Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of acronyms

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research questions
Significance of the study
Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Framework
Unsafe sex
Unsafe sexual Attitudes and Practices
Patterns of Unsafe Sexual Attitudes and Practices
Determinants of Unsafe Sexual Attitudes and Practices
Diagrammatic Representation of Conceptual Framework
Theoretical framework
Problem Behavior Theory:(PBT) (Visser 2003)
The Theory Of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 2001)
Social Cognitive Theory. (SCT) Bandura (1977)
Diagrammatic Representation of Theoretical Framework
Empirical Studies on Unsafe Sexual Attitude and Practice
Summary Related Literature

Research Design
Area of Study
Population for the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instruments for Data Collection
Validity of Instruments
Reliability of Instruments
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion
Summary of Major Findings
Discussion of Findings
Unsafe sexual attitude of students in tertiary institutions
Unsafe sexual practices of students in tertiary institutions
Demographic pattern of unsafe sexual attitude
Demographic pattern of unsafe sexual practices
Spatial pattern of unsafe sexual attitude and practices
Temporal pattern of unsafe sexual attitudes and practices

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Background to the Study

The globe is awash with expressions of increasing concerns about a world under threat of diseases, especially, communicable diseases of sexuality through unsafe sexual attitudes and practices. The continued decimation of population through afflictions and spread of diseases appears to compete favourably with continued flow of natural disasters and wars (Campbell, 2009). According to Park (2010) unsafe sexual attitudes and practices have reportedly reached alarming prevalence in several countries especially sub-Sahara Africa.

Globally, excluding HIV and AIDS there are about 333 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) per year (Afsar, Mahmood, Kaddir, Barrey Bilgramir 2005) United Population Fund UNPF, (2007) reported that young people world-wide are at the centre of HIV and AIDS epidemic in terms of rate of infection and vulnerability. Out of about 1.5 billion people world-wide, 11.8 million were estimated to be living with HIV and AIDS and everyday between 5,000-6000 young people aged 15-24 years contract HIV.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV and AIDS is a devastating human tragedy and the greatest humanitarian challenge of our time. The pandemic is still a complex public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa which accounts for more than 65 percent of STIs and HIV infections worldwide (UNAIDS & WHO, 2009). This has been a painful reality, with noticeable impact on families, communities and the society at large. There has been an intense debate in the last two decades on the relative roles of unsafe sex and unsafe health care on STIs and HIV spread in Sub- Saharan Africa, but most public health experts believe that unsafe sexual behaviors (unprotected sex and multiple and concurrent sex partners) are the mechanism through which STIs and HIV is spreading in the region (Halperin and Epstein, 2007; Leclerc- Madlala, 2008). According to these authors, multiple sexual partnerships—particularly overlapping or concurrent partnerships—by both men and women lie at the root of the persistence or the severity of the STIs and HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Nigeria national HIV prevalence rate had steadily increased from 1.8 per cent in 1991 to 5.8 per cent in 2001 with a decline to 5.0 per cent in 2003 and 4.4 per cent in 2005 (Sentinel Survey, 2005). However, there is wide variation in the prevalence rate across age groups, geographic locations and occupations. Fifteen states of Nigeria have HIV prevalence rates above the national average of 4.4 per cent with Benue State having the highest prevalence rate of 10 per cent, while Jigawa, Ekiti and Oyo states have the least prevalence rates of less than 2.1 per cent (UNAIDS, 2007). Furthermore, a prevalence rate of 5.2 per cent was reported for the age group 15-24 years, with adolescent girls being three times more vulnerable than boys. The infections burden among others includes hepatitis B, trichonomasis, genital herps, genital warts syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes, pelvic inflammation disease (PID). Most of these diseases are asymptomatic in women can lead to sterility if not treated (Lucas & Gilles, 2003). Laksaman (2003) opined that students of Nigerian tertiary institutions seem to continue to engage more in unsafe sex practices such as pre-marital sex, homosexuality, having multiple sexual partners and abortion more than ever before, perhaps because of their liberal sexual attitudes. Odu (2008) revealed that most students were sexually active and engaged in high risk sex such as casual sex, same sex, multiple sexual partners, and sex in exchange for money or favour. Similarly Centre for Diseases Control (2008) reported that student’s used of alcohol and drugs are in increase and likelihood of high-risk sexual behaviours when they are drunk and high seem to be prevalent. School students are less likely to use safe sex techniques such as condom, or may use it incorrectly or inconsistently, because, substance use can impair judgment and lead students to make high-risk decisions.

