INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND TRANSITION RATE OF TARABA STATE STUDENTS INTO TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of guidance and counselling services on academic achievement and transition rate of Taraba state students into tertiary institutions. Four research questions answered, using mean and standard deviation, and three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistics and chi-square guided the study. Population of the study was 1,800 SS III students in Wukari and Donga education zones of Taraba state. The sample size was 364 students drawn through simple random sampling technique. The study adopted an ex-post-facto research design. The instrument for data collection were students WAEC result to answer research questions 2 – 4 and a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher which was validated by three experts from the faculty of education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, to answer research question one (1). Main findings of the study revealed, among others, that guidance and counselling services influence Taraba state students’ academic achievement and transition rate into tertiary institutions. Transition rate of female students in Taraba state is higher than the transition rate of their male counterpart. There was a significance difference in the transition rate of Taraba state secondary school students exposed to guidance and counselling services and those not exposed. Major implication of the findings is that academic achievement and rate of transition of Taraba state students into tertiary institutions will be enhanced, if the government can release more funds for in-service training of school counsellors to upgrade their knowledge and skills. The researcher therefore recommended that, government should as a matter of urgency, employ more school counsellors and also train and retrain the existing ones for maximum output.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
As individuals develop through stages of life and educational attainment, they encounter problems, challenges and conflict situations. These individuals also need to develop value systems, make decisions, set goals and work towards them. All these cannot be achieved without self-understanding and decision-making skills, which are not innate, but need to be developed. The need to address these challenges and to promote educational success and healthy life therefore, call for exposure to guidance and counselling programs by individuals/students.

Guidance and counselling is a term usually used together which focus on assisting individuals attain self-understanding and direction, although attempts have been made by various authors to define the term separately. While Ezeji (2001), defines guidance as the help given by a person to another in making choices, adjustment and in solving problems, Denga (2001), sees guidance as a cluster of formalised educational services designed by the school to assist students to achieve self knowledge or self-understanding which is necessary for them to attain full self-development and self- realization of their potential. On the other hand, Okeke (2003), defines counselling as a helping relationship involving the counsellor and the client, in which the counsellor uses his professional knowledge and skills to assist the client attain proper development and maturity, improved functioning and ability to cope with life’s problems. Counselling is also defined according to Eze (2012), as an inter-personal relationship between a professionally trained individual (counsellor) and a troubled individual (counsellee) or individuals (counsellees) whereby the former utilises his professional skills to help the latter to be able to solve his educational, vocational and person social problems. Bark (2003), states that guidance and counselling are the assistance made available by qualified and trained persons to an individual of any age to help him to manage his own life activities, develop his own points of view, make his own decisions and carry his own burden.

Based on various definitions presented above, the researcher sees counselling as a process of utilising professional skills by a person (counsellor) to assist another (client) in a person to person relationship to achieve the resolution of general life problems, in order to attain proper development and functioning. General life problems here, refers to all aspects of the individual’s life which include; personal, social, educational and vocational among others, as no single individual is said to be free from trouble or problem. Guidance and counselling is therefore designed to help individuals/students in their different problems and concerns, so that they grow up well adjusted individuals capable not only of living productive lives, but are also prepared to contribute their quota to the development of their society. Gibson, 2008 states that Guidance and counselling services prepare students to assume increasing responsibility for their decisions and grow in their ability to understand and accept the results of their choices.

There are different aspects of guidance and counselling such as family guidance and counselling, marriage guidance and counselling and pastoral guidance and counselling among others. The researcher’s concern however, is on school guidance and counselling. The focus of school guidance and counselling is on three major areas namely: educational, vocational, and personal-social. Educational guidance and counselling according to Ifelunni (2003), is aimed at assisting both the students and their parents to develop educational plans that will help them plan their school work such as study habit, examination techniques and how to choose subjects, among others. According to Ifelunni, the planning is such that they benefit from their school work and hence able to progress to the next level of schooling. Ifelunni (2003) also viewed vocational counselling as aiming to assist a person match his personal attributes and his background with suitable jobs and employment opportunities. Personal-social counselling according to Ifelunni (2003), takes care of the problems of the students that may not be educational or vocational such as boy-girl relationship, leisure time activities, personal appearance, social skills, home and family relationship, among others.


The focus of guidance and counselling in school is to address the needs and concerns of students or learners at different levels of academic or educational development. Braddock (2001), states that the purpose of guidance and counselling in schools is to improve academic achievement, foster positive study attitudes and habit, increase acquisitions and application of conflict resolution skills and decrease school dropouts. The primary mission of a school’s guidance and counselling program is to provide a broad spectrum of personnel services to the students. Denga (2001), referred to these services as “cluster of formalised educational services designed by the school to assist students to achieve self-knowledge or self-understanding which is necessary for them to attain the fullest self-development and self-realization of their potential”. These services include: student appraisal service, information service, counselling service, placement service, orientation service, referral service, follow-up and evaluation service, and research service. Appraisal service involves the use of tests and non-test instruments to collect, analyze and interpret data on students to understand themselves better. It also affords counsellors and significant others, the opportunity of having insight into the strengths and weaknesses of students. Information service is tailored towards equipping students with the necessary information in the areas of educational, vocational and personal social. These information are very important because they assist students to make wise decisions about life. Counselling service is a face to face interaction between the counsellor and the students, through which.....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 76 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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