POLITICAL ECONOMY OF FUEL IMPORTATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF REFINERIES IN NIGERIA, 1999-2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgments
Table of Contents
List of Tables, Figures and Abbreviations
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the study
1.4       Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Did the allocation of fuel import licenses to independent marketers discourage investors in the development of new refineries in Nigeria between 1999 and 2013?
2.2 Did fuel importation probes fail to adequately define the challenges hindering the development of new refineries in Nigeria between 1999 and 2013?
2.2.1 Fuel subsidy Debate
2.2.2 Fuel subsidy probes
2.3 Did expatriates dominance of fuel importation and distribution undermine the integration of Research and Development (R&D) in Nigeria’s Petroleum Technology Development?

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Theoretical Framework
3.2       Hypotheses
3.3       Research Design
3.4       Methods of Data Collection
3.5       Method of Data Analysis
3.6       Logical Data Framework (LDF)

CHAPTER FOUR: FUEL IMPORTATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW REFINERIES IN NIGERIA
4.0       Introduction
4.1       Investors in the development of refineries and the Nigerian State, 1999-2013
4.2       Fuel Allocation: The Requirement in Nigeria
4.3       Prebendal Politics and Allocation of fuel import licenses in Nigeria
4.4       Fuel importers and lack of storage facilities

CHAPTER FIVE: FUEL IMPORTATION PROBES AND THE CHALLENGES OF REFINERY DEVELOPMENT
5.0       Introduction
5.1       Nature and Dimensions of Fuel Importation probes in Nigeria, 1999-2013
5.2       Law enforcement agencies and prosecution of oil marketers/companies on  fuel fraud
5.3       The  fuel importation probes and identified challenges
5.4       The  fuel importation probes and structural challenges

CHAPTER SIX: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) IN OIL SECTOR AND NIGERIA’S PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
6.0       Introduction
6.1       The state and supply of fuel to NNPC by Multinational Oil Corporations in Nigeria
6.2       Supply of fuel to independent marketers by foreign manpower in Nigeria
6.3       Control of largest distribution of fuel in Nigeria by foreign oil companies
6.4       Dominance of expatriates and the challenges of integration of R&D in Nigeria’s Petroleum
            Technology development, 1999 – 2013

CHAPTER SEVEN: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1       Summary
7.2       Conclusion
7.3       Recommendations
            Bibliography
            Appendix I
            Appendix II
            Appendix III
            Appendix IV

ABSTRACT
The contradictions of importing over US$10 billion fuel annually for domestic consumption, in the midst of abundant oil endowment, has attracted attention and concern from researchers and investigators. This study, therefore, set out to evaluate the effects of the political economy of fuel importation on the development of refineries in Nigeria between 1999 and 2013. It set as its objectives the task of interrogating the nexus between allocation of fuel import licenses to independent marketers and investors in the development of new refineries in Nigeria; the connections between fuel importation probes and the challenges hindering the development of new refineries in Nigeria; and the relationship between expatriates’ dominance of fuel importation and distribution, and the integration of Research and Development (R&D) in Nigeria’s petroleum technology development. The study adopted the political economy theoretical framework of analysis. Data were generated through the qualitative descriptive methodology and the ex-post-factoresearch design. The study highlighted the interplay of class interest and powerrelations on fuel importation to the neglect of building new refineries, in ways that enriched the dominant class coalitions and their political loyalists in the fuel-import dependent economy. This manifested specifically in the allocation of fuel import licenses to independent marketers through favouritism, prebendalism and clientelism that discouraged investors in the development of new refineries in Nigeria; fuel importation probes that failed to adequately expose the challenges hindering the development of new refineries in Nigeria; and expatriates’ dominance of fuel importation and distribution that undermined the integration of R&D in Nigeria’s Petroleum Technology Development. The study recommended, among others, that the government should increase R&D funding from the current 0.2% to at least, up to the required UNESCO approved 1% of the Federal Government Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Also, that the Nigerian government, should as a matter of urgency, advance policies that will lead to private sector-led development of the refineries in Nigeria’s downstream oil sector (as in Canada) where the 16 functional refineries are privately owned.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigeria is Africa’s largest oil producer and fifth supplier to the United States. She is rated among the 12 biggest oil producers in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, (OPEC), contributing about 2.5 million barrels per day (bpd) to the OPEC basket. She is the sixth largest oil exporter, “wit h a total of 173 oil blocks in operation, according to the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR)” (Eboh, 2013:1). The OPEC’s Annual Statistical Bulletin 2012 shows that Nigeria has proven crude oil reserves of 37.2 billion barrels, while proven natural gas reserves stands at 5.154 million cubic metres, making it the eighth in the world gas reserves and first in Africa. Yet the country depends on fuel importation to meet local demands of petroleum products.

Crude oil production and export commenced in Nigeria in 1958. It accounted for 7.1 per cent of total exports in 1961, which was dominated at that time by cocoa, groundnut, rubber and palm oil, in that order. In 1965, oil constituted 13.5 per cent of the nation’s export earnings, and by 1970, it had become the leading source of foreign exchange, accounting for 63.9 per cent. By 1979, petroleum sales had completely overshadowed non-oil exports, as it then contributed about 95 per cent of the country’s export earnings. In 2012, oil and gas export accounted for almost 96 per cent of export earnings. Also, in 2013, “Nigeria budget is framed on a reference oil price of $79 per barrel, providing a wide safety margin in case of price volatility” (U.S Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2013:1). No wonder, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) reported in 2010 “that petroleum accounted for approximately 96 per cent of the country’s foreign.....

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