Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from the presence of excess sugar in the blood as a result of defect insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Mormodica charantia commonly known as bitter gourd is an economically important plant belonging to the family of cucurbitaceae. In Nigeria and many parts of the world, fruits, leave, and seeds of bitter gourd have been used by traditional healer to treat ulcer, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. This study was aimed at determining the anti-lipidemic effect of Momordica charantia fractions on alloxan induced diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 40 female albino wistar rats were used for this study, which was divided into eight groups and each comprised five rats. The animals were induced diabetic with alloxan and treated with fractionated extracts of Momordica charantia and a standard anti-diabetic drug was administered orally with syringes into six groups such that group one received a standard anti-diabetic drug (glibenclamide), group two received hexane fraction, groups four, five and six received aqueous, methanol, ethylacetate and chloroform fractions respectively at a dose of 200mg/kg body weights per day, group seven served as the negative untreated control while the last group served as the positive control were fed with normal feed and water only. After four weeks of administration, blood samples were collected directly from the heart and assayed for total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels. Results indicated that Momordica charantia plant extract fractions showed a significant increase (P <0.05) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) level between the group treated with extracts and the control group. It showed a significant decrease in the level of cholesterol in rats fed with the extracts of Momordica charantia as compared to the control. The difference in total cholesterol value of treated and untreated rats were significant (P <0.05) compared with the control. It showed that the difference in triglyceride value of treated and untreated rats were significant (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Finally, it showed a significant decreases (P <0.05) in the level of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) in all the groups treated with the fractionated extract compared to the control. In all, the results obtained show that the plant extract especially chloroform and N-hexane fraction appears to be more active in reducing the level of cholesterol in the body.

Title page
Table of contents

1.1       Background of study
1.2       Objective of research

2.1 Overview of Momordica charantia
2.2 Medicinal Uses
2.1 2 Taxonomy and nomenclature
2.1.3 Distribution
2.1.4 Habitat
2.1.5 Means of dispersal
2.2 Diabetes
2.2.1Types of diabetes mellitus
 2.2.2 Signs and symptoms
2.82.3 Treatment of diabetes
2.2.3 Preventions
2.3 Lipid profile
2.3.1 Component of lipid profile
2.3.2 lipids disorders
2.4 Alloxan
2.4.1 Alloxan and its mechanism
2.4.1 Impact upon beta cells

3.0 Materials and method
3.1 Materials
3.1.2 Chemicals and reagents
3.1 2 chemical and kits
3.1 3 Equipments
3.1 4 Biological materials
3.2 Method
3.2.1 Collection and identification of sample
3.2.2 Sample processing and preparation of extract
3.3. Experimental animal
3.3.1 Collection of animals
3.3.2 Animal grouping
3.3. 3Collection of blood sample
3.3.4 Principle Preparation of extracts for administration
3.3.5 Experimental induction of diabetes and collection of serum
3.3.6 Determination percentage yield of extract
3.4 Determination of lipid parameters
3.4.1 Determination of HDL-cholesterol by randox kit
3.4.2 Determination of total cholesterol by randox kit
3.4.3 Determination of triglycerides concentration by randox kit

4.0       Result
4.1       Triglyceride concentration (mg/dl) chart of the study Groups
4.2       Total cholesterol concentration (mg/dl) chat of the study groups
4.3 High density lipoprotein concentration (mg/dl) chart of the study
4.4 Low density lipoprotein concentration (mg/dl) chart of the study

