PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LORANTHUS MICRANTHUS LINN. PARASITIC ON SIX DIFFERENT HOST PLANTS

ABSTRACT
Qualitative and quantitative screenings of the leaves of Eastern Nigerian mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus L., parasitic on six different plant species namely, Kola accuminata, Albizia adiantifolia, Anona cherimola, Citrus sinensis, Citrus auriantifolia and Pentaclethra macrophylla were carried out in the laboratories of Pharmacognosy and Biochemistry Departments of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka respectively. The results showed the presence of eleven phytochemicals namely: reducing sugars, terpenoids, resins, carbohydrates, saponins, proteins, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and flavonoids and absence of oils and acidic compounds. The results also showed variations in concentrations of the phytochemicals in the leaves of L. micranthus from the various trees investigated. It is recommended that further studies be done to isolate, characterize, and identify the phytochemicals responsible for curing diseases, so as to facilitate biotechnological exploitation of the species in the production of potent orthodox drugs.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Table of Contents
List of Plates
List of Tables
Abstract

1.0       Chapter One
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Description of Loranthus micranthus
1.3       The objectives of this study

2.0       Chapter Two
2.1       Literature Review

3.0       Chapter Three
3.1       Materials and Methods
3.2       Collection, Identification of Plant Materials
3.3       Phytochemical screening
3.4       Qualitative analysis
3.4.1.   Test for Carbohydrates
3.4.2.  Test for Reducing Sugars
3.4.3    Test for Alkaloids
3.4.4    Test for Glycosides
3.4.5    Test for Saponin
3.4.6    Test for Tannin
3.4.7    Test for Flavonoids
3.4.8    Test for Resin
3.4.9    Test for Protein
3.4.10  Test for oils
3.4.11  Test for Steroids
3.4.12  Test for Terpenoids
3.4.13  Test for Acidic compounds
3.5       Quantitative analysis
3.5.1.   Determination of Carbohydrate
3.5.2.   Determination of Reducing Sugar
3.5.3.   Determination of Alkaloid
3.5.4.   Determination of Glycoside
3.5.5.   Determination of Saponin
3.5.6.   Determination of Tannin
3.5.7.   Determination of Flavonoid
3.5.8.   Determination of Resin
3.5.9.   Determination of Protein
3.5.10. Determination of Oil
3.5.11. Determination of Steroid
3.5.12. Determination of Terpenoid
3.5.13. Determination of Acidic compound

4.0       Chapter four
4.1       Results
4.2       Qualitative analysis
4.3       Quantitative analysis

5.0       Chapter five
5.1       Discussion
5.2       Conclusion

1.0       CHAPTER ONE
1.1       INTRODUCTION
In the developing countries such as Nigeria, Togo, Ghana and Cameron over 80% of the population, especially in the rural areas rely on traditional/ herbal medication for their health care delivery (Singh, 2004). Sofowora (2008) pointed out that dependence on herbal drugs for treating different ailments in rural areas was caused by the absence of orthodox medical doctors, low cost of the services rendered by the herbalists, and above all, the herbalists quickly attend to their patients, unlike in the hospitals where protocols bore down the patients before they (Patients) are given attention. Sofowora (1982) reported that every ailment has a cure in plants. The author further reported that in traditional medicinal practice, different parts of the plants are used either singly or in combination with other plant parts (The same plant or some other plant species) (Singh, 2006).

The appraisal of the roles of herbal drugs in health care delivery resulted in several declarations which led to the acceptance and encouragement of the development and use of herbal/ medicinal plants of known ethno-botanic origin by the World Health Organization (Paridhavi and Agrawal, 2007). Since the recognition of herbal drugs in treating diverse ailments, many advanced countries like; India, China, Prince Edward Island, etc. have documented the medicinal plants in their forests. Most of the identified medicinal plants have been biotechnologically exploited in the production of various types of drugs in the forms of concoctions, balms, powders, syrups, tablets, capsules and injections (Kannaiyan, 2005; Singh, 2006 and Paridhavi and Agrawal, 2007).
Singh (2004) and Singh (2006) reported that twenty best selling drugs developed and marketed globally by the United States of America were derived from plant bioactives. Currently, countless herbal drugs produced in developed countries like India and China are massively exported to the developing countries.

Nigeria is endowed with numerous medicinal plant species locally used in treating diverse ailments (Carlson et al., 1987; Adjanaboun et al., 1993; Okafor and Ham, 1999; Carlson and King, 2000; Sofowora, 2008). Several authors have reported some of the ailments/diseases that can be cured with herbal drugs (Khwaja et al 1986; Kleijnen and Knipschild, 1994; Newal et al., 1996 and Swanson-Flatt et al., 1989).

. These include: high blood pressure, diabetes, ulcer, constipation, rheumatism, hemorrhage, chest pain, blindness, acute headache, wounds, sore throat, cough, eczema, venereal diseases, infertility, low sperm count, arthritis, etc. (Osadebe and Ukwueze, 2004; Awono and Obot, 2008; Sofowora, (2008). Carlson and King (2000) revealed that plant parts used in traditional medicine include leaves, bark, wood, root and flowers. Carlson and King (2000) also reported that plant parts used in traditional medicine could be obtained from one plant or a combination of different parts of plant species. Sofowora (2008) reported that the effectiveness of the plant parts largely depends on the period and manner of collection. Several reports have shown that some plants have wide spectrum effects, thus can be used in curing many diseases. Some of such plants include; mistletoe....

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 47 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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