List of Acronyms

Chapter One
1.  Introduction
1.1.   Background of the Study
1.2.   Statement of the Problem
1.3.   Objective of the Study
1.4.      Research Questions
1.5.      Core Argument
1.6.   Significance of the Study
1.7.   Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.8.      Methodology and Methods
1.9.   Organization of The Thesis

Chapter Two
2.  Literature Review and Conceptual Framework
2.1. Conceptual and Theoretical Framework
            2.1.1. Sanctions and Human Rights: Background
            2.1.2. Purposes of Sanctions
            2.1.3. Types of Sanctions
   Comprehensive versus Targeted Sanctions
   Unilateral Versus Multilateral Sanctions
   Negative versus Positive Sanctions
            2.1.4. Conceptualizing Sanctions as a Foreign Policy Tool
            2.1.5.  Conceptualizing Humanitarian Impact of Sanctions
            2.1.6.   Conceptualizing Humanitarian Intervention
            2.1.7.   Conceptualizing Humanitarian Exemptions
            2.1.8.  Legal And Moral Contexts of Sanctions
2.2. Literature Review
            2.2.1. Sanctions Success
2.2.2. Inconsistency in the Application of Sanctions
2.2.3.  Globalization And Sanctions

Chapter Three
3.         Background and Course of Sanctions on Burundi and Zimbabwe
3.1. Background of Sanctions on Burundi
3.2. The Course of Sanctions on Burundi
3.3. Background of Sanctions on Zimbabwe
3.4. The Course of Sanctions on Zimbabwe

Chapter Four
4.         Sanctions on Burundi and their Impact on Human Rights
4.1. The Impact of the Sanctions on the Economy of Burundi
4.2. The Impact of the Sanctions on the Health Sector of Burundi
4.3. The Impact of the Sanctions on the Education Sector of Burundi
4.4. The Impact of the Sanctions on the Demography of Burundi
4.5. The Political Impact of the Sanctions on Burundi
4.6. The Status of Humanitarian Exemptions in Burundi
4.7. The Survival of the Government of Burundi despite the Sanctions
4.8. Examination of the Sanctions on Burundi

Chapter Five
5.         Sanctions on Zimbabwe and their Impact on Human Rights
5.1. The Impact of the Sanctions on the Economy of Zimbabwe
5.2. The Impacts of the Sanctions on the Health Sector of Zimbabwe
5.3. The Impact of the Sanctions on the Education Sector of Zimbabwe
5.4. The Impact of the Sanctions on the Demography of Zimbabwe
5.5. The Political Impact of the Sanctions on Zimbabwe
5.6. The Status of Humanitarian Assistances in Zimbabwe
5.7. The Survival of the Government of Zimbabwe despite the Sanctions
5.8. Examination of the Sanctions on Zimbabwe
Conclusion and Recommendation

Sanctions are used for several purposes throughout history;among them the main ones are maintaining international peace and order and upholding international norms such as the protection of human rights. In their application of sanctions, the sanctioners seem to emphasize on the maintenance of International Order and on the achievement of their Policy Objectives. In the process of achieving these objectives certain basic rights and freedoms of individuals are compromised. This Thesis studies two cases (comprehensive sanctions on Burundi and ‘targeted’ sanctions on Zimbabwe) in order to understand the impact of sanctions on the basic rights and freedoms of individuals in the targeted states. To accomplish this task, this study employs a qualitative approach. Data have been collected from both primary and secondary sources. Different related literatures are reviewed to understand the interplay between sanctions and human rights. In depth interviews are also conducted with different individuals. The findings of the data indicate that sanctions in general have harmful impact on the people of the targeted country. Particularly, vulnerable groups of the society are the most affected ones. The cases of Burundi and Zimbabwe reveal that sanctions may miss their target and worsen the human rights violations of citizens. While sanctioning, it should be noted that the damages must not outweigh the gains. Sanctioning states should also consider the long-term effects of the sanctions and make necessary preparations. Above all, while using sanctions senders should balance both the maintenance of the international peace and security and the full respect for human rights.


1.1.         Background of the Study
Sanctions are actions taken unilaterally or jointly against a State considered to be a threat for world peace and security. Sanctions have been applied in different forms since the time immemorial; however, the first case of sanctions as a foreign policy tool was recorded in 432 BC during the time of Pericles used by Athenian government against Megara, the incident which eventually led to Peloponnesian war.1Since then, sanctions have been used at various times to compel states to respect international law and to yield to the demands of the sanctioning states. Particularly, after the end of Cold War, they appeared to be better alternative to war which are frequently used by States.2

Traditionally, sanctioning countries3 (more generally the international community) have tended to impose comprehensive type of sanctions that include restraining economic, cultural, political and diplomatic links with states that deemed to possess objectionable behavior. However, comprehensive sanctions often produce results that run counter to other norms, like the protection of vulnerable groups of the people and the promotion of basic human rights that are embedded in the United Nations Charter and human rights treaties.4It is accepted that sanctions and any other international measures should serve the good will of the people and should respect international norms and treaties. As long as sanctions run counter to international norms and the will of the people, it is impossible to speak of it as effective. The purpose of sanctions should be to compel the transgressor state to conform to the law and to make it respect and promote the dignity and rights of the people either by rewarding it for improvements it shows or punishing that government separately from the people if the government is unwilling or reluctant to respect the international norms and the dignity of the people. Recently, in order to avoid damaging aspects of economic sanctions and minimize their ineffectiveness, there is a trend to resort to.....

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