In the area of study through experience and observation, students of tertiary institutions, no more under the close supervision of parents easily fall prey to youthful exuberances. Some organize parties, social nights involving taking of alcohol and smoking, watching of pornographic movies, wearing of obnoxious dresses, mostly by female students which expose sensitive parts of their body. Also during holidays which coincides with festivities like Christmas, Easter and Sallah, students exhibit these habits, some put on expensive ornaments and dresses, organize expensive parties without any form of gainful employment or business. These practices of students may imply that they may be involved in unsafe sexual attitudes and practices. Despite these observations, there is no any statistical data to students involvement in unsafe sexual attitudes and practices in Nasarawa State institutions. Unsafe sexual practices often lead to consequences like unwanted pregnancies, unsafe and illegal abortions, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the unsafe sexual attitude and practices of the students to provide a base line data in their institutions.
An individual’s attitude is an embodiment of his or her personality. People’s attitudes to a great extent exert significant impact either negatively or positively on their actions (sexual practice inclusive), which are exhibited by humans. Allport (1995) described attitude as a mental or neutral state of readiness organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the responses to all objects and situations with which it is related. Hornby (2007) defined attitude as the way one thinks, or feels, behaves towards somebody or something.

Attitudes can also be expressed or exhibited in relation to sexuality. When this phenomenon occurs it is called sexual attitude. Wikipedia Foundation (2011) views human sexual attitude as the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. Some sexual attitudes and practices are considered safe or unsafe, legal or illegal either universally or in some countries, and some are considered against the norms of a society. Such example, are sexual permissiveness, unfaithfulness with sexual partner, and lack of mutual respect for sexual partner (Erens, McManus, Field, Korovessis, Johnson, Fenton, & Wellings, 2001; & Waites, 2005).

Sex can only be described as “safe” or “unsafe” if something is known about the context in which it takes place and with whom. Having sex does not place a person at risk of contracting a disease unless that person’s partner has an infection, which he can transmit. Therefore, unlike many other risk factors, which are independent of the situation in the broader population, or with respect to other individuals, unsafe sex cannot be uniquely defined by the set of actions of an at-risk individual. Rather, a definition must be based on an analysis of the individual’s actions in the light of the background prevalence of disease (Rowley & Berkley, 1998).

Berkley (1998) conceptualized safe sex as consensual sexual contact with a partner who is not infected with any sexually transmitted pathogens and involving the use of appropriate contraceptives to prevent pregnancy unless the couple is intentionally attempting to have a child. Wikipedia Foundation (2011) viewed safe sex as sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against STIs and HIV and AIDS. Many activities are categorized as safe sexual activities.

Activities, such as kissing (with the mouth closed) and hugging are considered safe. Other forms of touching, such as body massage, are considered safe as long as there is no skin-to-skin contact that involves the genital area and buttocks and no contact with body fluids. Using a condom during sexual activities such as vaginal, anal or oral sex is considered safe and can also greatly reduce the risk of getting or spreading STIs. In addition, finding out more about the person before having sex, abstinence and sticking to one partner, however this study restricts itself to unsafe sex.

Hornby (2007) viewed unsafe sex as sexual activity engaged in without precautions to protect against STIs. Slaymaker, Walker, Zabia and Collumbien (2005) defined unsafe sex as sex between a susceptible person and partner who has a STI without taking preventive measures against it. Slaymaker et al. (2005) further stated that unsafe sex occurs if a susceptible person has sex with at least one partner who has an STI, without taking measures to prevent infection. Susceptible individuals are not yet infected, either because the infectious agent has not been successfully transmitted, or because the agent has been transmitted but infection has not yet been established. Therefore, in the context of the present study, unsafe sexual attitudes by students of tertiary institutions shall refer to the actions in which students experience and express their sexuality without adopting necessary precautionary measures to avoid contracting STIs/HIV, abortions, unintended pregnancies and emotional stress.

Erens, McManus, Field, Korovessis, Johnson, Fenton, and Wellings (2001) highlighted examples of unsafe sexual attitudes such as sexual permissiveness, unfaithfulness with sexual partner, lack of mutual respect and appreciation for sexual partner’s opinion, negative opinion of HIV blood test before sex (sero-positive status), negative opinion of STIs diagnoses, injection of non-prescribed drugs before sex and opinion of having abortion when pregnant. UNAID’ (2007) indicated that unsafe sexual attitudes are becoming more institutions. The report further mentioned that the consequences of this quagmire are very terrible.

Park (2009) and Samuel (2010) listed STIs that plague youths as a result of indulgence in unsafe sexual attitudes and practices. These include genital herpes, trichomonas, gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia, non-specific or non-gonococcus arthritis, genital warts, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), vaginal thrush, hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, candidacies and candidacies albicans. Others are trichomoniasis, and herpes genitalis. The aforementioned plagues that are associated with inordinate sexual practices could be prevented when youths adopt safe sexual practices.

Hornby (2007) defined practice as action not ideas. It is a way of doing something that is the usual or expected way in a particular organization. It could be habit or custom-something done regularly. Encarta (2009) defined practices as usual pattern of action especially one that has developed through experience and knowledge. Practices that are related to sexuality are known as sexual practices. (2011) conceptualized sexual.....

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