AN ASSESSMENT OF ROAD TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

ABSTRACT 

This study attempts an assessment of the state, types and functionality as well as distributions of road transport infrastructure development in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Information was gathered from road users, road workers and traffic law enforcement agents using stratified sampling technique. In all, 380 respondents were successfully interviewed. The result on the analysis of the state of road transport infrastructure in Kaduna state reveals that 10% representing 38 of the respondents say roads infrastructure are of Excellent state, while, 23.3% representing 86 respondents attest that are of Good condition. While the remaining 15.7 representing 60 respondents are of the opinion that the state of road transport infrastructure ware very poor. Also, result reveals on the analysis of the respondents on their perception on the types of road transport infrastructure in Kaduna state discloses that 87.4% as represented by 332 respondents attest to the presence of culverts while 12.6% of them says it is absent. Similarly, 83.2% of the respondents‘ reported that there is presence of bridges while 16.8% of them attest to the absence of it. Also, on the issue of zebra crossing, 20.8 percent of them says it is present while a significant 79.2% says it is not available. The responses on the functionality of road transport infrastructures in Kaduna state reveals that 165 of the respondents indicates that the roundabout [intersections] are highly functional while 117 of them says it is fairly functional and 98 respondents indicates the absence of it. On the issue of the functionality of culverts as a critical road transport infrastructure 151 respondents affirms its high functionality while a sizeable number of them within 89 and 48 respondents indicates that it is not functioning and not present respectively. Similarly, 113 respondents attest to the high functionality of road Kerbs, 64 indicates its fairness, while 29 and 174 attested to its non-functionality and non-availability respectively. Also on the distribution of road transport infrastructure by zones, standard z score analytical technique was adopted and the result reveal that disparity exist in terms of road infrastructure within the zones. The study therefore recommends that government of Kaduna state should make efforts to quantify and rehabilitate and balance the existing road transport infrastructure while reintroducing tolling system on strategic road infrastructures to raise additional funds for maintenance. Also, the government should diversify its objectives on provision of road transport infrastructures through partnership arrangements with private sectors on the public private partnership (PPP) however putting action into plan for the future in providing alternative means of transport to reduce burden on the existing road transport infrastructures. 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION  

