ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF OUTDOOR FUNGI IN AIR

ABSTRACT

The air in many outdoor environments also contains spores; however, the park outdoors environments may lead to spread the pathogenic fungi spores among parkized patients. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the airborne pathogenic fungi from the Outdoor environment at Dhamar governorate, Yemen. The study was conducted in four outdoor of government, which was included; Park A, Park B, Park C and Park D. A total of 48 air samples was collected from different departments of these Outdoor. By using sterile petri dishes contains sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media with 50µg/L of Cychlohexamide as anti- microbial, to prevent growth of saprophytic fungi and some bacteria. These petri dishes were left open for 6 hours. All samples labeled properly and brought to a laboratory for examination and processing according to standard microbiological techniques. The results had revealed that, 34 pathogenic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from Four Outdoor at Dhamar governorate. These isolates were distributed in Park A 35% (12/34), Park 21% (7/34) B, Park 18% (6/34) C and Park D 26% (9/34). These airborne pathogenic fungi included 8 fungal genera: Trichophyton, Cladosporium, Chryosporium, Mortierella, Paecilomyces, Aspergillus Rhizopus and Penicillinum spp.. Overall the result, only 6 (18%) isolates were identified as pathogenic fungi at all Dhamar Park while the rest 28 isolates were identified as opportunistic fungi at all Dhamar governorates outdoor. In conclusion, more hygienic practices and continuous checking of nosocomial pathogen should be taken under consideration.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Fungi are the plural of the word fungus which is derived from the Latin word fungour which means to flourish. The word was primarily used with reference to mushrooms which develop overnight. Fungi include nucleated spore bearing achlorophylous organisms that generally reproduce sexually and filamentous branched somatic structures are typically surrounded by cell wall, containing cellulose or chitin or both (Alexopoulos, 2000).
Fungi are chlorophyll-less non- vascular plants, theyinclude nucleated spore bearing achlorophylous organism that generally reproduce sexually and filamentous branched somatic structure typically surrounded by cell wall, containing cellulose or chitin or broth (Alexopoulos, 2000). According to Deacon (2008) fungi are heterotrophic organism possessing a chitinous cell wall: The majority of species grow as multicellular filament called hyphae forming a mycelium; some fungal species also grow as single cells, sexual and a sexual reproduction of fungi is commonly via spores, often produced on specialized structures or in fruiting bodies.
Fungi are an important component of the ecosystem, they are essential for the recycling of mineral and carbon by the decomposition of organic debris and waste. It has been estimated that fungi recycle millions of tons of organic waste annually (Davis et al., 2002). Life for other types of organisms would come to a virtual halt without the activity of fungi. In addition, mushroom and other fleshy fungi are a source of nutrition for many animals, including human. However many plants and animals disease are fungal (Moor-Landeeker, 2005). Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually and both methods result in the production of spore. The life cycles of fungi involved both sexual and asexual stages. The asexual spores are referred to as the anamorph, while the sexual spores and their associated reproductive structure are called the teleomorph. The spores from these two stages of life cycle can be morphologically dissimilar. The teleomorph spores (sexual produced) are classified according to the sexual structure in which the spores develop. Many complex fungi produce multicellular reproductive bodies a sporocarp. A familiar example of a sporocarp is the gilled mushroom, which is specialized to produce and discharge the spores resulting from sexual reproduction (Davis et al., 2002). The anamorph spores are grouped together into the fungi imperfecti group, also referred to as the form, division Deuteromycota (Moore-Landecker, 2005). Fungal spores occur in a great number in outdoor air and as estimated by Kendrick (2000) that, there are over 100,000 fungi whose spores may become airborne, many parameters influence airborne fungal spore concentrations. These include geographic, meteorological and human factors. Generally, these are lower airborne concentration in large towns and cities. When compared to rural and semi rural sites (Davis et al., 2002).
Statement of problem
The Outdoor environment is highlighted as potential reservoir for many air-born pathogens which include bacteria and Fungi. Fungi and bacteria are the major types of microorganisms presents in the Outdoor environment. The main sources of the Outdoor contaminations are: air, dust, visitors, patients and weather (Beggs, 2003). The free living fungi cause many dreadful diseases through dissemination of fungal spores which will enter into the host by inhalation or injury. Some fungi cause diseases by secreting fungal toxins also called Mycotoxins (Barron, 1968). The Mycoses are generally chronic diseases because fungi grow slowly. Mycotic diseases (Mycoses) are classified into five groups according to the degree of tissue involvement and mode of entry into 5 groups: superficial, cutaneous, sub-cutaneous, systemic and opportunistic Mycoses (Tortora et al., 2007). Fungi are very close to human and animals because all are eukaryotic organisms, and its structures and metabolism look like its hosts. Consequently, drugs that affect on fungal cells may also affect on its host human and animal cells. This fact makes fungal infections of human and other animals often difficult to treat. The damage of these fungi is due to their products of toxins and enzymes which are leads to invasion the tissues causing hypersensitivity (Cauwenbergh, 1985). Dermatophytes sometimes also called keratinophilic fungi, those fungi which has ability to destroy the keratin layer of the skin of human and animals by enzymatic products (Prescott et al., 1993).
Objective of the study
The aims of the present study were to isolate and identify the air borne pathogenic fungi from the Outdoorenvironment of calabar metropolis. The study will also assess the air quality of the selected areas, and also to determine the concentration of fungal spores present as well as their economic importance to

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
I perceived that at the completion of this study, the findings may be useful to:
1.   The government in their policy formulation and implementation

2.   The federal ministry of environment in combating the menace of fungi and air pollution

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 39 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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