Title page
Table of Contents
Lists of Tables
Lists of Figures

1.0 Introduction
1.1Review on Phaseolus vulgaris
1.2.2 Classification of lipoprotein
1.2.3Lipoproteins metabolism
1.2.4 Classification of hyperlipidemia
1.2.5 Management of hyperlipidemia Non-Pharmacological interventions interventions
1.3 Antioxidants
1.3.1 Classification of antioxidants
1.3.2 Types of antioxidants
1.3.3 Oxidative Stress
1.3.4 Antioxidants and Cardiovascular diseases
1.4 Induction of hyperlipidemia
1.4.1 Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)
1.5       Statement of the problem
1.6       Aim of Study
1.7       Objectives of Study
1.8Significance of Study
1.9       Justification of Study

2.0       Materials and Method
2.1Experimental animals
2.2       Plant material
2.3       Phytochemical screening
2.4       Hplc fingerprinting
2.5Acute toxicity (LD50)
2.6.1Experimental Design
2.6.2Acute Study of the effects of extract and fractions of PVE on lipid profile
2.6.3Sub-acute Study of the effects of extract and fractions of PVE on lipid profile
2.6.4Chronic Study of the effects of extract and fractions of PVE on lipid profile
2.6.5BiochemicalDetermination of Lipid profile parameters Determination of Total Cholesterol Level (TC) Determination of serum Triglycerides levels (TRIGS) Determination of serum High Density Lipoproteins Cholesterol (HDL-C) Determination of serum Low Density Lipoproteins Cholesterol (LDL-C) Determination of serum Very Low Density Lipoproteins Cholesterol (VLDL-C)
2.7 Determination of Body weight
2.8 Determination of Atherogenic Index
2.9Studies on Antioxidants effects of extract and fractions of PVE
2.9.1 DPPH scavenging assay of extract and fractions of PVE
2.9.2 Nitric oxide scavenging assay of extract and fractions of PVE
2.9.3 In-vivo Study
2.9.4 Estimation of Catalase activity
2.9.5    Estimation of Lipid-peroxidation activity
2.9.6Estimation of Glutathione Peroxidase activity
2.10Method of data analyses

3.0 Results

4.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
4.1 Discussion
4.2 Conclusion
4.3 References

In this study, the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidants activities of the extract and fractions of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated. The crude extract (PVE) of dried pulverized plant material was obtained by maceration in methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) while the solvent fractions were obtained by successive solvent-solvent partition in separating funnel between the crude extract suspended in aqueous medium and solvents of increasing polarity to obtain the n-hexane fraction (PVHF), ethylacetate fraction (PVEF), and butanol fraction (PVBF) in that order.Antihyperlipidemic effects of the extracts and fractions were investigated using acute, sub-acute and chronic models. In all threemodels, treatment with (PVE) caused significantreduction (P<0 .05="" i="">) in the lipid profile parameters with the most significance seen in the sub acute study where total cholesterol was decreased by 38.44%. Triglycerides level was significantly decreased (P<0 .05="" i="">) by 18.18% in the acute study model.Similarly, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C)and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) wasrespectively decreased by 18.18% and 48.73% in the acute antihyperlipidemia model. In contrast, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level was significantly (P<0 .05="" i="">) increased in the acute phase by 20.85%.In all study protocols involving the various fraction there were significant increase(P<0 .05="" i="">) in lipid profile. PVEF (400 mg/kg) produced- the most significant reduction in total cholesterol level in the acute study with percentage decrease of 22.10% compared to the control treatment. Triglycerides level was similarly reduced by 21.59% and 15.91% at PVHF (200 mg/kg) and PVEF (200 mg/kg) with the acute study.The sub-acute protocol showed significant decrease at PVBF 200 mg/kg percentage decrease of 17.28%. VLDL-C level for the fraction study showed significant decrease (P<0 .05="" i="">) at PVHF 200 mg/kg and PVEF 200 mg/kg with percentage decrease of 21.59% and 15.91% during the acute protocol, the sub-acute protocol showed significant decrease at PVBF 200 mg/kg percentage decrease of 17.28. LDL-C level for fraction extract study showed dose dependent significance decrease (P<0 .05="" i="">) seen at PVHF 100 mg/kg, PVEF100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg with percentage decrease of 47.19%, 41.62% and 53.39% respectively during the acute protocol, Finally in the chronic protocol a significant decrease was seen with PVHF 200mg/kg, PVEF 100 mg/kg, and PVBF 200 mg/kg with percentage decrease of 26.03%, 24.82% and 20.05% respectively. HDL-C level for extract study showed dose dependent significant increase (P<0 .05="" i="">) seen at PVHF 100 mg/kg, PVEF 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with percentage increase of 30.44%, 28.88% and 30.86%. DPPH reduction and nitric oxide scavenging assays were used in the investigation of the extract and fractions for the in vitro antioxidant activities study, the antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were further determined in vivo in rats. Antioxidant enzymes and factors such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation activities were measured in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats treated with or without the extract and fractions studies. The highest percentage reduction of DPPH was 80.61% seen with PVEF and PVBF fraction at 400 mg/kg. The highest percentage reduction of nitric oxide was 75.86% seen with PVHF at 200 mg/kg. The in vitro study showed significant increased (P<0 .05="" i="">) scavenging activity with the PVHF and PVEF having scavenging activity comparable with ascorbic acid. Inin-vivo antioxidant assay showed that the Lipid peroxidation levels estimated by thiobarbituric acid reaction showed no significant (P>0.05) increase or decrease in the serum MDA of both the treated and untreated group, while in catalase activity estimation showed significant (P<0 .05="" i="">) increase was seen with PVE 100 mg/kg of 71.05%, Glutathione peroxidise activity showed the most significant percentage (P<0 .05="" i="">) increase of 76.19% for PVBF 100 mg/kg.The results of the study showed that the extracts and fractions ofPhaseolus vulgaris posses anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant with the PVEF showing better and more consistent effects with all protocols used in the investigation.

1.0.            INTRODUCTION
A large volume of scientific research suggests that in situations of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated and a homeostatic environment between anti-oxidant and oxidation is created, which are known to be an important concept for maintaining a healthy

biological system (Davies, 2000). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions (O2-

), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical (OH-) aids in the inactivation of enzymes and this result in damage to important cellular components which leads to complication such as coronary heart diseases (Gessin et al., 1990).

Disease of coronary origins such as stroke, atherosclerosis, etc., continues to be a leading cause of death in most countries of the world (Davey, 1993).One of the greatest risk factors in the severity and prevalence of coronary heart diseases is disorders of lipid metabolism known as hyperlipidemia (Grundy, 1986). According to reports by the World Health Organization approximately 56% of coronary heart diseases are as a result of hyperlipidemia and this result in about 4.4million deaths each year worldwide (World Health Organization, 2002). Hyperlipidemia is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency and manifested by elevation of the serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations with a decrease in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration (Adam, 2005).

Man as always looked for a way to fight and control diseased state with inspiration and aid from his immediate natural environment; this guidance’s have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value (Nostro et al., 2000). The use of medicinal plants in the management of diseases is common around the world (Aliyu et al.,

2007). Herbal medicine, the study and use of medicinal properties of plants, is an aspect of....

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