       1.1       Background to the Study

     The spatial differences of phenomena on the earth‘s surface indicate that the different part of the earth provides various products that the people needs. Goods and services can only be obtain by moving to the point of demand and supply and this can only be possible through transport (Ogbuozobe, 1997). Transportation is the movement of goods and services from a point of origin to a desired destination. Transport industries exist to provide for the movement of people and goods and for the provision and distribution of services; and transport thereby fulfils one of the most important functions and is one of the most pervasive activities in any society or economy. (Brain and Richard. 2000). In support of this, Taube (2013), insist that ―It is hardly any human society or human settlement that can efficiently and effectively function without adequate, reliable and affordable transport system‖. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of any transport system depend on its infrastructure and services (Ocholi, 2013).
      Infrastructure can be described as a fundamental basis or requirement of all activities of an organized society in both social and economic dimension. It is the basic physical and organizational structure needed for the operation of a society and the economy.
Infrastructure can be classify into social and economic types (World Investment Research,
2008). Infrastructure is an umbrella term for many activities usually referred to as ―social overhead capital‖ by development economist. Precisely, infrastructure refers to a network of transport, communication and public (social) services-all functioning as a system or as a set of interrelated and mutually beneficial services provided for the improvement of general well-being of the population (Ogbuozobe 1997).  
Transport infrastructures are critical substructure whose development has direct bearing on the overall growth on the nation. Infrastructures are the major tools of economic and strategic development. Oni and Okanlawon (2008) denotes transport infrastructure as the major structure of component part of the transport system offering the provision of transport service and operation.
 Road transport system is a very important sub sector of transportation in Nigeria. It is the most prevalent mode of transportation for people, goods, and services from the point of origin to the desired destination with the sole benefit of time and value chain addition.
The road transportation system in Nigeria is as old as creation. During the 1900s under the British colonial rule, the road designed was to aid the transportation of goods from village to hinterlands to the coastal region for exportation of raw materials for their industries in U.K (Sheriff, 2009). However, during evolving economic development after independence in 1960 saw the need for road system expansion with the main purpose of facilitating access to the cities and large towns (Encyclopedia of nation, 2008). Nigeria has the largest road network in West Africa and the second largest south of the Sahara with approximately
200,000km of surfaced roads as estimated (Filani, 1999). Currently road system is about
208,200km with 28,980 km paved and 179,220km unpaved (Federal Ministry of Works Bulletin, 2012).
The major road transport infrastructure in Nigeria consist of 32,000km of Federal highways including seven major bridges across the Niger and Benue rivers, the Lagos ring road, the third mainland axial bridge, 30,500km of state roads; and 130,000km of local roads (Buhari, 2000). The author detailed further that as at June 1996 only 50% of the federal roads and 20% of the state roads were in good condition. While, an estimate 5% of the local rural roads were freely motorable. The rehabilitation program carried out by the Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF) in year 1996 to 1999 covered selected portions of the federal highway totaling about 12,000km along with township roads in about 18 selected cities. Meanwhile over-use and lack of maintenance are further eroding the quality of the rest of the federal highway network. A nationwide road survey conducted by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) on the state of highways in the country in December 2002 reveals that the road network as of December 2002, was estimated at 194,000km. It shown that most of the roads were in a bad condition, especially those in the southeastern and northwestern part of the country. The pattern is generally the same for the roads in other part of the country. Some of the roads, constructed over 30 years ago, had not been rehabilitated even once, resulting in major cracks (longitudinal and transverse), depression, broken down bridges and numerous potholes that makes roads transport slow and unsafe (CBN, 2002).
The survey also shows that the state of Nigeria roads has remained poor for a number of reasons. Such reasons include faulty designs, lack of drainage and very thin coatings, which was easily washed away, excessive use of the road network, given the underdeveloped nature of waterways and railways, which could serve as alternative means of transport, absence of an articulated road program and inadequate funding for road maintenance (Odugbemi, 2010). The importance attached to the road sector reflects in government resources allocation to it in the last decades. The road sub sector which accounted for 54% of the federal government total public sector planned capital investment in transport in the 1962-1968 first national development plan, received more than 70% of the allocation during the third (1975-1988) and fourth (1981-1985) development plan period. Similarly, from 1986-till date, different development plan period has witness annual incremental allocation of resources. The question is then how has these translated into good road network in Nigeria judging from the observable and eye-catching evidence and facts (Adeyemo, 1989).
The presence of an adequate, reliable and efficient transport system is a critical factor in local economic development. A well-developed transportation infrastructure provide adequate access to local communities, which in turn is a necessary condition for the efficient operation of manufacturing, retail, labour and housing market (Olubemehin, 2012). This can only be made if the Road Infrastructure is in good standing to support movement of people, goods and services. Therefore this study intends to assess road transport infrastructure development in Kaduna state with specific interest in the state, types, functionality and distribution of such road transport infrastructure vis – a-- vis the Kerbs, Culverts, Camber (cross slope), Traffic Lights, Road Signs, Road Marking, Media,
Shoulder, Zebra, Round about (intersections), Bridges, Overhead Bridge and Pedestrian
Bridges.   

