This study was carried out to evaluate the resource provision for the Universal Basic Education Scheme in Kogi Central education zone of Kogi State. The research design adopted is survey research design, three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study, Population of the study is 1,333, and the sample size is 1055 teachers and 278 head teachers in the public upper basic school in Kogi central education zone. 18-item questionnaires were administered to 200 respondents, the instrument was validated by three experts, two in education administration and planning and one in measurement and evaluation. The experts examined the instrument and modified it to suit the purpose, the validated instrument was trial tested using 20 respondents which comprised 2 principals and 18 teachers in Ogbadibo Local Government Area which is outside the area of the study, Cronbach alpha technique was used for its analysis to determine the internal consistency of the instrument, this gave the reliability index of 0.75, 0.76, 0.80, 0.85, and 0.79. The overall reliability index result of 0.83 was obtained. This confirmed that the instrument was reliable for the study of Universal Basic Education Scheme in Kogi Central Education Zone. The major findings proved that lack of provision of resources such as finance, personnel and material resources affects the full implementation of UBE and hinders the management of UBE from achieving its set goals and objectives. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that government should involve the education planners in the planning for Universal Basic Education since they are expert in the planning and designing of the schools, government and school administrators should give priority attention to the provision of learning and teaching resources and government should strengthen the capacity of all the bodies and agencies set up for the production of materials and management of UBE by providing adequate personnel, finance and materials to enable the agencies execute their functions. Also teacher’s salaries and allowances should be paid as at when due to enable them perform their duties effectively and efficiently.

Background of the Study
Education is said to be an instrument “per excellence” for effecting national development, it is also regarded as an instrument of stability and change (FGN 2004) According to FGN in her national policy on education and in line with the philosophy and goals of education in Nigeria, education fosters the worth and development of individuals and the general development of the society. Education is geared towards self realization, better human relationship, national consciousness, national unity, social, cultural, political, economic, scientific and technological progress (FG, 2004). Ogbonnaya and Obeogeulam (2004), viewed education as an essential factor for political development and emancipations of citizenry, socializing people and preparing them for political positions. Education is defined as a Conner stone for development the basis for acquiring literacy, skills, technological advancement and the ability to harness the national resources of the environment. From the above, it is clear that education broadens individual’s horizon and develop their physical, intellectual, affective and social abilities thereby equipping them to improve the welfare of the society and adequately utilize the natural and human resources available to them. As cogent as education is, without resources, it is difficult to realize the dividend. What then are resources? Resources are the total means available to a company for increasing production.

Nigeria’s educational system has witnessed a catalogue of changes in policies and programmes. Some of the changes appeared to a number of people while one continues to wonder, why some of the other changes were ever initiated. In fact, many of the changes in educational policies in Nigeria have been described as the product of confusion. There is therefore, a high level of uncertainties, which is beclouding meaningful planning in Nigeria’s educational system because Nigerians will say a thing but will not actualize it; most of the programmes in Nigeria are based on theories not reality. This is because they will fail to provide the resources meant for such programme. Division of resources meant for educational programmes to other programmes and self pocket due to this behaviour of our leaders, we are afraid whether the programme of UBE can materialize as planned by FGN. In view of this, there is a need to evaluate the resource provision for UBE in Kogi central education zone.

In September 1976, the Federal Government of Nigeria launched the Universal Primary Education (U.P.E) Scheme. This scheme which was welcomed in many quarters in Nigeria was abandoned midway. Because resources were not made available adequately, materials for the success of UPE were no longer coming and most importantly personnel resources were not considered in the management of UPE and so it failed. Olusegu Obasanjo was the brain behind the UPE the programmed failed because resources were not provided adequately, money division and lack of care to personnel resources.

In November 1999, the administration under the leadership of President Olusegun Obasanjo launched the Universal Basic Education (U.B.E) Scheme in Sokoto for the nation. The re-launching of a similar programme to UPE by the Federal Government of Nigeria indicates that there is something desirable which the scheme is expected to enable Nigerians achieve. The task of this study therefore is to evaluates the resource provision for the Universal Basic Education Scheme in Kogi State. Universal in this context means the whole people without exception, while Basic means that, on which anything rests or depends. It is also the foundation from which other parts get support. There are complaints from many people nationwide about the shortage of the resource provision. A visit to Kogi Central Education Zone shows that primary schools lack enough human and material resources which can permit effective and efficient implementation of this programme. The truth was confirmed from the report of the chairman of Universal Basic Education in Kogi State in Lokoja in August, 2006, when he indicated that there were no sufficient personnel and physical equipment for effective teaching and learning in primary schools. He said that we had dilapidated buildings, blown off roofs, children sitting on the bare floor during lesson in classroom instruction, lack of instructional materials, teachers teaching under tree shades and libraries without books were the order of the day. These made teaching and learning almost impossible for teachers and pupils. Parents began to doubt the efficacy of the education provided for children and began to withdraw their children from public schools to private schools. Hence the need for this study. Education is interpreted to mean the act of bringing up or training of a child, through instruction and in the process bring about the strengthening of his culture. Education is an instrument for conserving, transmitting and renewing culture. It is therefore the sum total of person’s experience (Mallinson, 2000; Moore, 2006).

Universal Basic Education means it is an education in which a child receives wholly without exception and that this training is on which anything rest. It is the foundation from which other parts get their support as this will bring up or training of a child through instruction and in the process bring about the strengthening of his power of body and mind to enable him/her understand his culture. Education is an instrument for conserving, transmitting and renewing culture. It is therefore, the sum total of a person’s experience. Basic Education means the type of education in quality and content that is given in the first level of education. In Nigeria, basic education was equated with six years of primary schooling in the past. Currently, basic education is extended to include the three years of upper basic. Universal Basic Education (UBE) is conceived to embrace formal education up to age 15 as well as adult and non-formal educations including.....

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