Title page
Certification page
List of tables
List of plates
List of figures
Table of content

1.0 Background information
1.1 Spent engine oil
1.2 Senna
1.3 Objectives of the study

2.0 Engine oil
2.1 Engine oil additives
2.2 Properties of engine oil
2.3 Regeneration of used engine oil
2.4 Effects of spent engine oil on the ecosystem
2.5 Nutrient requirements of Senna plant
2.6 Medicinal uses of Senna
2.7 Phytoremediation
2.8 Phytoremediation of hydrocarbons
2.9 Phytoremediation of heavy metals
2.10 Phytoremediability of Senna

3.0 Planting and pollution of Senna plant
3.1 Total hydrocarbon analysis
3.2 Heavy metals analysis
3.3 Determination of vegetative parameters of Senna alata
3.4 Determination of reproductive parameters of Senna alata
3.5 Data analysis

4.0 Result of the total hydrocarbon analysis
4.1 Percentage compositions of total hydrocarbons in the samples
4.2 Result of the heavy metal analysis
4.3 Result of the vegetative parameters of Senna alata
4.4 Result of the reproductive parameters of Senna alata

5.0 Discussion
5.1 Conclusion

The aim of the study is to use Senna alata L. to remediate soil polluted by spent engine oil (SEO). One hundred and twenty polythene bags filled with 20 kg of soil were separated into two groups A (60) and B (60). Group A contained S. alata seedlings while group B had no plant. They were set up in completely randomized design. Both parts were polluted with different concentrations (0.15% v/w, 0.75% v/w and 3.75% v/w) of SEO 57 days after planting (DAP). One hundred and six days after pollution, the hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of the vegetated and unvegetated soil, the unused SEO, leaves, stems and roots of S. alata were analyzed. Also, vegetative and reproductive parameters of S. alata were recorded and analyzed. Results showed that percentage of total hydrocarbons degraded/removed from 0.15% v/w, 0.75% v/w and 3.75% v/w vegetated soils were 99.95%, 99.68% and 99.28%, respectively. S. alata alone removed 0.06%, 0.18% and 8.05% hydrocarbons for the same pollution concentrations, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulated in the leaves, stems and roots of S. alata. Percentage of total hydrocarbons accumulated in the leaves, stems and roots of S. alata in 3.75% v/w polluted vegetated soils were 112.47%, 1.49% and 1.35%, respectively. Heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Aluminium (Al) were detected in the unused spent engine oil. There were higher concentrations of each of the heavy metals in the polluted unvegetated soils than the vegetated soils. Heavy metals accumulated in various vegetative parts of S. alata. Copper was found more in the stems than in the leaves and roots while Fe and Pb were found more in the leaves than in the stems and roots. Zinc and Al were found more in the roots than in the leaves and stems. Moreover, heavy metal concentrations (ppm) were more in the vegetative parts of S. alata than in the polluted soil. Also, plant height, number of leaves, number of pinnules per leaf, leaf area, stem circumference and number of roots increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after pollution. Root circumference decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05), with increase in the concentrations of SEO applied but root length did not vary among the treatments and control. Number of inflorescences and dry weight of seeds decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) but number of flowers, pods and seeds did not vary among the treatments and control. Hence, S. alata is an ideal plant for the removal (phytoremediation) of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in SEO contaminated soil. The plant can be regarded as a hyper accumulator for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

1.0 Background information
The disposal of spent engine oil (SEO) into gutters, water drains, open plots and farms is a common practice in Nigeria especially by motor mechanics. These oils, also called spent lubricating or waste engine oil, is usually obtained after servicing and subsequently drained from automobile and generator engines (Anoliefo and Vwioko, 2001) and much of this oil is poured into the soil. This indiscriminate disposal of spent engine oil adversely affect plants, microbes and aquatic lives (Nwoko et al., 2007; Adenipekun et al., 2008) because of the large amount of hydrocarbons and highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the oil (Wang et al., 2000; Vwioko and Fashemi, 2005). Heavy metals such as vanadium, lead, aluminium, nickel and iron which are found in large quantities in used engine oil may be retained in soil, in form of oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, exchangeable cation and/or bound to organic matters in the soil (Ying et al., 2007). These heavy metals may lead to build up of essential organic (carbon, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium) and non-essential (magnesium, lead, zinc, iron, cobalt, copper) elements in soil which are eventually translocated into plant tissues (Vwioko et al., 2006). Although heavy metals in low concentration are essential micronutrients for plants, but at high concentrations, they may cause metabolic disorder and growth inhibition for most of the plant species (Yadav, 2010). According to Nwadinigwe and Onwumere (2003), contamination of soil arising from oil spills affect the growth of plants and causes great negative impacts on food productivity (Onwurah et al., 2007). Therefore, these indiscriminate disposals of spent engine oil on the environment and the adverse effects on living organisms were the main reason for this research and so, there is a dire need to adopt a control measure that employs environmentally friendly methods. One of these methods is the use of plants to extract or degrade the pollutants into harmless chemicals. The use of plants to reclaim a damaged environment is called phytoremediation. In this work, attempt was made to use Senna alata L. to phytoremediate hydrocarbons and heavy metals present in SEO-polluted soil.....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 75 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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