The purpose of this study was to assess the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) by secondary school administrators in Nsukka education zone of Enugu state. This study employed the use of a survey design. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were generated to guide the study. The population of the study comprised 1,614 respondents (59 principals and 1,555 teachers). Proportionate multistage sampling technique was used to select 29 principals and 311 teachers, bringing the total to 340 respondents. A researcher developed questionnaire titled, Information and Communication Utilization Questionnaire (ICTUQ) was used as the instrument for data collection. Mean and Standard Deviation were used to answer the research questions, while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of probability. The result of the study, among others, showed that the extent of utilization of ICT by secondary school administrators in Nsukka education zone of Enugu state is low It was also found that the challenges to the utilization of ICT by secondary school administrators include, provision of computers, epileptic power supply, government ICT policies and programmes, training of administrators, inadequate funds, provision of incentives, willingness of administrators, poor facility maintenance and reluctance to change. It was also noted that the gender, age, experience, and status of the administrator does not significantly influence utilization of ICT. The study recommended that ICT facilities provided should be properly maintained in secondary schools in Nsukka Education zone, that administrators should be trained and well motivated to utilize the facilities and that adequate funds and power supply be made available to ensure sustainable and effective utilization of the ICT facilities.

Background to the Study
Information and communication technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that includes the manipulation or application of any communication device encompassing radio, television, telephones, fax machines, cellular phones, computers, computer accessories, computers network, hardware and software, satellite systems as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as video-conferencing and distance learning. It is a system of computer and telecommunication technologies that are used in the acquisition, analysis and transmission of information to ensure effective and efficient administration of organizations. The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2002) defined ICT as the range of technologies that are applied to the process of collecting, storing, editing, retrieving and transfer of information in various forms.

Operationally, information and communication technology is the combination of networks, hardware and software, as well as means of communication, collaboration and engagement that enable the processing, management, and exchange of data, information and knowledge between individuals and institutions for effective and efficient management. Indeed, people in organizations can only do their work effectively if they receive accurate and timely information (Maki, 2008). This is so because organizations and schools depend on information systems to support the flow of data, information and knowledge.

In order to achieve effective data collection, data entry and data flow for making internal processes more powerful, it is necessary to utilize ICT in school administration. Adeyemi and Olaleye (2010) stated that ICT is necessary in the areas of budgeting, collection and keeping of students’ data, collection of staff data, recording of results and effective keeping of school records. Nwosu (2003) noted that ICT assists the school administrator to meet the tasks of school management in the areas of curriculum and instruction, school-community relationship and school business operations. Mohammed (2006) observed that the introduction of ICT in schools enhance the daily routine, programmes, updating the evaluation of school programmes and solving individual, group and staff development challenges. This study will explore the utilization of ICT in secondary school administration in Nsukka Education Zone.

The use of ICT in the school administration is fast becoming an indispensible tool for teachers and administrators. The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) observed that the ability to access and use information is no longer a luxury, but a necessity for development (Adomi and Kpangban, 2010). This assertion has implications on our school system, as it implies that the effective use of ICT is currently a prerequisite not only for sustainable development but also for effective and efficient school administration

The current developments in Nigeria have made it even more pertinent for the use of ICT in secondary school administration. This include the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) plan to introduce computer-based tests in the 2013 University Matriculation Examinations (Ezeike, 2012) and various public and private establishments that currently conduct ICT-based job advertisements, applications and assessments for secondary school leavers. As a result, students from poor ICT based schools may find themselves unable to gain admission into universities, access job advertisements, apply for jobs and examinations, and pass examinations due to lack of proper exposure to ICT utilization. Eventually this can result to students’ dropout from such schools in their search for more result-oriented schools. In the face of these realities, secondary schools that do not embrace the innovations inherent in the utilization of ICT may not survive, because ICT is considered to be part of an extensive modernization of administration and education.

Despite the importance of ICT in school administration, some experts are still worried about the situation in Nigerian schools. Etudor-Eyo, Ante and Emah (2011), indicated that administration of secondary schools in Nigeria is largely dominated by the use of manual or analogue operational methods, as secretaries and typists still working with outdated typewriters are common sights in most, if not all, of the principals’ offices. This study will investigate the use of digital technologies in the secondary schools under study in other to throw more light on the above assertion of Etudor–Eyo, Ante and Emah already cited.

Administration constitutes the most important human activity in all organizations and has been viewed as an art as well as a science. Those who view administration as an art believe that administration, like all art, belongs to those who have the natural gifts, traits or abilities for it; while those who view it as a science believe that the application of principles and rules play crucial roles in solving administrative and organizational problems. Administration is consequently the art and science of getting things done effectively and efficiently. Sergiovani and Starrat (1980) define it as the process of working with and through others to efficiently accomplish organizational goals. Ogbonna (1995) sees it as the totality of the process which entails the utilization of human, financial and material resources in maximizing the realization of goals.

Effective and efficient administration is needed to sustain educational institutions. Educational administration is the art and science of making use of both human and material resources within and outside the school for the realization of the school’s objectives. It involves the planning and organization of activities and resources aimed at fulfilling the goals of an educational institution. Ezeocha (1990) sees educational administration as a way of coordinating and controlling the scarce resources of an educational institution, namely, manpower, finance and capital equipment so as to achieve desired educational objectives. In this study administration implies the various activities of the school principals requiring the use of ICT, such as the management of instruction, school-community relations management, school plant management, and financial management, as well as student management and staff personnel management.

Secondary school administration can thus be defined as the coordination and control of the scarce manpower, finance and material resources of secondary schools towards the attainment of the objectives of the schools. In specific terms, Arikewuyo (1999) viewed the functions of the secondary school administrators in terms of the provision of leadership for curriculum development; provision of leadership for instructional improvement; creation of environment conducive for the realization of human potentials; influencing the behavior of staff members; and supervision of instructional activities in the school system. A secondary school administrator is consequently the person who plans, organizes, coordinates and controls the resources of an institution for the achievement of the goals of enhanced teaching and learning. Operationally, secondary school administration is defined as the management of instruction, student personnel, staff personnel, community relations, school resources and finances by the principals and teachers for the purpose of ensuring effective and efficient input and the efficient achievement of the objectives of secondary education.

In the context of this study, both principals and teachers are referred to as administrators, because, within the limits of their duties, they perform administrative functions at class or school levels. This study will consequently seek to assess the.....

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