ADOPTION OF OBA 98 MAIZE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES BY FARMERS IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to examine the adoption of Oba 98 maize production technologies by farmers in Delta State. Specifically, the study ascertained major sources of information on Oba 98 maize production technologies; determined the extent of adoption of Oba 98 maize production technologies; determined factors influencing the adoption of Oba 98 maize pro-duction technologies; and identified perceived constraints to adoption of Oba 98 maize pro-duction technologies. The study was carried out in Delta State. Multistage sampling tech-nique was used to select the sample size for the study. In the first stage, six (6) LGAs were purposively selected out of 25 LGAs based on their popularity on maize farming. In the second stage two (2) towns farming communities that are popular in maize production were randomly selected from the six (6) LGAs giving a total of twelve (12) town farming com-munities. In the third stage, ten (10) maize farmers were selected from a list of maize farmers from the twelve communities through simple random sampling technique, giving a total of one hundred and twenty (120) maize farmers. Data collected on socio economic characteris-tics were analyzed using descriptive statistics consisting of percentages, frequency and mean scores. Objectives 1 and 2 were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Objective 3 was analyzed using multiple regression, while objective 4 was analyzed using mean score and standard deviations. The statistical products and service solutions (SPSS) version 20.0 consti-tuted the software package used for the analysis. The study revealed that greater proportion (27.5%) of the respondents were within the age range of 31-40 years. Majority (65.8%) were male. About 43% had household size of between 8 -11 persons. Majority (72.5%) were mar-ried. About 35% had more than 10 years farming experience. Also, 30% acquired primary school education. Majority (91.7%) were Christians. Furthermore, 45.8% received between N 10,000 and N 100,000 as income realized from the sale of maize. Majority (95%) cultivated less than 3 ha of land. A greater proportion (65.8%) inherited their farmland. Majority (61.7%) did not have access to credit facilities, but 38.8% received credit from institutional sources. Greater proportion (29.7%) had thrift savings as non-institutional source of credit. Majority (69.2%) of the respondents used hired labour as their major source of labour for ma-ize production. Also, majority (73.3%) had been visited by extension agents. Majority (87.5%) belonged to one or more social organizations. Data collected on sources of informa-tion revealed that majority (33.3%) received information from radio. Technologies mainly adopted included use of planting space of 75cm by 25cm with adoption mean score of 3.48, use of post emergence herbicides with adoption mean score of 2.45and use of insecticides to control pest with adoption mean score of 3.38. Major constraints to adoption of innovations were poor access to sources of agricultural information with a mean score of 2.87, poor ac-cessibility to institutional credits with a mean score of 2.86, inadequate rural roads with a mean score of 2.84 , inadequate extension contact with a mean score of 2.81, in adequacy of modern storage and processing facilities with a mean score of 2.77, poor health status of rural farmers with a mean score of 2.71, weak market information with a mean score of 2.67, scar-city and high cost of inputs with a mean score of 2.62 and ignorance of usefulness of the technologies with a mean score of 2.53. Conclusively, mean age was 37 years, mean house-hold size was 10 family members, mean farming experience was 11 years and mean number of years spent in school was 12 years. The only personal characteristic that influenced adop-tion was annual income realized from the sale of maize. It is recommended that farmers should be encouraged to participate actively in farmers/social organizations and co-operative societies in order to strengthen their group action and as such act as effective channels for extension information delivery system to farmers, when maize farmers are in cooperative so-cieties they take advantage of government policies and programmes and attract more funds to themselves. Also, farmers should be linked to sources of affordable credit so as to enable them purchase necessary inputs and their complementary need.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background information
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important cereal crop in sub-Saharan Africa. Maize is also one of the three most important cereal crops in the world (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 2006).Maize is easy to process, readily digested and an affordable cereal. (Ismaila, Gana, Tswanya & Dogara, 2010; Kudi, Bolaji, Akinola & Nasa’l, 2011). International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, (IITA) (2006) asserted that every part of maize plant has economic value. The grains, leaves, stalk, tassel and cob can be used to produce large varieties of food and non-food products. Also, maize is one of the most important crops in Nigeria because it is a major source of dietary fiber and calories which are a good source of energy and it is used industrially for production of food, beverage, and livestock feed. Maize grains are rich in vitamins A, C and E, carbohydrates, and essential minerals, and contain about 9% protein (IITA, 2010). Food and Agriculture Organization (2011) estimated that the land area planted with maize in West and Central Africa alone increased from 3.2 million hectares in 1961 to 10.5 million hectares in 2010. This expansion of the land area devoted to maize cultivation in Nigeria resulted in increased production of maize from 2.4 million metric tons in 1961 to 7.6 million metric tons in 2010 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2011). Despite the observed increases the demand for maize as a result of various domestic uses still out weights supply (Menkir & Akintunde 2001).


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2007) estimated that 158 million hectares of maize are harvested worldwide. Africa harvests 29 million hectares with Nigeria, being the largest producer in sub-Saharan Africa. According to Ado (2012) the bulk of maize production in Nigeria is located in the derived savanna zone. The Central Bank of Nigeria Annual Report and Statement of Accounts (2010) stated that 6.4 million tons of maize was produced in 2010. Based on the average yield of about 1.3-1.4 metric tons/hectare, this means that about 5.0 million hectares of land was under maize cultivation.

Factors like diseases and pests, poor storage facilities, declining soil fertility which is exacerbated by the high cost and/or unavailability of fertilizer, lack of financial and human resources, high seeds price and inaccessible roads which often prevents extension staff from getting to rural communities have been observed as key constraints to maize production in the country (Babatunde, Fayode & Bardo, 2008). In view of this, the Federal Government of Nigeria established research institutes such as National Cereal Research Institute, (NCRI), Badeggi, National Agricultural Extension Research Liaison Services (NAERLS), Institute of Agriculture Research and Training (IAR&T) and international bodies such as International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) aimed at promoting maize and other cereals production for household’s food security and poverty alleviation. Some of these efforts are focused on biological and agronomic researches for the development of high yielding varieties. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cereal Research Institute, Badeggi, and Institute of Agriculture Research and Training(IAR&T) developed improved maize varieties and they include: NARZO-15(TZPB), NARZO-16(TZB) NARZO-20(TZSR-W), NARZO-24(DMR-LSRW), NARZO-26(DMR-ESRW), NARZH-(8321-18), Oba super 1, Oba 98, New Kaduna, Oba super 3(H16-8), Oba super 5(HY02-2), Oba super 98, Ife maize hyb 3 and Ife maize hyb 4. Most of these introduced technologies have been accepted by farmers and are widely spread in states of Nigeria.

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA, 2009) asserted that the recent achievements by breeders in the development and release of superior maize varieties with higher yield potentials and better resistance to pests and diseases have played a major role in increasing maize production in the country. FMARD (2010) asserted that improving maize production is considered to be one of the most important strategies for food security in....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 89 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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