AN APPRAISAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION; A CASE STUDY, NIGER-DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The Niger Delta region which presently consists of the following states Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo, Rivers among others has been attributed with oil exploration and exploitation which has begun ab abstequi, since the discovery of oil in large commercial quantity there as at around 1955-1956. The impact of the activities that go on in these states in a bid to explore and exploit oil has been having gross impact on the environmental condition of Nigeria, in all spheres including; land, marine and atmosphere.
Environmental degradation, Oil spillage, Soil impoverishment, marine pollution, loss of aquatic life inter-alia are part of the gross effect that the oil exploration in the Niger Delta has had on the environment of the Nation. This work drives its focus particularly on the environmental degradation especially in relation to the Niger Delta; the thesis will be appraising several laws, policies and insights in relation to Environmental degradation in the Niger Delta.
In a bid to achieve the aims of the thesis which will be expressly spelt out in its first chapter, both primary and secondary sources of law will be used as resources, as well as several methodologies of research, such as the doctrinal and empirical research methodologies.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Abstract
Table of Content
List of Statutes
List of Abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0.0.   Introduction
1.1.0.   Background of the Study
1.2.0.   Aims and Objectives of the Study
1.3.0.   Scope of the Study
1.4.0.   Statement of Problem
1.5.0.   Research Methodology
1.6.0.   Literature Review
1.7.0.   Organizational Layout

CHAPTER TWO
NIGERIA ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
2.0.0. Introduction
2.1.0. History of Nigeria Environmental Policy
2.2.0. Environmental Degradation and Problems
2.2.1. Land Degradation
2.2.2. Oil Spills
2.2.3. Air Pollution
2.2.4. Gas flares
2.3.0. Effects of Environmental Problems in Nigeria
2.4.0. Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE
OIL EXPLORATION IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION
3.0.0. Introduction
3.1.0. The Niger Delta Environment
3.2.0. Oil Exploration in the Niger Delta
3.3.0. Effect of Oil Exploration in the Niger Delta on Nigerian Environment
3.4.0. Conclusion

CHAPTER FOUR
LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS IN RELATION TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM IN THE NIGER DELTA
4.0.0. Introduction
4.1.0. National Environmental Laws
4.1.1. The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (CFRN 1999)
4.1.2. The National Environment Standards Regulation Enforcement Agency (Establishment) Act 2007 (NESREA Act 2007)
4.1.3. The National Oil Spill and Detection Agency (Establishment) Act 2006 (NOSDRA Act 2006)
4.1.4. The Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA Act), CAP E12 LFN 2004
4.1.5. Petroleum Act CAP P10 LFN 2004
4.1.6. The Oil Pipelines Act CAP O7 LFN 2004 (OPA)
4.2.0. Bodies and Policies in relation to Environmental Problems in Nigeria
4.3.0. Causes of Environmental Degradation in Niger Delta and Nigeria
4.4.0. Conclusion

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0.0  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1.0. Summary
5.2.0. Conclusion
5.3.0. Recommendations

          Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0.0 INTRODUCTION:
Environmental degradation is the decline of the environment as a result of running down of the ecosystem (i.e. the air, water resources, and the soil), resulting in the destruction of ecosystems, and the gradual extinction of wildlife. Simply put, environmental degradation is defined as any harmful or undesirable change, or disturbance to the environment. This happens when the earth’s natural resources have been badly tampered with, thus compromising the environment to all sorts of hazards, ranging from the extinction of species, pollution of the air that we breathe, the water that we drink, and the soil we plant our agricultural products.
Environmental degradation can be occasioned in different ways and manners ranging from land and marine pollution to gas flaring among various other environmental vices. The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has over the years been categorized as the center for environmental degradation and oil spilling as well as gas flaring due to it. The delta covers 20,000 km² within wetlands of 70,000 km² formed primarily by sediment deposition. Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups, this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass.
 It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage basin in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands, mangrove swamp forests, freshwater swamps, and lowland rainforests.
This incredibly well-endowed ecosystem contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to supporting abundant flora and fauna, arable terrain that can sustain a wide variety of crops, lumber or agricultural trees, and more species of freshwater fish than any ecosystem in West Africa. The region could experience a loss of 40% of its inhabitable terrain in the next thirty years as a result of extensive dam construction in the region.
Even though the Niger Delta can be described as one of the wealthiest region in Nigeria due to the many natural resources generated in and from the region, it is saddening to realize that this wealth is being tampered continuously by both human elements and other influencing factors. Overall, the Niger Delta region in Nigeria is an important ecosystem that needs to be properly protected and guarded because of the high prospects it bears in many aspects and fields of the Nigerian environment, including the marine wellness as well as other environmental areas.
This project which is the foundation of this dissertation is one which seeks to shed light to the topic which forms the hub around which this work revolves as well as put an end through its recommendations, ideal approach and contributions to knowledge to the menace of environmental degradation in our society.
1.1.0. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
This study has become very pertinent owing to the recurrence of the factors leading to environmental degradation in the Niger Delta region both in the sector of oil and gas as well as the marine field. This degradation is being occasioned continually and it has caused a large decline in the marine and agricultural resources of the region and the nation at large.
The legal framework in relation to this cannot be totally condemned even though there are a number of lacunae and rooms for improvement. Environmental related laws have been in force in Nigeria over the years and have been adopted by the government and people for different purposes. The laws that form this framework will also be checked critically by the work.
Another background against which this work is set is in relation to the environmental rights of the people of Nigeria and particularly the Niger Delta people whose environmental rights contained and endorsed by both municipal and international laws have been trampled upon and its enjoyment have been hindered by the degrading elements and factors affecting the environment.[1]
1.2.0. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research work seeks to achieve the following:
1.                  To clearly state and represent the environmental impacts of the activities (like oil spill, marine pollution) in the Niger Delta region in Nigeria with a view to provide lasting solution to these environmental vices.
2.                  To examine the oil exploration as well as oil spillage in the Niger Delta region in Nigeria
3.                  To analyze and appraise the various environmental laws in Nigeria as well as the implementation of these laws.
4.                   To assess the applicable enforcement strategies and its efficacy in the control of environmental vices in the Niger Delta and across the Nigerian state.
5.                  To evaluate policies and the steps taken by the Nigerian government in a view to make the situation better.
6.                  To recommend solutions on how the situation can be bettered and optimized. 
1.3.0. SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
This study is one with scope but territorial and theoretical as it is not a research work which is in vacuum or limitless. This study covers environmental degradation and all that leads to it in the Niger Delta region in Nigeria. The work also analyses various Nigerian legislations related to the subject matter that have existed till date.
The scope of this work also covers the effect and implications of environmental degradation on the Niger Delta society as well as its causes. The work shall take a dice into the various frameworks in international laws in relation to environments and environmental rights.
1.4.0. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
Environmental degradation is an environmental vice which affects the value of the environment grossly such that it can make a once very rich region the poorest and most inhabitable one. The problem of Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta is pressing and need to be addressed promptly so as not to allow it get worse and beyond control.
This problem is not limited to the environmental sector in the society, rather it has permeated many other sectors such that it has made the criminal occurrence rate in the Niger Delta region to increase due to the impoverishment of the region, and it has also affected the economy and even cultural heritages of the region. This research work seeks to take the bull by its horns by ensuring that the basis of all these problems; the environmental degradation of the Niger Delta is keenly addressed. 
1.5.0. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
The methodology of this research work is the doctrinal research methodology wherein several primary sources of law including the constitution, enactments in relation to environments as well as case laws are examined. Also, while adopting the doctrinal research methodology this work will concentrate on secondary sources including textbooks, articles, and journals among others.
In the course of the research, the empirical research methodology will also be adopted in a bid to ensure that secondary data that have been collected over the years and which have been proven to be correct are relied upon in the work and reliable data are taken from them.



[1] See generally, Kaniye Ebeku, The right to a satisfactory environment and the African Commission. (2003) 3 African Human Rights Journal 149.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 88 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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