      1.2       Statement of the Research Problem 

The studies on infrastructure, particularly, the move to measure quantitative relationship between growth in transport infrastructure and total economic growth using micro economic model started with Antle (1983) when he estimated a Cobb Douglas production function for 47 developing countries and nineteen (19) developed countries. In support of this findings, Mera (1973); Retner (1983); Biehi (1986); Aschuer (1989); H.S Binswanger, S Khandker and M. Rosenzweig (1989); Easterly and Rebelo (1993); and
Buffes and Shah (1993) found transport infrastructure as an effective factor of production. Also, Aschuer (1989) investigated the role of infrastructure in development process based on the United States; he argued that nonmilitary public investment is far more important in increasing aggregate productivity than military spending.  He conclude that core infrastructure such as street light, highways, Airport among others. contribute more to productivity than other form of infrastructure, and that the slowdown of United State productivity was related to decrease in public infrastructure investment. 
Caldron (2009) provided a comprehensive assessment of impact of infrastructural development on growth in African countries based on econometrics estimates for a sample of 136 countries from 1960 to 2005. He studied the impact on per capita growth of faster accumulation in infrastructure stock and enhancement in the quality of infrastructure services for 39 African countries in 3 key infrastructure sectors; telecommunication, electricity, and transportation (i.e. road). Using an econometrics technique suitable for dynamic panel model and likely endogenous regressors, the author found that infrastructure stock and services quality boost economic growth. The findings shows that growth is positively affected by the volume of infrastructure.
Boopen (2006) analyzed the contribution of transport capital and growth for a sample of a sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and a sample of small island developing states (SIDS). Using both cross sectional and panel data analysis. In both cases, the analysis concluded that transport capital has been a contributor to the economic progress of these countries. Analysis further revealed that in the SSA case, the productivity of transport capital stock is superior as compared to the overall capital while it is not the case for the SIDS, where transport capital is seen to have the average productivity level of overall capital stock. Pravakar, et al., (2010) investigated the role of infrastructure in promoting economic growth in China for the period of 1975-2007 using GMM (Generalized method of moment) and ARDL (Autho regressive distributed leg model) technique , the result reveals that road infrastructure investment have played an important role in economic growth of China.
Loto (2006) also found that infrastructure when measured in physical sense, impact positively on economic growth. In addition, (Nwakaze and Mulikat, 2010) estimated the contribution of transportation investments, congestion and traffic related accidents to economic growth in Nigeria from 1975-2006. They used the extended Cobb Douglas production function model, they found that transport investment positively contribute to economic growth while traffic contribute negatively. The estimated model used was the error correction mechanism with the real gross domestic product as dependent variable, the explanatory variables include physical capital, labour force, total road network, automobile density, and traffic related accidents.
Ogun (2010) investigated the impact of infrastructural development on poverty reduction in Nigeria. Specifically, the relative effect of physical and social infrastructure on living standard or poverty indicators were examine, with a view to providing empirical evidence on the implication of increase urban poor. The paper employed secondary data for the period of 1970-2005. The Structure vector autoregressive (SVAR) techniques was adopted in the analysis. The study unequivocally discovered that infrastructural development led to poverty reduction, which leads to economic growth. Result also shows that though infrastructure in general reduces poverty and increase economic growth, social infrastructure explains a higher proportion of the forecast error in poverty indicators relative to physical infrastructure. This suggest that massive investment in Transport Infrastructure in cities would drastically reduce poverty and increase growth in the urban areas. Indeed, socio-economic development can be facilitated and accelerated by the presence of Transport infrastructure. If these facilities and services are not in place, development will be very difficult and in fact, can be compared to a very scarce commodity that can only be secured at a very high price and cost (Adeyemo, 1989).    
The importance of road transport infrastructure have long been recognize as crucial to promoting growth and development. This is obvious considering its wide range of influence and increase productivity, generation of income and improved quality of life. However, this role depends largely on the extent to which road infrastructure are adequately provided, distributed over space and maintained (Adefila and Bulus, 2014).
 To the best knowledge of the researcher, only few studies attempted an assessment of few Road Transport infrastructure in Kaduna state, and almost all, used secondary source of data all through. This research, in contrast, assessed the state, types, functionality as well as distribution by zones of thirteen (13) Road Transport Infrastructure in Kaduna state and used both primary and secondary source of data.
        Federal highways in Kaduna state have been plagued by a number of Road Infrastructure problems with major ones beings faulty designs, inadequate drainage system, uneven distribution by zones and poor maintenance culture, which have significantly reduce the ability of the roads to perform its function, there are potholes, washing away of pavements, fallen bridges, old age among others. These problems have made it difficult, expensive and more odious to move products and services from point of production to that of consumption, farm produce from rural to urban centers, which often lead to loss of manhour and high cost of goods and services. It is against this background that this study intend to access road transport infrastructure development in Kaduna state.                     
The following questions will guide this research on road transport infrastructure development in Kaduna state and are set as follows:
i.   What is the state of Road Transport Infrastructure in Kaduna state? ii.      What are the types of Road Transport Infrastructure in Kaduna state? iii.     Are Road Transport Infrastructure functional in Kaduna state? 
          iv.        How are the Road transport Infrastructure distributed among senatorial zones in Kaduna
State?

