CLASSROOM CLIMATE AS A CORRELATE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS PSYCHO-SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT IN OKIGWE EDUCATION ZONE OF IMO STATE

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between classroom climate and secondary school adolescents’ psycho-social adjustment. The study was guided by four purposes, four research questions and three null hypotheses. The research design for this study was a correlational survey research design. The study was carried out in Okigwe education zone of Imo-State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised of 4,694 SS2 respondents. The sample for this study was 420 SS2 students. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire developed by the researcher titled: Perceived classroom climate Questionnaire (PCCQ) and Adolescents Psycho- social Adjustment Questionnaire (ASAQ) . The questionnaire items were developed by the researcher through the information gotten from reviewed literature. The instruments was face validated by three experts. The experts were requested to vet the instruments in terms of clarity of the words, appropriateness and relevance of the items, and suitability of the items and response patterns. The observations of these experts were used for modification of the instrument. In order to ascertain the reliability of the instruments for the study, 20 copies of the instrument were trial tested using SS 2 students in Agbaja secondary school, which is outside the study area. The instruments yielded an overall reliability estimate of 0.87 which indicate that the instrument was reliable and was used for the study. The researcher, with the help of two research assistants, directly administered the instrument to the respondents and retrieve thereafter. The research questions were answered using Pearson product moment correlation Analysis while regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study among others showed that the existing classroom climate in Okigwe Education Zone is unsupportive. It was also found that there was a significant relationship between the supportive classroom climate and psycho- social adjustment of secondary school adolescents. The result of the study also showed that classroom climate and gender significantly predict psycho-social adjustment of secondary school adolescents. The implications of the above findings were examined and it was recommended among other things that school administrators should try to gain clearer insight into the importance of supportive classroom climate and strategies for improving classroom climate for students’ psycho-social adjustment. This can be achieved through organizing workshops and seminars for school administrators by the ministry of education. The limitations of this study were highlighted and suggestions were made for further studies.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
The adolescent period has been of great concern to psychologists, teachers, parents, and society at large. This is because the period is marked by great stress and storm and myriads of adjustment problems due to the dramatic physical, psychological, mental and socio-adaptation changes that occur during this period. The anticipation of psychologists, teachers, parents and the society at large is to see that adolescents are adequately adjusted during this critical period.

Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood, starting from approximately 10-12 years old, up to 18-21 years old (Sandrock, 2007). Sandrock went on to say that the transition period is characterized by rapid biological, physical, emotional and cognitive change that take place at this time. Biologically, it begins with the onset of puberty. This is the time of life during which the reproductive organ become capable of functioning. Physically, it is characterized with a growth spurt. The individual at this stage experiences a rapid increase in height. Cognitively, the stage is characterized by the increase in critical thinking, reasoning ability and the way the adolescent perceives the social environment. Emotionally, the stage is taught with affection, aggression and fear. This could be as a result of the changes that take place in the body. Igbo in Onwuasoanya (2008), views adolescence as a period when developmental changes are seen in girls from ages 10-12 and in boys from 12-14, when the capability for sexual reproductive system starts. Adolescence as defined by Rideout, Mellisa, Allison, Seeta and Betssy, (2012) is a time of life that is both exhilarating and daunting. It can be fraught with excitement and disappointment, self-confidence and insecurity, and loneness. Adolescence in this study is a developmental period between late childhood and early adulthood. An adolescent on the other hand is an individual who has passed a childhood stage but has not reached adult stage.

Adolescence period can be a time of both orientation and discovery. The transitional period can bring up issue of independence and self-identity. However, the 5th stage of Erickson theory of psycho-social adjustment (Identity Vs confusion) involves the adolescents continuing search of personal identity, as the person tries to determine who he is, confusion results when home or school environment fails to provide opportunities for individual exploration with different identity roles (Eggen and Kauchak, 2013). During this developmental stage, if the school or home environment fails to provide a warmth, supportive and caring social environment for the adolescents’ psycho-social adjustment, they may develop some psycho-social maladjustment behaviors from their social environment.

