TEACHERS’ TURNOVER AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ILORIN WEST SECONDARY SCHOOLS, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
This work focused on Teachers’ Turnover and Students’ Academic Performance in Ilorin West Local Government Area Secondary Schools, Kwara State. The study is a descriptive of correlational type.
Three sets of instruments were designed to collect the data. The first instrument was entitled: “Teachers’ Turnover Questionnaire” (TTQ), the second one was entitled: “Students’ Academic Performance Format” (SAPF) and the third instrument was a “Checklist on Teachers’ Turnover” (CTT). The target population of this study consisted of 1,125 secondary school teachers in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. Fifteen schools were randomly selected out of the 35 public secondary schools in the Area. The sample schools represent 42.9% of the secondary schools available in the Area. Furthermore, simple random sampling method was employed to select 10 teachers in each school, making a total of 150 participants.
The research questions raised were answered using percentage and mean scores while the research hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistics at 0.05 significance level. The results revealed that there was significant relationship between teachers’ turnover and students’ academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government Area secondary schools, Kwara State, because the calculated r-value (0.5379) of Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistic is greater than the critical r-value of 0.195 at 0.05 level of significance and for 148 degrees of freedom. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected.

Based on these findings, the following were recommended among others; government should improve working conditions and welfare services for teachers such as opportunities for car and housing loans to discourage transfer of service and leaving teaching for other jobs by professional teachers. Furthermore, teachers’ salaries and allowances should be paid promptly to boost the morale of the teachers in order to reduce the turnover rate of teachers. This would bring effectiveness into their job and consequently enhance students’ academic performance in schools.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions
Research Hypotheses
Scope of the Study
Operational Definition of Terms
Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Importance of Teachers in School
Concept of Students’ Academic Performance
Professional Needs of Nigerian Teachers
Development of Teacher Training Education in Nigeria
Demand and Supply of Secondary School Teachers
Teachers’ Turnover in Secondary Schools
Empirical Studies on Teachers’ Turnover and Students’
Academic Performance
Appraisal of Literature Reviewed

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design
Population, Sample and Sampling Technique(s)
Instrumentation
Procedure for Data Collection
Data Analysis Technique

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Responses to Research Questions
Hypothesis Testing
Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Results
Conclusions
Recommendations
Suggestions for further Studies
REFERENCES

Appendices

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
The place of the teacher in formal education system is adequately underscored by the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) in the National Policy on Education where it says “Teacher Education will continue to be given a major emphasis in all our educational planning because no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers.” But like every other provisions in the National Policy, the stated intention regarding teacher education and teacher conditions of service is not supported by concrete efforts of implementation. Like the general public, government itself still appears to look down on teaching as the occupation which people go into by accident rather than by design when they cannot find anything better to do. The experience of teachers engaged in the teaching profession tends to support this. The moment teachers today have opportunity in any other businesses outside teaching; they tend to withdraw their service in teaching.

It is crystal clear that secondary education is an incontrovertibly pivot of the education system of any developing nation like Nigeria. With the general awareness that the standard of academic achievement of secondary school students in West African Senior Secondary School Examinations is falling, one wonders whether the responsibility ascribed to education as regards nation building is not a force after all. The society is much apprehensive of this observed fall in students’ performance in the School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) and National Examination Council (NECO). Hence, the prevalent hues and cries about the falling standard. The falling in standard has evoked a lot of reactions and remarks from all stakeholders in education, even the National Assembly invited the head of National Examination Council (NECO), Professor Dibu Ojerinde, to defend the poor results of students in the June/ July 2009 NECO examinations.

Whereas scholars continue to profer different solutions to curtail the problem, the government only concerns itself with occasional fortification attempts. Among the various reasons advanced, as the causes of the poor academic performance of students at this level of education according to Abdulkareem (1986), are poor preparation of primary school pupils for secondary school education, non-challant attitudes of students to learning activities, teachers’ poor attitudes and lack of dedication to work; inadequate staffing in the secondary schools, inadequate school resources, inadequate parental care; overall politicization of education and over-crowded school programmes among others.

Now that various investigations of the problems have been carried out in the areas listed above, most researchers did not consider the importance of teachers as the most crucial factor next to students in any level of education. Consequently, the suggestions and recommendations of researchers are yet to achieve the desired impact. The situation persists unabated as secondary schools continue to turn out mediocre unfit for employment. This situation begets the question whether there are no other parameters influencing this phenomenon.

Other factors possibly account for this deplorable condition of the country’s education system. While the factors listed above have been well studied and most of them are almost over-beaten, the effect of teachers’ turnover on students’ academic performance as a factor of efficiency and effectiveness have received little attention from researchers in the field of education. This has therefore attracted the interest of this researcher to examine whether there is any relationship between teachers’ turnover and students’ academic performance.

Statement of the Problem
Every system and organization always has its goals that serve as a focus for its activities. This is equally true of educational institutions and establishments. However, the extent to which these goals are accomplished indicates how efficient and effective the system is in the discharge of its responsibilities.

To achieve efficient and effective teaching and learning, the roles of the teacher cannot be overestimated. This is because teacher is the person that holds the key to modernization; education is viewed as the key that unlocks the door to modernization in all its interpretations (Obayan, 2002).

