Ghana has been experiencing erratic power supply for few years now. The objective of this study was to find out the causes of low power production in the country, reasons hindering the use of available renewable energy resources, and to suggest solutions in achieving a clean and sustainable energy (power) generation to meet the country’s increasing energy demand.

This study was a qualitative research. Information in this study was retrieved from reliable sources that have similar interests in finding solutions to Ghana’s power challenges. The statistics was first hand information retrieved from reports, articles and journals from major power production sectors in Ghana and the world.

The results of this study demonstrated that apart from hydro, Ghana has very high solar and wind energy potentials that could be used to generate large scale electricity, enough to compensate the increasing demand of electricity power if proper and effective measures are taken.

Keywords - Hydropower, erratic power supply, sustainable energy, Power de-mand, and peak demand.


1.1 Objective of the study
1.2 The research question
1.3 Research method

2.1 Economic development
2.2 Main  and  indicated  differences  between  developing  and  industrial countries
            2.2.1 Social
            2.2.2 Economic
            2.2.3 Energy
2.3 Challenges of energy in developing countries
2.4 Constraints in developing countries major energy supply
            2.4.1 Financial constraints
            2.4.2 Biomass supply constraint
            2.4.3 Environmental degradation
2.5 Role of electricity in economic growth
            2.5.1 To halve extreme poverty
            2.5.2 To reduce hunger and improve access to safe drinking water
            2.5.3 To reduce child and maternal mortality and to reduce diseases
            2.5.4 Achieve universal primary education and to promote gender equality and empowerment of women
            2.5.5 To ensure environmental sustainability
2.6 Electricity generating sources
            2.6.1 Renewable generating resources
            2.6.2 Wind energy
            2.6.3 Biomass
            2.6.4 Solar energy
            2.6.5 Hydroelectricity
            2.6.6 Geothermal energy
2.7 Nonrenewable energy resources
2.8 Security of electricity supply

3.1 The major sectors in Ghana’s power supply
            3.1.1 Ministry of Energy
            3.1.2 The Volta River Authority (VRA)
            3.1.3 The Electricity company of Ghana (ECG)
            3.1.4 Ghana Grid Company Limited (GRIDCO)
            3.1.5 The Northern Electrification Commission (NED)
            3.1.6 The Public Utility Regulation Commission (PURC)
            3.1.7 The Energy Foundation
            3.1.8 The private generators
            3.1.9 Ghana National Gas Company (GNGC)
            3.1.10 The Energy Foundation
3.2 Electricity in Ghana
3.3 Electricity power demand in Ghana
3.4 Major sources of electricity in Ghana and their problems
            3.4.1 Ghana’s hydro source of generation
            3.4.2 Thermal plants in Ghana
            3.4.3 Solar
3.5 Ghana’s electricity supply challenges
            3.5.1 Challenges on the supply side
            3.5.2 Challenges on the demand side
            3.5.3 World Bank Report Findings in 2005
            3.5.4 World Bank Report Findings in 2009
3.6 Industries affected most by power outage in Ghana
            3.6.1 Manufacturing Industries
            3.6.2 Financial Corporations
            3.6.3 Consulting and Information Technology (IT) Services
            3.6.4 Data centers
            3.6.5 Control Centers
            3.6.6 Perishable Items
            3.6.7 Medical Facilities
            3.6.8 Military Operations
            3.6.9 Entertainment Venues
            3.6.10 Safety and Security
3.7 Impact of frequent power outage on industries in Ghana

4.1 Solar energy
            4.1.1 Barriers to solar energy usage in Ghana
4.2 Ghana’s Wind Energy Potentials
            4.2.1 Barriers to renewable energy in Ghana

5.1 Research Question 1: What are the main causes of the insufficient energy production in Ghana?
5.2 Research  Question  3:  What  other  energy  resources  can  be  used  to improve electricity supply in Ghana?

A hundred years have passed since the time when man lived in the world of darkness where there is no direct source of light instead of the sun during the day and the moon and stars during the night. Then along came fire and everything changed. People begun to love fire and its usage but also dreaded its dangers. Since then, many discoveries and its inventions were made that involved electricity which has become an essential part of our daily lives. Due to radical change in technology, people have become more and more dependent on electricity and its uses. Electricity is important because it helps make our lives easier. It is the lifeblood that flows through our electronic gadgets making them work.

In today’s world, nearly every aspect of our lives depends on using energy. Our access to safe and reliable energy enables our society and economy to work, grow and prosper. Therefore, one must understand how energy drives our economy, what it costs and how several organizations are working to solve energy poverty around the world. The energy industries are changing as they adapt to broader issues, such as the growing population, climate change, government policies and new technologies such as smart meters and grid.

Ghana, officially called the Republic of Ghana, is a sovereign multinational state and a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean, in the sub region of West Africa. Ghana has a land area of 238,535 km2and a population of approximately 27 million, from a variety of ethnic and religious groups. It became the first African nation to declare independence from European colonization in 1957 and is one of Africa’s most developed countries, performing favorably in indexes of governance, stability, peacefulness and human development by regional standards. Its economy is the ninth largest on the African continent by purchasing power parity and nominal GDP and is one of the fastest growing in the world. Among the abundant availability of other energy resources such as hydrocarbons and biomass, Ghana is also well endowed with renewable energy resources particularly solar and wind energy resources. Solar radiation levels are estimated at about 4-6 KWh/m2 and average wind speed along the coastal areas is also estimated at 5 m/s. Despite the fact that Ghana has been endowed with the widest range of energy resources that far exceed its energy requirements, Ghana’s power sector still remains severely undeveloped and energy consumption in general and electricity consumption in particular is relatively very low.

The Ghanaian economy continues to date, experience the very severe energy crisis that hit the entire country. The first of such experience since the Akosombo hydro dam was commissioned in 1965 (i.e. the first electric power plant in Ghana) was in 1983 – 1985 followed by 1998 – 2000 and then in the period 2006 – 2007 and the current crisis which started in 2012 to date. The uniqueness of the recent case is the longest period that the nation has to endure, and involves rotating load shedding programs./39/ Unlike the previous power crisis which lasted less than two years, the current situation has persisted for over three years and is still counting as there appears to be no end in sight.

1.1    Objective of the study
The purpose of this study was to find out what were the main causes of the low power production in Ghana, reasons that hinder the use of the available renewable energy resources, and to suggest the solutions in order to achieve clean and sustainable energy (power) generation to meet the Ghana’s electricity demand.

1.2  The research question
This research will critically look into the following questions to see as to what Ghana needs to do to meet and improve upon the country’s energy production.

1.      What are the main causes of the insufficient energy production in Ghana?

2.      What impact does energy (electricity) has on the output of industrial development of Ghana?

3.      What other energy resources can be used to improve electricity supply in Ghana?

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 62 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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