      1.3        Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to assess road transportation infrastructure development in
Kaduna state. This aim will be achieved through the following objectives which are to;
i. Highlight the state of Road Transport Infrastructure in Kaduna state. ii. Characterize the types of Road Transport Infrastructure in Kaduna state. iii. Assess the functional standard of Road Transport Infrastructure in Kaduna state
iv. Determine the distribution of Road Transport Infrastructure by senatorial zones in Kaduna State  

1.4 Justification of the Study 

        Road Transportation Infrastructure remain the main mode of Transportation among other mode in Kaduna state. The importance of road maintenance in achieving efficient road transport delivery cannot be overemphasized as the consequences of neglect are enormous and costly.
While many attempt have been made, or put in place by different Transportation expert in the country, in order to reduce the chaotic and unpleasant state or condition of road Transport infrastructure, yet, all these attempt have little impact toward reducing the problem associated with our road furniture‘s.
   To the best knowledge of the researcher, only few studies attempted an assessment of Road Transport infrastructure in Kaduna state, and the existing few, attempted to assess few Road Transport Infrastructure, say four or five.
   This research will assess the state, types, functionality as well as distribution of thirteen (13) Road Transport Infrastructure in Kaduna state. Therefore, this research become imperative as it will assess and identify the problems associated with the roads under study and make positive recommendations to government for necessary actions.

                      1.5       Scope and Limitation of the Study

 The five (5) major highways in Kaduna State that are of interest in the study, cutacross the three geo-political zones, namely, Zone one (1) that comprise of Soba, Sabon Gari, Lere, Kubau, Ikara, Makarfi, Kudan and Zaria Local governments.  Zone two (2) which comprises Birnin Gwari, Giwa, Chikun, Igabi, Kajuru, Kaduna north and Kaduna south local governments. Zone three (3) consists of Sanga, Jaba, Jama‘a, Kachia, Kagarko, Kauru, Kaura and Zangon Kataf local governments. The five major highways are;
1.      Kaduna-Zaria highway, which is 75 Km, with National highway identification code (A2) and cut across Kaduna, Katabu, Jaji, to Zaria,
2.      Kaduna-Lere highway, which is 340 Km, with National identification number (A235), and cut across Kujama, Kasuwan Magani, Kufana, Idon, Unguwan patachi, Kachia, Zonkwa, Samarun Kataf, Manchok, Kaura,Mangu, to Lere.
3.      Kaduna-Birnin Gwari highway, which is 123 Km, with National highway identification code (A125), and cut across Buruku, Kufara Kan Hauwa, Kwanan mutuwa to Birnin Gwari.
4.      Kaduna-Kagarko highway, which is 164 Km, with National highway identification code
(A124) and cut across Rijana, Jere to Kagarko.
5.      Zaria-Kauru highway, which is 109 Km, with National highway identification code (A236) and cut across Rahama, Soba, Dutsen wai, Pambegua, to Kauru. (See fig 1).
Consequently, 811 km representing 28.8% of total length of Federal Road in Kaduna state which is 2,820km (Federal Bureau of Statistics) has been picked and assessed.

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