For example in Kwara State between 2007 and 2011, the percentages of teachers’ migration to other jobs was 10.4%, 13.3%, 8.3%, 9.4% and 11.9% respectively. (Abdulmutalib, 2011).

Teachers’ poor remuneration detracts their ability from effective performance of their responsibility. Salary is poor and motivation is low. In their attempt to augment their salary, they give little attention to their primary responsibility. They seldom attend to the basic classroom schedules as may appear on the time tables. While in earnest, their attention is geared towards attending to some personal endeavours elsewhere in a bid to provide supplement to their economic needs (Obayan, 2002)

As a result of this situation, many teachers tend to search for more lucrative jobs, seeking transfer to federal ministries, parastatals and private companies that pay better salary which leads to teachers turnover in secondary schools. Other reasons include forced retirement, deaths, moving into other professions or other countries, ill –health and so on.

Unlike unskilled trades where workers could leave their jobs and be replaced almost immediately without necessary loss of resources or production, teaching is a skilled profession and if a teacher leaves, it takes time to find an appropriate person for replacement. This led the researcher to investigate whether or not there is any significant relationship between teachers’ turnover and students’ academic performance in Ilorin-West Local Government Area Secondary Schools of Kwara State. Specifically, the study intends to find answers to the following:

(i) The influence of teachers’ turnover on students’ academic performance;


(i)    The   influence   of   teachers’   dismissal  on  students’   academic

performance;

(iii)       The influence of teachers’ resignation on students academic performance;

(iv)   The influence of teachers’ capacity building on students’ academic

performance.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between teachers’ turnover and students’ academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government Area selected Secondary Schools of Kwara State.

Other purposes of the study include to determine the influence of:

1.     Teachers’ transfer on students’ academic performance

2.     Teachers’ dismissal on students’ academic performance

3.     Teachers’ resignation on students’ academic performance

4.     Teachers’ capacity building on students’ academic performance.

Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

1.     What is the rate of teachers’ turnover in Ilorin-West Local Government Area secondary schools between 2006/2007 and 2010/2011 academic session?

2.     What is the level of students’ academic performance in Ilorin West

Local Government Area secondary schools between 2006/2007 and 2010/2011?

3.     Does the teachers’ turnover rate have significant impact on students’

academic performance?

Research Hypotheses
Based on the research problems earlier set out, the following hypotheses were formulated for testing:

Main Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between teachers’ turnover and students’ academic performance in Ilorin-West Local Government Area secondary schools, Kwara State.

Operational Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between teachers transfer and students academic performance.


Ho2:    There is no significant relationship between teachers’ dismissal and students’ academic performance.

Ho3:    There is no significant relationship between teachers’ resignation and students’ academic performance.

Ho4:  There is no significant relationship between teachers’ capacity building and students’ academic performance.

Scope of the Study
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between teachers’ turnover and students’ academic performance in Ilorin-West Local Government Area Secondary Schools of Kwara State. The target population will consist of all Senior Secondary School teachers in Ilorin-West Local Government Area.

Two hundred and fifty teachers were purposefully selected from randomly selected senior secondary schools in Ilorin–West Local Government Area, Kwara State. However, for the purpose of representativeness, 10 senior secondary schools and 250 teachers of these schools were selected.


The indicators of teachers’ turnovers include teachers’ transfer, dismissal, resignation, death, abscondment, protracted illness, leave for maternity, in-service training, proceeding for further studies and teacher’s capacity building. Only four of these indicators will be examined in this study; and they are teachers’ transfer, teachers’ dismissal, teachers’ resignation and teacher capacity building. West African Senior Secondary Schools Certification Examination (WASSCE) was used to determine students’ academic performance in a period of five years, that is, 2006/2007
– 2010-2011 academic sessions.

Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms and variables are operationally defined for the purpose of this study.

Teachers’ Turnover: This refers to all forms of withdrawals of teachers from the school plus the movements within the teaching profession. These include study leave, maternity leave, resignation, death, retirement, dismissal etc.



Teachers’ Transfer: This refers to movement of teachers from one senior secondary school to another. That is, movements orchestrated by the Kwara State Teaching Service Commission.

Teachers’ Resignation: It is a situation whereby teachers formally leave the teaching profession for other professions.

Teachers’ Dismissal: It is a situation whereby a teacher’s service is officially withdrawn by the government on account of some grave offences. Teachers Capacity Building: This refers to the process of enhancing the abilities and capacities of teachers with the purpose of enhancing the quality of learning and achievement of educational objectives through in-service training.

Academic Performance: This refers to the average scores of senior secondary schools in West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) between 2006/2007 and 2010/2011.

Significance of the Study
The study would help to guide the Ministry of Education, and Teaching Service Commission to make necessary policy that would reduce the rate of teachers’ wastage in secondary schools.


The study would also enable the government at various levels and other stakeholders in education in Nigeria to see the need to fully recognize teaching as a profession that requires special salary scale (Teacher salary scale). The study would serve as a guide to educational administrators in proffering solutions to the problem of teachers’ turnover in Ilorin West Local Government Area of the state.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 81 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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