Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations and Symbols

1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of Research Problems
1.3       Justification of the Research
1.4       Aim of the Study
1.5       Objectives of the Study
1.6       Research Questions

2.1       Egg Drop Syndrome-76
2.1.1    History of egg drop syndrome-76
2.1.2    Incidence and distribution of egg drop syndrome-76
2.1.3    Aetiology of egg drop syndrome-76
2.1.4    Classification of egg drop syndrome-76 virus
2.1.5    Propagation of egg drop syndrome-76 virus
2.1.6    Strain classification of egg drop syndrome-76 virus
2.1.7    Susceptibility of egg drop syndrome-76 virus to chemical and physical agents
2.1.8    Transmission of egg drop syndrome-76 virus
2.1.9    Species affected by egg drop syndrome-76 virus
2.1.10  Incubation period of egg drop syndrome-76 virus
2.1.11  Pathogenesis of egg drop syndrome-76
2.1.12  Clinical signs of egg drop syndrome-76
2.1.13  Diagnosis of egg drop syndrome-76
2.1.14  Treatment of egg drop syndrome-76
2.1.15  Eradication of egg drop syndrome-76
2.1.16  Public health significance of egg drop syndrome-76
2.2       Newcastle Disease
2.2.1    Incidence and distribution of Newcastle disease
2.2.2    Aetiology of Newcastle disease
2.2.3    Transmission of Newcastle disease virus
2.2.4    Species affected by Newcastle disease virus
2.2.5    Incubation period of Newcastle disease virus
2.2.6    Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease
2.2.7    Clinical signs of Newcastle disease
2.2.8    Public health significance of Newcastle disease
2.3       Infectious Bursal Disease
2.3.1    Incidence and distribution of infectious bursal disease virus
2.3.2   Aetiology of infectious bursal disease
2.3.3   Transmission of infectious bursal disease virus
2.3.4   Species affected by infectious bursal disease virus
2.3.5   Incubation period of infectious bursal disease
2.3.6   Pathogenesis of infectious bursal disease virus
2.3.7   Clinical signs of infectious bursal disease
2.3.8   Diagnosis of infectious bursal disease
2.3.9   Control of infectious bursal disease

3.1       Study Area
3.2       Sample Size
3.3       Sampling Units
3.4       Sampling Technique
3.5       Blood Collection
3.6       Source of Egg Drop Syndrome -76 Antigen
3.7       Source of Newcastle Disease Virus Antigen
3.8       Source of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Antigen
3.9       Preparation of Red Blood Cells
3.10     Determination of Titre ofEgg Drop Syndrome-76 and Newcastle Disease Antigens
3.11     Determination of Titre of Egg Drop Syndrome-76 and Newcastle Disease Antibodies
3.12     Agar Gel Preparation and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test for Detection of Gumboro Disease Virus Antibodies
3.13     Data Analyses

4.1       Sero-prevalence of EDS-76 virus in relation to location, sampling units, type of poultry and specie of poultry
4.2       Sero-prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in relation to location, sampling units, type of poultry and specie of poultry
4.3       Sero-prevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease virus in relation to location, sampling units, type of poultry and specie of poultry


6.1       Conclusions
6.2       Recommendations

This study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of egg drop syndrome-76 (EDS-76), Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) in poultry sampled from rural households, live bird markets (LBM) and commercial farms in sixteen different locations of Zaria and environs, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was used to detect EDS-76 and ND antibodies, while agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) was used to detect antibodies to IBD. The result indicates that out of the 679 sera analyzed, 470 (69.2%) tested positive for EDS-76 antibodies, with prevalence of 100% obtained in Samaru commercial farm, ABU Quarters and Wusasa, and the lowest prevalence in Samaru LBM (34%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there was a highly significant difference between the locations (p < 0.001). The mean EDS-76 antibody titre in poultry in different locations sampled in Zaria and environs of Kaduna State, Nigeria was 4.73 ± 0.09 log2. The highest mean EDS-76 antibody titre (7.07 ± 0.55 log2) was obtained in poultry from Wusasa and the lowest mean EDS-76 antibody titre (2.73 ± 0.66 log2) in poultry from Samaru LBM. Rural households had a sero-prevalence of 66.8% for EDS-76 and a mean antibody titre of 4.36 ± 0.15 log2. Geese, pigeons and turkeys had a sero-prevalence of 33.3%, 52.6% and 18.2%, respectively for EDS-76, while turkeys had the highest mean EDS-76 antibody titre (7.50 ± 0.50 log2). Local chickens had a sero-prevalence of 68.2%, while broilers had a sero-prevalence of 100% for EDS-76. The overall ND sero-prevalence of 72.1% was obtained for 1, 028 sera samples analyzed. High prevalence of 100% were obtained in birds sampled from Graceland, Samaru commercial farm, Sakaru, Wusasa and Zango commercial farms, while the lowest sero-prevalence was obtained from Giwa LBM (24.5%). The ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the locations (p <0.0001). The overall ND mean antibody titre was 6.08 ± 0.13 log2. The highest titre was recorded in flocks in Zango commercial farms (9.61 ± 0.93 log2) and the lowest titre (2.32 ± 0.38 log2) and very low percentage of protective ND antibodies (14.5%) was obtained in birds from Pan hauya. Among the three LGAs sampled, flocks in Zaria had the highest mean ND antibody titre (8.84 ± 0.17 log2) and all birds sampled having protective antibody titre ≥4log2, while flocks in Giwa had the lowest mean ND antibody titre (3.55 ± 0.32 log2) with the least having protective antibody titre (15.2%). Rural households had a sero-prevalence of 69.8% with 67.2% of poultry birds at risk of being affected by ND in an outbreak. The overall IBD sero-prevalence obtained was (48.4%). The highest IBD sero-prevalence was obtained in poultry sampled from Biye (81.8%). The lowest sero-prevalence of 11.6% was recorded in poultry sampled from Suleiman commercial farms. Of the three LGAs sampled, the highest IBD sero-prevalence was observed in flocks in Giwa (60.7%), while the lowest (44.1%) was in flocks in SabonGari. The results obtained from this study showed that poultry from Zaria and environs have circulating antibodies to EDS-76, ND and IBD and could serve as sources of introduction and spread of EDS-76, ND and IBD to susceptible hosts. It was recommended that birds from rural households should be vaccinated against ND and IBD routinely by owners so as to protect poultry from ND and IBD.

1.1              Background of the Study
The importance of poultry industry can be judged from the fact that every family in rural and every fifth family in urban areas are directly or indirectly associated with poultry production (Sadiq, 2004). Despite improved management methods and disease preventive measures adopted in the public and private sectors, overall poultry population always remained victim to a number of infectious and non infectious diseases. Among the infectious diseases, egg drop syndrome-76 is the one posing a serious threat to the layer industry worldwide (Van Eck et al.,1976).This disease is primarily of economic significance, as the affected birds do not appear sick (CFSPH, 2006).

A syndrome causing lower egg production associated with laying of soft-shelled and shell less eggaccompanied by a 10%- 30% drop in egg production (Castro and Heuschelle, 1992) was firstdescribed in the Netherlands in 1976 and the possible causative agent of the syndrome was reported to be fowladenovirus (Van Eck et al., 1976). Later, several haemagglutinating adenoviruses were isolated by McFerran et al.(1978b) from affected hens in Northern Ireland and the correlation between the syndrome and the isolate was demonstrated (McFerran and Adair, 1977; McFerranet al., 1978a). The disease is now called EDS-76 causedby EDS-76 virus is the foremost cause of loss of egg production in laying hens throughout the world (Alam et al., 2009).....

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