OWNERSHIP AND PROFESSIONALISM IN JOURNALISM PRACTICE : A STUDY OF SELECTED BROADCAST MEDIA OUTFITS IN JOS, PLATEAU STATE

CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                           INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
In Nigeria, there are three main types of media ownership namely, Government ownership, Private ownership and mixed ownership. In the case of government ownership, the media house is established, controlled and financed by the government, which the private ownership is when an individual or a group of persons establish, finance and control the media house. That of mixed ownership is when both government and private individuals are into some sort of partnership regarding establishing, financing and controlling the media house.
The researcher agrees with the ideas of Nnanyelugo Okon and Ben Agbo authors of “writing for the media society”. They wrote that “it is obviously true that mass media owners exert a threatening control medium is managed by a board of directors appointed by private owners or by a public cooperation established by the government.
In all societies, communication is used to pass information from one person to the other or between or amongst groups. However, the form of communication differs depending on the stage of development of such a society. In other words, the stage of production of any society determines the complexity of its communication (Peil, 1976:19). According to Peil (1976), communication in pre-industrial societies was easy, simple and mostly face-to-face. He further points out that the town announcer was often used to pass information from one person or group to others in such societies.
As societies develop and become more urbanised and industrial, face-to-face communication became less efficient and constrictive. Thus, with increasing need to reach more people, the use of newspapers, radio and television has become better means of mass communication. Television is one of such media that passes information almost instantaneously. This is because of its ability to combine audio and visual effects and its immediacy in reaching the audience (Ajia 1986:10; Lasode, 1994:48). Unlike the print media that were established at the initiative of Nigerian citizens, and used as a vehicle for venting dissatisfaction with the colonial government, the colonial government established the 2 first broadcast medium, the Nigerian Broadcasting Service (NBS) to facilitate its governance of the country. NBS was established in 1932 as a re-diffusion station.
According to Ake, (1981:78), Toyo (1983:3), Alubo (1990) and Madunagu (1989:25), the Nigerian society is deeply divided into the ownership of property and wealth. It is also a society characterised by great inequalities of power as a result of these divisions. One aspect of this division is that ownership of radio and television stations are concentrated in the hands of the few who own private property as well as government. Those who own property such as television stations also may also have political and economic interests. In many cases, news reportage and presentation from such stations may be skewed to protect such interests. Hence the station will usually protect such owners’ capital (Curran et al, 1977:115).
Reportage of news on television entails the provision of information on different issues at different segments of a programme. It also involves giving credibility to such event, especially, because, “Credibility in the minds of the audience being the sine qua non for news, beyond which all else is propaganda” (Smith, 1991:34). Thus the mass media have an agenda setting role, the ability to give events certain public prominence while ignoring others, as part of the processes of newsgathering and reportage. This agenda setting role according to Smyth (1991), Onoja (1992) is however not a value free exercise. In other words, the reportage of news has organisational, individual reporters and ownership bias. 3 One of th
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Based on the research made, sponsorship of the media house, its control and recruitment of its principal staff have formed the influential factors consequent upon the professionalism in journalism of the media house since the owner(s) of the media house usually does or do the afore-stated factors. The media ownership have therefore in some ways influenced the professionalism in journalism and this has posed problems to journalism as a trade.
In this case, the editorial writing has to function with the policy framework and editorial principles. Nothing runs the editor down as having the option of either doing it the way the policy dictates or he resigns or otherwise sacked.
Influence of media ownership on professionalism in journalism have made many media outfitss to collapse in operations and have also made them to lose their readership grip. In the case of a Announcer Media outfitss, as a privately owned Media outfits, if dies not have so many policies that usually affect its readership except that its front and back page stories are centered on plateau state. Often times, it faces the stiff competition of the national and other local media outfitss.
Again, people from other state would always see the purchase of the media outfits as a waste since it does not usually spread its tentacles.
According to the staff of “Announcer Media outfits”, the publisher (owner) brings to production room when it is already time for production. This delays production of the paper.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
 This work is aimed at highlighting on ways by which media ownership influences professionalism in journalism of media outfits.
To give some information on the extent (based on research influence) an professionalism in journalism has gone in destroying journalistic principles. Vis-à-vis the consequences of such cases.
It would also act as a meditating factor and would go as much as proffering solution forwards checking these excesses.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
To use this work to attract some legislative amends or stop totally this ugly trend which is not for the good or Nigerian society.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the study, an attempt would be sufficiently made to answer the following questions.
Does the media ownership factor influence professionalism in journalism of a private (Media outfits) medium?
Can the job of the journalist in private Media outfits house be guaranteed?
Can the ethics of journalism be used to check the influence of media ownership, on professionalism in journalism?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: Media ownership factor influences professionalism in journalism of a private medium
H0: Media ownership factor cannot influence professionalism in journalism of a private medium. (Like Announcer Media outfits)
H2: Job security of the journalist in private media outfits house can be guaranteed.
H0: Job security of the journalist in private media outfits house cannot be guaranteed.
H3: Ethics of journalism can be used to check the influence of the media ownership on professionalism in journalism.

H0: Ethics of journalism cannot be used to check the influence of the media ownership on the professionalism in journalism......

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 52 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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