is obtained at
TR= β0+ β1WPD+ β2WC+ β3WPDWC+µ …………………………………………………(3a)
TR= β0+ β1 WPD+ β2RA+ β3WPDRA+µ ………………………………………………… (3b)
TR= β0+ β1WPD+ β2WC+ β3RA+ β4WPDWCRA+µ ……………………………………...(3c)
Where
β0 = Constant term
β1 = Coefficient of Management Skill
β2 = Coefficient of Career Development
β3 = Coefficient of Institutional Policy
β4 = Coefficient of Workforce Diversity
z1 = Work Climate (WC)
z2 = Religious Affiliation        (RA)
µ = Error Term (Stochastic Variable)

X=f (z2), X=WPD, therefore:
(MS,CD, IP, WD)=RA……………………………………………………………………….(4)
where
WPD=RA
H0: WPD= RA
H1:WPD≠RA

The Influence of Workplace Discrimination on Talent Retention is implicitly expressed as follows:
TR=f (MS, CD, IP, WD)……………………………………………….................................(5)
The combined effect of Workplace Discrimination on Talent Retention is implicitly expressed as follows:
Y= α01 MS+ α2 CD+ α3 IP+α4 WD+µ …………………………………………………….(6)
α0 = Constant term
α1 = Coefficient of Management Skill
α2 = Coefficient of Career Development
α3 = Coefficient of Institutional Policy
α4 = Coefficient of Workforce Diversity
(1) to (6) above was investigated by this study to form the working equations for the research model which were the basis of model specification in chapter (3). 

1.10     Operational Definition of Terms
            Terms used in this study are easily understood from daily usage.  Nevertheless, some that are not being used frequently are defined below:-
Talent- Innovative, intellectual and thoughtful employee who can turn business around to success.
Competitive advantage- Having an edge above business rivals. Higher productivity and returns above rivals.
Workplace discrimination- whatever separation, removal from consideration, or preferential treatment made on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, skill, national extraction, cultural differences or social origin that has the tendency to nullify or weaken equality of favourable circumstance or treatment of a person(s) in employment or occupation. Workplace discrimination denotes strong, unreasonable beliefs or opinions or acts against an employee or a group of employees in an organisation regardless of the conditions surrounding their differences.
Employee Turnover- When employee leaves an organisation, it is referred to as turnover
Talent Retention- An organisation’s ability to sustain its Innovative, Intellectual and thoughtful employee for future competitive advantage.
Managerial Skill- Technical, human, analytical, and conceptual skills in individual talents
Career Development- Career development is a mutual beneficial process that provides essential result to employer and employees. It creates promotion opportunities, training opportunities, and skill development to improve employees’ capability.
Institutional Policies- Institutional Policy is a written policy statement that guides the management operations of an organisation at all levels to gain employees commitment.
Workforce Diversity- This is a different kind of collection of activities and opinions that emanate from divergence in race, culture, religion, mental or physical abilities, heritage, age, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and other characteristics.
Work Climate- represents the atmospheric condition of work environment. This has to do with how employees feel about their work conditions in the organisation.
Religious Discrimination- Religious discrimination is explained as any attempt to regard or indulge a person or group of persons differently from the other due to their sensations or acts in relation to a given religion.
Gender Discrimination- Gender discrimination is explained as treating a particular sex group differently or better than the other.