Psycho-social adjustment could be seen as the quantity of harmony which adolescents-experience in their personal and interpersonal behaviors (Olofintoye, 2015). This implies that both personal and interpersonal behaviors work side-by-side for the adolescents psycho-social adjustment. Personal behaviors are ones personal characteristics, they include temperament, cognitive style, self esteem, anxiety, and among others. Interpersonal behaviors on the other hand involves the way people interact with one another. They may include both verbal communication (Like Joking, relating with one another and among others) and non verbal clues, such as body language, or facial expressions. Ayebami, (2006) perceives psycho-social adjustment as the growth and development of social behaviors, emotional characteristics, and mental wellness capable of enhancing the proper adaptation of adolescents in schools in which they are. Antonak (2005) views psycho-social adjustment as a process which a person with disability moves from a state of disablement to a state of enablement and is characterized by the transformation from negative to positive well being. This connotes that when the adolescents are provided with a warmth and caring environment, they are likely to be transformed from state of maladjustment to adjustment which promotes their personal, social and academic development. In the context of this study, psycho-social adjustment is taken to mean the amount of balance which adolescents experience between their personal characteristics and social environment. This connotes that the secondary school adolescents psycho-social adjustment is a function of the quality of the harmony which they experience in the interaction between their personal characteristics and their social environment.

Adolescents psycho-social adjustment according to Olofintoye (2005) is made up of the following components or factors: emotional intelligence, self-esteem and social support. Emotional intelligence refers to ability to monitor one’s own and other people’s emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them approximately to guide thinking. Self-esteem is defined as the emotional evaluation individual make about themselves, which is generally in the form of approval or disapproval. It indicates the extent to which persons believe themselves to be capable, significant, successful and worthy. Social support is the perception of the availability of support of assistance from others such as peers, parents and teachers. Social support may be in form of guidance and feedback (advice and instruction), positive social interactions (spending time with peers, teachers and parents) and tangible assistance (money and academic materials).

It is believed that a psychologically and socially adjusted adolescents actively integrates into the school system to achieve the essence of being in the school. This could imply that the adolescents should have a good self-esteem, be diligent, pleasant, loving, rational and co-operative. When an adolescent is capable of striking such balance in his daily activities in the school, the adolescent is said to have achieved adequate psycho-social adjustment that enhances positive outcomes in life, within and outside the school. On the contrary, lack of psycho-social adjustment leads to psycho-social maladjustment among adolescents. Psycho-social maladjustment can be described as adolescents inability to react successfully and satisfactory to the demands of the environment. Though the term applies to a wide range of biological, physical, psychological and social conditions, it often implies an individual’s failure to meet social or culture expectations (Olofintoye, 2005). Psychologically and socially maladjusted adolescents may develop feeling of helplessness which may as well propel the adolescents to form negative attitudes towards school, works and other people. Poor psycho-social adjustment among adolescents as pointed out by Olafintoye (2005) may be manifested in lack of affection,, worry, anxiety, bitterness, drunkenness, sexual abuse, poor academic performance, examination malpractice, truancy, avoidance, bulling and fighting behaviors.

However the researchers interest to the current study therefore is the situation of adjustment in Okigwe Education Zone of Imo state. There has been an outary of psycho-social maladjustment in Okigwe education Zone of Imo state. These psycho-social maladjustment found among secondary school adolescents in Okigwe education zone of Imo state ranges from drug use, school dropout, examination malpractice, cultism activities, truancy, fighting and bulling, poor academic performance, withdrawal and isolation and among others. They may fall victim of the aforementioned maladjustment behaviors due to the nature of the classroom climate created by the teacher during this critical or vulnerable stage which could lead to the adolescents identifying or falling into the hands of peer pressure to learn some unwholesome behaviors. However, adolescents are likely to fall into the hands of the peer pressure only when they perceive the classroom climate unsupportive, uncaring, hostile, and alienating. This could be the reason some......

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 91 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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