5.1 Discussions  
5.2 Conclusion  
5.4 references
 5.5  Appendix 

Plants have always been useful source of remedy to several ailments owing to us easy availability and affordability in traditional setting worldwide. Some of this plant that exhibit medicinal properties have been known to help in stabilizing different internal organs in human being and animals, while others have hard side effects on the organs probably due to the varying amounts or quantity of toxic matter present in such plants (Sofomora, 2003). Because of this, toxicity testing in animals is carried out to identify potential hazard of the plant/drugs. This toxicity helps in determining the upper limits of administration, because not all content of the plant’s extract usually have medical property (Ahmed et al., 2001).
Coronary heart diseases, hyperlipidemia and hypolipidemia have been a major dietary problem in the world. These have lead to many arterial and heart diseases thereby causing high mortality and morbidity rate over the time in the world (Kizer et al., 2010).
These health effects have been occurred as a result of high lipid deposits in the blood vessels and the arterial organs of the body. This menace has been highly tolerated in the society as solutions to its treatment are yet to be discovered. The prevalence of Atherosclerosis continues to rise worldwide and treatment with synthetic drugs ends with numerous side effects and huge monetary expenditure. World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. The major causes of these ill-health effect has been as a result of dietary intakes with high Cholesterols, lipoprotein of Low density, Chylomicrons, Very Low density lipoproteins, Triglycerides, and low deposit of High-density lipoprotein levels in the system (Katan et al 1992).
Over the years, medicinal plants have provided a large platform for treatment of wide varieties of disease. This is as a result of phytochemicals found in then some of which have been isolated and purified as pure drugs. Hyperlipedemia has been associated with primary disease such as diabetes and so several works have been done on plant extract to investigate the effect on lipid parameter. This project works among such research effort.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by insufficient blood levels of the hormone insulin. When blood concentration of insulin is too low, muscle and liver cells do not absorb glucose form the blood which in turn leads to increased levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia), impaired metabolism of fats and protein, Ketosis and possible diabetic Coma (William et al., 2009). According to World Health Organization (WHO), about 170 million people are currently affected by diabetes and the figure is expected to double by the year 2025 (Boyle et al., 2001).
Diabetes is also known to involve oxidative stress and changes in Lipid metabolism (Scoppola et al., 2001).
In 2010 it was estimated that the world prevalence of diabetes among adults (aged 20-79 years) was 6.4% (285 million adults). (Shau, 2010). Perhaps even more concerning is that diabetes is projected to affect approximately 7.7% of the world’s population (439 million adults by 2030).
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by a decline in B-Cell function and worsening insulin resistance (Fonseca, 2009). Therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus focuses around improving glucose tolerance through diet, exercise and anti diabetic medications of the individuals affected with diabetes, approximately 95% are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Despite the advances in modern medicine, DM continues to be the most common endocrine metabolic disorder and the disease is rapidly increasing worldwide affecting all parts of the world (Patel, 2012).
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) is considered as an auto immune disease resulting in absolute insulin deficiency that is insulin producing B-cells of the pancreas are destroyed. Patients are prone to kedosis and dependent on insulin therapy. (David, et al., 1999).
Momordica Charantia is complex plant medicine that has a remarkable long history of use, both as a food and as a medicine.
Momordica Charantia commonly known as bitter gourd is an economically important medicinal plant belonging to the family cucurbitaceae. It is also known as silter melon, balsam pear and karela. In Nigeria and many other parts of the world, fruties, leave and seeds of bitter gourd have used by traditional healer to treat ulcer, HIV, inflammation and cancer (Assubaie and EL-Garaluary, 2004). The plant is also famous for its traditional use in diabetes mellitus (Paul et al., 2011). Therefore this plant could be a good source of alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus.

1.2 Aim and Objective of the Research
Momordia charantia have been used in various forms by traditional medicinal practitioners in the treatment of diseases without properly investigating its anti-lipidamic level.
Hence, this experiment aimed to investigate the anti-lipidemic effect of Momordica Charantia leaf fractions 0n alloxan diabetic induced albino rats.
This was achieved through the following objectives;
i.                Investigating the anti-lipidemic level of Momordica charantia of triglycerides on alloxan induced diabetic rats.
ii.                Investigating the anti-lipidemic level of Momordica charantia of total cholesterol on alloxan induced diabetic rats.
iii.                Investigating the anti-lipidemic level of Momordica charantia of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

iv.                Investigating the anti-lipidemic level of Momordica charantia of low –density lipoprotein (LDL) on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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