1.11     Brief Historical Background of the Universities under Study
Babcock University (BU)
Babcock University is a private Christianco-educationalNigerian university owned and operated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Nigeria. The university is located equidistant between Ibadan and Lagos. Enrolment was about 6,000 as of 2009. It is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system, the world's second largest Christian school system.  Babcock University was named after an American missionary by the name of    David C. Babcock, who pioneered the work of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Nigeria in 1914. He was based in Erunmu in Oyo State, Nigeria. The university was established as the Adventist College of West Africa (ACWA) in 1959, initially with seven students. In 1975, it changed its name to Adventist Seminary of West Africa (ASWA). The university was officially inaugurated on April 20, 1999.
From the initial four schools, Babcock has added a Postgraduate School in the third quarter of 2010 and a Medical School in January 2012. The latest additions are the Music and Educational Foundations departments to the Joel Awoniyi School of Education & Humanities. As at 2013, Babcock hosts nine Schools and one College: They are: School of Agriculture & Industrial Technology, Babcock Business School, College of Health & Medical Sciences, School of Basic & Applied Science , School of Computing &Engineering Sciences, School of Education and Humanities, School of Law & Security Studies, School of Nursing, School of Public & Applied Health, School of Post Graduate Studies.
The recognition of the need for human resources that would join Babcock and his successors in the vineyard led to the founding of the Adventist College for West Africa.  After some experiment with ACWA forty seven years ago, the Adventist Church, established in 1999 for human capital development, has continued to move the production of human resources forward. The entire world and not just West Africa is the field of operation including students and staff recruitment, partnership building among institutions, and peoples across cultures, geographical zones, embracing peoples of all religious creed and social background throughout the entire world.
Bells University (Bells)
Bells University of Technology also known as Bellstech is the first private university of technology established in Nigeria. It was established in 2004, and began admitting students from the 2005/2006 academic session. Bellstech was established in 2004 by The Bells Educational Foundation, which already ran Nursery, Primary and Secondary Schools. The Bells Educational Foundation is owned by Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, a former President of Federal Republic of Nigeria. Bells University of Technology is made up of seven colleges and thirty-five departments. Due to restructuring, some colleges were merged and from 1st of August 2016, it has three Colleges: College of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, and College of Management Sciences.
Covenant University (CU)
On October 21, 2002, Covenant University opened. Covenant University is located in Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State. Covenant University is a University founded on a Christian (specifically, Pentecostal) mission ethos. Covenant University is a product of the Liberation Commission. The drive to embark on the process of founding the institution came about in October 1999, one month after the dedication of Faith Tabernacle, Ota, Nigeria; the largest church auditorium in the world, built in one year with only local resources. Covenant University was established by the World Mission Agency and the Living Faith Church Worldwide. David Oyedepo, the founder and presiding Bishop of Living Faith Church Worldwide, is the Chancellor of the University. World Mission Agency (WMA), a Christian mission organisation, (an arm of Living Faith Church World Wide founded by Dr. David Oyedepo) is the proprietor of Covenant University. In his capacity as the visionary of the University, Dr. Oyedepo serves as the life Chancellor of the University and the Chairman of the Board of Trustee of World Mission Agency. It is the Board of Trustee of World Mission Agency that appoints members and also elects the Chairman of the Board of Regents (Governing Council) of Covenant University. The Board is the apex governing body of the University. The Chancellor of the University, Bishop Dr. David Oyedepo is the Chairman of the Board of Regents.
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB)
Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta is a Federal Government-owned University. The Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State (FUNAAB) was established on 1st of January 1988 by the Federal Government when four universities of technology, earlier merged in 1984, were demerged. This led to the creation of the first two universities of agriculture in Abeokuta and Makurdi.
On the same date, Professor Nurudeen Olorun-Nimbe Adedipe was appointed the pioneer Vice-Chancellor of the university. Professor Adedipe officially assumed duty on 28 January 1988. For many years the date which Professor Adedipe assumed duty was wrongly adopted as the foundation day. Following a revisit to the instrument setting up the university, a council decision at its 53rd statutory meeting in June 2010 reverted the foundation date to 1st January 1988 as prescribed by the law which established the university. Prior to the emergence of FUNAAB, the Federal Government had established FederalUniversity of Technology, Abeokuta (FUTAB) in 1983. Then, in 1984, it was merged with the University of Lagos and had its name changed to the College of Science and Technology, Abeokuta (COSTAB), before the demerger of January, 1988.
