This study examined the effects of climate change adaptation strategies on food crop production efficiency in Southwestern Nigeria. The study used multistage sampling technique and primary data were collected from 360 food crop farmers (i.e. 180 respondents were randomly selected from each selected state from the savanna and the rainforest agro-ecological zones that dominates the region). The analytical techniques involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Results of the multinomial logit analysis showed that household size negatively influenced the use of multiple crop varieties, land fragmentation (i.e. multiple farm plots), multiple planting dates and crop diversification. Age of household head had an inverse relationship with the choice and use of multiple crop varieties, land fragmentation (multiple farm plots), multiple planting dates and off-farm employment. Education had a negative effect on the choice and use of multiple crop varieties and multiple planting dates. Sex had positive influence on the choice and use of multiple crop varieties, multiple planting dates and off-farm employment but average distance had a positive relationship with the choice and use of land fragmentation. Tenure security positively influenced the choice and use of crop diversification but access to credit negatively correlated with multiple crop varieties, multiple planting dates and crop diversification. The stochastic frontier analysis showed that labour, farm size and other agrochemicals are highly significant at 1% level of probability in food crop production. The computed mean technical efficiency estimate was 0.84. The technical inefficiency model showed that land fragmentation (i.e. multiple farm plots) and multiple planting dates had significant positive relationship with technical inefficiency but years of climate change awareness and social capital had significant inverse relationship with it. The stochastic frontier profit function showed that rent on farm land and price of labour were highly significant at 1% level of probability. The computed average profit efficiency of the respondents was 0.67. The profit inefficiency model revealed that off-farm employment, multiple planting dates, crop diversification and education level had significant positive relationship with profit inefficiency but land fragmentation (i.e. multiple farm plots), years of climate change awareness and social capital had negative relationship with it. The factor analysis revealed that the major constraints to climate change adaptation among the food crop farmers were public, institutional and labour constraints; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraints; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraints; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm-job and credit constraints; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraints. The study, therefore, recommends, inter alia, proactive regulatory land use systems that will make food crop farmers to participate in a more secured land ownership system should be put in place to enhance their investment in climate change adaptation strategies that has a long-term effect. Morealso, Government and non-governmental organizations should help the farmers in the area of provision and/ or facilitate the provision of input-based adaptation strategies in the study area. Again, intensive use of already proven adaptation strategies at farm-level by the farmers at their present resource technology will still make them to reduce technical and profit inefficiencies by 16% and 33% respectively, in the study area.

1.0                                                      INTRODUCTION
1.1      Background of the Study
The process of producing food requires resources, which could be natural or man-made resources. Natural resources include all the materials and forces that are supplied by nature. Those that are most essential for food crop production are land, water, sunshine, air, temperature and soil conditions. Man-made resources (include labour, capital or entrepreneurship) are supplied and influenced by man (Olayide & Heady, 1982; Oyekale, Bolaji

&  Olowa, 2009). Among the natural resources, climate is the predominant factor that influences food crop production. Climate as defined by Oyekale et al. (2009) is the state of atmosphere, which is created by weather events over a period of time. A slight change in the climate will affect agriculture.

According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines climate change as a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global and/or regional atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods (IPCC, 2001). It is obvious from this definition that change is an inherent attribute of climate, which is caused by both human activities (anthropogenic) and natural processes (biogeographical) (Odjugo, 2007, 2009). Climate change is already affecting people, their livelihoods and ecosystems and presents a great development challenge for the global community in general and for the poor people in developing countries in particular (Khanal, 2009). This also presents major challenges to scientists and policy makers.

Literature have shown that for the past decades, anthropogenic factors like urbanization, deforestation, population explosion, industrialization and the release of green house gases (GHGs) are the major contributing factors to the depletion of the ozone layer and its associated global warming and climate change (Buba, 2004; Nigerian Environmental Study/ Action Team [NEST], 2003; Odjugo, 2007). For example, unsustainable industrialization, which releases green house gases (GHGs), is viewed as the main cause (Odjugo, 2009). The level of greenhouse gases (GHGs) mainly Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane
(CH4) have been rapidly increasing after industrial revolution. The increased level of GHGs has

created a greenhouse effect which subsequently altered precipitation patterns and global temperatures around the world. Impacts have been witnessed in several areas due to change in precipitation and temperature. The areas affected include agriculture, forestry, water resources, biodiversity, desertification, human health, and ecosystems goods and services globally (Khanal, 2009; Rosegrant et al.,2008).

Between 1960 and 1998 a decline in mean annual precipitation of between 20% and 40% has been noted in West Africa compared to a 2% to 4% decline in tropical rain forest regions (IPCC, 2007). It is also important to note that rural people and agricultural production in Africa rely on rainfall for water supply with as little as less than 4% of cultivated land under irrigation (Inter Academy Council [IAC], 2004; World Bank, 2008). The predominance of rain-fed agriculture, the scarcity of capital for adaptation measures, their warmer baseline climates and their heightened exposure to extreme events (Nnamchi & Ozor, 2009) reportedly in Africa agriculture to be more vulnerable to climate change. Food crop is particularly sensitive to climate change because crop yields depend largely on prevailing climate conditions (temperature and rainfall patterns) (Palatnik & Roson, 2009), Southwestern Nigeria is not exempted. The principal food crops grown in Southwestern Nigeria are cassava, yams, maize, and cocoyams, which are also sensitive to climate variability and climate change. Subsistence....

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Item Type: Ph.D Material  |  Attribute: 190 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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