ARISTOTLE’S THEORY OF EDUCATION: IT’S APPLICATION TO SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NNEWI EDUCATION ZONE OF ANAMBRA STATE

ABSTRACT

The study examined Aristotle’s theory of education: its application to secondary schools in NnewiEducation Zone of Anambra state.The study adopted a descriptive survey design in which three research questions were posed and three null hypothesestested.The population of the study consisted of 46,236 (804 teachers and 45, 432 students) presently in the 48 public secondary schools in Nnewi education zone of Anambra state. Simple random sampling and stratified random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1146 (270 teachers and 876 students) for the study. An instrument titled “Aristotle EducationTheory Appraisal Questionnaire (AETAQ)”,together withquestionnaire of four point rating scale was developed and used for data collection. The instrument contained 24 items that dealt with threeAristotle’s theories of education was validated by three experts from Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The 24 items were pilot-tested on a sample of 4 teachers and16 students. The data obtained were computed using Crombach Alpha. This gave an overall score of 0.96. The three research questions were analyzed using means and Standard Deviation, while t- test statistics was used to test the three null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. An overview of the overall results showed that teaching and learning are not made practical,school core curriculum activities do not reflect moral education and teachersdo not play their role to familiarize students to the right moral habits. Consideringthe resultsof the study, the researcher recommends that; government should equip the secondary schools with all the facilities needed for practical education to flourish; curriculum developers should by all means make moral education part of the school core curriculum activities;teachers should understand their role as morality agents. Based on the findings of the study, limitations of the study were identified and suggestions for further studies were made.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
The greatest legacy that any nation can bequeath to its citizens is sound and worthwhile education. Education indeed is a practical way of attaining individual potentialities and social fulfillment. It is based on the abovesupra stated statement that Okafor (2006) defined education as a process of acculturation through which the individual is helped to attain the development of his potentialities, and their maximum activation when necessary, according to right reason and to achieve his perfect self-fulfillment.

Education is a process of developing knowledge ability in learners in such a way that they use it to improve their society. Nwagwu (2003) upholds that this process of developing knowledge ability in learners can only be best achieved through a body of theories which is seen as ideas, principles and techniques that apply to a subject, especially when seen as distinct from actual practice. Theory according to Hoy and Miskel (1987) is a set of interrelated concepts, assumptions and generalizations that systematically describes and explain regularities in behavior in educational organizations.

It is not for nothing that the use of theory in education is advocated for. The main reason for educational theory is the application and interpretation of education that will bring desired change in the society, to develop a generation of virtuous individuals and thus contribute to the development of good human being.

In support of the above notion, Okonkwo (1989) considered educational theory as the theory of purpose, application and interpretation of education and learning.Educational theory is a means to gain knowledge, inculcate the forms of proper conduct and acquire technical competency. Similarly, Ozurumba(1999) viewed educational theory as the means to develop oneself physically, mentally and socially. The author further stated that educational theory helps for the preparation and application of sound and worthwhile education. Application according to Encarta (2009) is the relevance or value that something has, especially when it is applied to a specific field or area.


The materialization of education activities and its continued existence should be reliable on the development, growth and usage of basic principles and theories. This helps to clarify and make sense out of what seemed to be confusing in the domain of education. In support of the above statement,Amélie (1998) maintained that most ethical theories particularly those of Hume (1711-1776), Rousseau (1712-1778) and Kant (1724-1804) were meant to redirect moral education. Similarly, the practical import of political theories, such as those of Hobbes (1588-1679), Mill (1806-1873), and Marx (1818-1883) is not only directed to the structure of institution, but to education of citizens. Comprehensive metaphysical systems, such as those of Leibniz (1646-1716), Spinoza (1632-1677) and Hegel (1770-1831) provide modes for inquiry; and thus implicitly set directions and standards for the education of the enlightenedwhich is the best investment for the people and society at large because education is an important aspect of the work of society. Educational theory raises the countryside issues and promotes knowledge and understanding of people’s cherished values for the survival of that society.

The survival of any nation or culture therefore depends to a large extent on the quality and adequacy of the education provided for her citizens. One of the essential tasks of education is to enable people to understand themselves through worthwhile education and this worthwhile education can indeed only be achieved through worthwhile curriculum. According to Onwuka(1990), curriculum is a total experience with which the schools at any level deal with educating young people. The curriculum of any school consists of all the situations that the school may select and consistently organize for the purpose of bringing about changes in the behaviour of learners as a means of developing the personality of individuals through all levels of education.

Secondary education is one of the levels of Nigeria Education system. It is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage (Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), 2004). The underline principle here is that secondary schools should be able to provide the individuals for useful living within the society and higher education. However, it appears that secondary schools are not living up to expectation in discharging its obligations. In line with this, Nwanna (2000) upholds that products of today’s secondary schools can neither usefully live in the society nor move into higher institution without their parents’ aid or forgery. The author further remarked that they cannot think for themselves or respect the views and feelings of others and love no iota of dignity of labour except for things that will give them quick money.

There is leadership problem in the Nigerian secondary schools system. This informed the reason while Onwuka and Onwuka (2011) submitted that leadership in the school system does not observe rules. They went further stating that any leadership that does not believe in the rule of law should not think of law and order. No wonder Ajayi (2002) stated that secondary education in Nigeria is riddled with crises of various dimensions and magnitude all of which combine to suggest that the system is at crossroad. In line with this,Okeke(1991) posits that the demand and expectations for education in the past three decades appears to have been unprecedented in the Nigerian history and secondary education has emerged as the largest local industry and there is exaggerated of the benefits of education.According to Coombs (1986), we must ask whether the popular demand for expanded and higher education is guided by blind, dogmatic faith or by expectations enlightened by rational analysis, reflection and imagination. The crisis of demand and expectations has led to schooling being equated to education and possession of certificate has become identical with education and qualification. According to Ovwata (2000), education is not a magician to all our personal and national problems and needs.The researcher further stated that it is only through the activities of education that the expected change in behaviour could be achieved.

Activities that go on in secondary schools include teaching and learning. Teaching, according to Clark (1995), is the interaction between a teacher and a student under the teacher’s responsibility in order to bring about the expected change in the student’s behaviour. The teacher is a key factor in the formation of an ideal human being. According to Atanda and Lameed (2006) teachers are professionals who impart skills, knowledge, information, attitude and among others into the learners.Teachers are the implementers of education policies; they are also stakeholders in education. The success of any education system depends to a large extent on the quality of its teachers.Animba (1995) posits that teachers are the most crucial inputs of any education system.

Learning is the process through which certain behavioural change is made in the learner.Offorma (2002) defined learning as the process through which behaviour is initiated, modified and changed. Teaching and learning are interrelated. Through desirable teaching and learning, students are equipped with knowledge and skills which they need to participate effectively as members of the society and contribute towards the development of shared values and common identity.

The place of values and aspirations in Nigerian educational system cannot be over-emphasized. This is supported byOdigie (2007:141) who stated that “increased interest in the basic education of the child over the years has been borne out of the knowledge that an educated healthy child is a foundation for the vibrant economic future of any nation”. Values and aspirations are concerned with quality of human life, particularly that area of human behaviour which is a vital instrument of educational reform. Therefore, there is need to teach children that which is morally accepted. In line with this, Okeke (1997) argued that education is not an end rather a process and as a process, it is an instrument used by every society to preserve, maintain and upgrade its societal values and aspirations, knowledge and skills so as to guarantee a continuous social equilibrium.....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 97 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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