IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON FISCAL POLICY MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

Corruption is an anti-social behaviour conferring improper benefits contrary to legal and moral norms, which undermine the authorities to improve the living conditions of the people. It is one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world today. The increasing wave of corruption and its devastating impact on the Nigeria economy has become a national problem which has triggered serious research interest within the academics and the industry. This research project therefore is an evaluation of the Impact of Corruption on Fiscal Policy Management in Nigeria. Accordingly, the study explored the extent to which corruption in the fiscal policy management can affect government expenditure, deficit financing and tax revenue. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. It was conducted using 12 year annualized time series data spanning the period, 2000-2011. Data were generated from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and Transparency International website. A computer based regression analysis using the Special Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer version was employed to test three formulated hypotheses of the study. Evidence from the descriptive analysis of the research indicated that Nigeria is highly corrupt going by the rating of transparency international. But comparing the transparency initiative rating with the Nigeria fiscal policy parameter, this study concludes that corruption rather has a significant positive effect on overall government expenditure and tax revenue but no significant positive effect on deficit financing in Nigeria. In line with this conclusions, the researcher recommends amongst others that government leadership should cultivate strong willingness to fight corruption head-on. To achieve this, they should have the political will to prosecute corrupt officers instantly they are caught.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Corruption is one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world today. Literarily, corruption connotes an anti-social behaviour conferring improper benefits contrary to legal and moral norms, which undermine the authorities to improve the living conditions of the people (Osaba, 1996; Tanzi, 1998; Folorunso, 2007). To the developing countries, the prevalence of corruption vary from country to country. In Nigeria precisely, corruption has posed serious danger to both the micro household and the economy as a whole. It has undermined good government, distorted public policy, harmed the private sector, hampared public sector development and have particularly hurt the poor (Transparency International; 2008). Farida, (2010) in Obasanjo ,(2010:2) put it that corruption is the greatest single bane for our society today. According to Alemika, (2004), corruption is a serious problem in Nigeria today as it is increasingly widespreading and unfortunately being tolerated by the public.

Corruption in Nigeria seems to have acquired immunity against various political and legal measures aimed at its control. Since independence in 1960, successive administrations have been enmeshed in crises of confidence ochastrated by corruption as reflected in the processes of policy formulation and implementation. In the first republic, corruption was kept at manageable level. Cases of corruption during this period were sometimes clouded by political fighting. The trend has for long changed as the evil wind has permiated into all the facets of the Nigerian economy and mostly the fiscal policy environment.


Conventionally, fiscal policy has been associated with the use of taxation and public expenditure to influence the level of economic activities (Okoro, 2009:340). It is an economic measure which involves the deliberate use of government spending and taxes to achieve macroeconomic growth. The implementation of fiscal policy is essentially routed in the government budgets. The budget is therefore more than a plan for administering the government sector. It rather reflects and shapes a country economic life. The first recorded corruption in fiscal policy management in Nigeria can be traced back to the pre-independence period when in 1944, a firm belonging to Azikiwe and family bought the African Continental Bank in Lagos (Uche, 1997:57). A report wrote that most of the paid-up capital of the African Continental Bank were fund diversion from the Eastern Regional Financial Corporation (Chuta, 2004). During the first republic (1960 – 1966), some political office holders were noted for undisguised personal enrichment. Some of the ministers then did not pretend on how they made their ill-gotten gains.

During a certain civilian regime, the sum of N200 Million supplementary allocations to a state government meant for the payment of salary arrears disappeared. Chuta, (2004:27) lends credence to this where he says that corruption had become so pervasive, and may have been given official recognition to the extent that the disappearance of the sum of N 200 Million as supplementary allocation to a state government, for the payment of overdue salaries was dismissed simply as owing to “change of hand”. Corruption has pre occupied and confounded the minds of Nigerians for decades. Magbadelo, (2006:2) states that ever since Nigeria’s first republic collapsed in July 1966 amid allegations of massive corruption, the fight against corruption have developed into an important public policy issue.

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The increasing wave of corruption and its devastating impact on national economies have become a global problem so much so that some World Bank researchers have embarked on the study of this problem in some developed countries of the world. Hence, the current researcher’s interest is to do a similar research here in Nigeria to find out the extent to which corruption in the fiscal policy management can affect government expenditure, deficit financing and tax revenue.

The choice to study the impact of corruption on fiscal policy management as measured from the stand point of government expenditure as well as deficit financing is predicated on the fact that the incidence of corruption is frequently reported in these areas in Nigeria. Also, the researcher became interested in this topic because corruption in fiscal policy management seems to reduce the funds budgeted to be spent on the basic needs. There are a lot of reported cases of abandoned projects. Again there is low contribution of tax revenue to the government revenue. All these situations compelled the researcher to investigate the extent to which corruption affects fiscal policy management.

Besides, the recent wave of corrupt practices noticed amongst the political office holders in Nigeria has had a negative impact on the people of the country. These corrupt practices are written in our dailies and are always reported on the television or sometimes we hear of them through radio announcements. Hence, the researcher resolved to find out, through a thorough investigative research, the actual impact of corruption on the fiscal policy management in Nigeria......

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 121 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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