The university started off from the old campus of Abeokuta Grammar School, Isale-Igbein near the City Centre. It completed its movement to its permanent site along Alabata Road in 1997. At the initial stage, five colleges were introduced in the university in October 1988 as follows: College of Agricultural Management, Rural development and Studies (COLAMRUCS), which name was later changed to COLAMRUD (College Of Agriculture Management and Rural Development), College of Animal Science and Livestock Production (COLANIM), College of Environmental Resources Management (COLERM),College of Natural Sciences (COLNAS), College of Plant Science and Crop Production (COLPLANT). Two additional Colleges, College of Engineering (COLENG) and College of Veterinary Medicine (COLVET) were introduced in March, 2002.
During the 2008/2009 session, the College of Agricultural Management, Rural Development and Consumer Studies were split into two, with two new colleges emerging as follows: College of Food Science and Human Ecology (COLFHEC), College of Agricultural Management and Rural Development (COLAMRUD), The newest college is College of Management Sciences (COLMAS). The university is one of the three universities of agriculture in Nigeria, the other being in Makurdi (Benue State) and Umudike(Abia State). The university started at its mini-campus in Isale-Igbein in the heart of Abeokuta, the capital of Ogun State. In December 1997 it moved to its permanent site on a 10,000-hectare campus which is located next to the Ogun-Oshun River Basin Development Authority on the Abeokuta-Ibadan road in the North Eastern end of the city, 15 km from Abeokuta City Centre.
The first council was constituted on 18 May 1989 under the chairmanship of Alhaji Muhammadu Jega, former Head of Service and Secretary to the Sokoto State Government. On 1 September 1990, the council was reconstituted with some changes for five years with Alhaji Muhammadu Jega retained as Chairman. The second governing council was constituted in 2000 for five years, with Alhaji Sanni Bagiwa Idris as Chairman. The third council came on board in 2005 and was dissolved in November, 2007 by the Federal Government. Elder Brigadier General (Rtd.) Bassey Asuquo, a one-time Military Administrator of Kogi, Edo and Delta States respectively, was the Chairman. The fourth council was constituted in January 2009 with Mr. Raphael Oluwole Osayameh as Chairman and immediate past Pro-Chancellor. Chief Lawrence Ayinde Osayemi was Pro-Chancellor and Chairman of Council. Now Senator Adeseye Ogunlewe Kingsley is the Pro-Chancellor and Chairman of Council.
Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye (OOU)
Olabisi Onabanjo University Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye is a state (owned and operated) university in Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria. The university was founded July 7, 1982 as Ogun State University (OSU) and was renamed Olabisi Onabanjo University on May 29, 2001 in honour of Chief (Dr.) Olabisi Onabanjo, whose efforts as the then civilian governor of Ogun State gave birth to the university. Meanwhile, many students still refer to the institution as OSU, an acronym for the former name. The university has had a total output of 10,291 graduates and 1,697 postgraduates.
Olabisi Onabanjo University has multiple campuses. The Main Campus in Ago Iwoye is popularly called Permanent Site (PS) by the students and a Mini Campus which was the home of the Faculty of Science till it was moved to the permanent site in January 2013. Faculty of Agriculture is in Aiyetoro, faculty of Engineering is in Ibogun, and college of Medicine is in Shagamu, faculty of Pharmacy and department Biochemistry is at Ikenne. Students and alumni of the Olabisi Onabanjo University are addressed as ‘Great OOUITES.’
Tai-Solarin University of Education (TASUED)
The Tai Solarin University of Education is the first university of education in Nigeria. It is located in Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State.  The university was named after the Nigerian educational administrator and human rights activist Tai Solarin (1922–1994). It is the second university approved in Ogun State, and the 76th approved university in Nigeria. It was proclaimed a full-fledged university by the former governor of Ogun state, His Excellency Otunba Gbenga Daniel on 29 January 2005. The former Tai Solarin College of Education was approved by the Nigerian Universities Commission in 2005 as a university after a thorough analysis and appraisal of its facilities' academic brief. Professor Olukayode Oyesiku was its first Vice Chancellor (he succeeded the provost. Dr. Philips Olasunkanmi Tella and Yinusa Oyeneye). He was succeeded by Professor Segun Awonusi until January 2013 when the Vice Chancellor of the university became Professor (Mrs.) Oluwayemisi Oluremi Obilade.  The five colleges in the university includes: College of Science and Information Technology (COSIT), College of Specialized and Professional Education (COSPED), College of Social and Management Sciences (COSMAS), College of Humanities (COHUM), College of Vocational and Technology Education (COVTED)

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