INFLUENCE OF AGE FALSIFICATION ON ADJUSTMENT OF TEACHER RETIREES IN NSUKKA EDUCATION ZONE, ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

The study examined the Influence of Age Falsification on Adjustment of Teacher Retirees in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State. Ex-post-facto research design was adopted for the study .A sample of 125 teacher retirees was randomly selected from 257 teacher retirees in Nsukka Education Zone. The study was guided by four research questions and two hypotheses. Influence of Age Falsification on Adjustment of Teacher Retirees Questionnaire (IAFATRQ) was used for data collection. To ensure the validity of the instrument, the instrument was subjected to face validation by three experts, two from the Department of Science Education and one from Educational Foundations. The reliability index of 0.89 was obtained. The data generated from the study were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The result of the study showed that gender was not a significant factor on age falsification and psychological adjustment of teacher retirees. The findings also showed that gender influences age falsification and social adjustment of male and female teacher retirees. The findings further reveled that gender was not a significant factor on age falsification and economic adjustment of teacher retirees. Based on the. findings, recommendations were made which included that government should pay the retirees their benefits immediately after retirement without stress, for this will encourage them not to have negative mind towards retirement.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Retirement refers to the period of one’s life after the person has stopped work at a particular age. Stonier (2004) defined retirement as withdrawal from office or official position or to give up one’s business or occupation. Olusakin (2001) defines retirement as a situation in which a person leaves a job he has been used to in order to face another stage in life whereby he now settles down to establish his own private business or job which he does at his own convenience. In this context, retirement is a period of change in one’s life which could be enjoyable for some people and frustrating for others. However, this is dependent on the way the person involved sees this situation. So, while some retirees acknowledge that retirement is reducing the number of work hours, from full time to part time, some others see it as working on a voluntary basis or ceasing from all work activities paid or unpaid.

Retirement is of two major types. These are voluntary and mandatory retirements. Voluntary retirement according to Omeje (2002), is a situation whereby the retiree feels like resting after some years in service while the mandatory retirement is the type stipulated by government policy for all civil servants with emphasis on age limit and years of service, whichever one any intending teacher retiree is involved, it needs proper preparation ahead of this change in life. In developed countries of the world, a worker has to sometimes make material, social and psychological preparations as he approaches retirement, unlike in developing countries like Nigeria where little or no preparations are made (Nwafor, 2002).

In Nigeria, some of the workers especially the teachers had no pre-knowledge of what retirement entails and because of this, some tend to undertake voluntary retirement. Some who are aware of the difficulties associated with retirement, like delays in processing and payment of retirement benefits, try to avert retirement; hence, according to Jarvis (2006), as a result of the inability of the tiers of the government to implement enabling legislation on retirees’ pension, the serving civil servants resort to falsification of age. In the same context, Ochiagha (1999) asserts that teachers and other civil servants falsify their age to avert impending frustration, anxiety, fear, low esteem and penury arising from retirement. Falsification by Grangaard (2000) is the action of falsifying information or a theory or the act of producing something that lacks authenticity with the intent to commit fraud. Consequently, age falsification involves the fraudulent altering of one’s age. In the word of Idowu (1988) age falsification is the act of altering documents regarding to one’s age fraudulently to avoid being retired. Similarly, Nwafor (2002) asserts that falsification of real age in variance with biological age has become a disturbing phenomenon. According to Amina (2008), it becomes more glaring when one considers the fact that those who are supposed to be preparing for their retirement falsify their age with impunity and waste away in office. According to Ani (2000), these particular set of workers are always young on paper but appear old and weak. All these as stated earlier are aimed at avoiding the hardships retirees experience in our society today.

For instance, the Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT) in her bulletin of March, 1994 exposed how retired teachers experience hardship, anxiety, income problems and other pathetic conditions on retirement. The effect of this is that those who are yet to retire use every means available to carry out falsification of record of their age, records of service and sometimes plead with and bribe the officers responsible for retirement matters not to enlist them among those due to retire. It is alleged that most teachers feel very uncomfortable when getting close to retirement as they have to wait for a long time under various hardships before receiving their retirement benefits (Eyaro, 2005).

Retirees are expected to adjust to these prevailing circumstances but they fail to do so due to long stay in service resulting from falsification of records and age. Adjustment in this context involves one’s struggle to get along or survive in his social environment. Lazarus (2003) sees adjustment as a man’s efforts successfully or unsuccessfully to deal with life in the face of environmental demands. This change in environment therefore becomes instrumental to adjustment. Consequently, this involves psychological, social, economic and health adjustments.

Psychological adjustment involves the way retirees relate with people around their environment and their feelings about life before their retirement.

According to Kelves (2000), psychological adjustment refers to how retirees relate well with people around them, thinking and communicating positively about life after service. A well socially adjusted retiree is one that relates well with his family, enjoys and cherishes any support given to him, sees himself as somebody who would contribute to the development of his community and ready to take leadership role among his kinsmen at retirement.

On the other hand, a well economically adjusted teacher retiree is normally one who planned well ahead of retirement by way of savings and putting in place income generating investments or ventures before retirement. It is obvious that a serving teacher who leaves the service healthy and vibrant would achieve a well and balanced adjustment to the challenges of retirement life. However, it is worrisome that many of them play games as retirement approaches.

In Nsukka Education Zone, it is observed that there is large number of retirees and majority of these teacher retirees look so devastated and aged shortly after retirement from the service. On the other hand, some do not look healthy enough as to engage in other businesses to support life, while some cease to communicate freely with neighbours and withdraw completely from attending social activities. Worse still, many suffer high blood pressure, stroke or other related diseases and die shortly after their retirement to the extent that people around begin to wonder what their problem might be.

It is pertinent to note that age and records falsification by primary school teachers and their attendant effects are not restricted to only male teachers or to the females. Both sides participate freely in this act while there is no parity in their psychological and economic adjustments. This study will also look at gender differences of teachers’ age falsification and psychological adjustment. Gender is a range of characteristic used to distinguish between male and female, particularly in the cases of men and women, masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. Gender is a social construct, it is not biologically determined but a concept equivalent to race or class (Offorma, 2004). This definition suggests that gender is socially or culturally constructed characteristics and role, which are associated with males and females in society. It is different from sex which is a biological distinction in appearance (morphology) and function (physiology) as well as reproductive contributions of men and women. According to Lee (2001) gender is ascribed attribute that differentiates feminine from masculine......

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 63 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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