This study examined the history of  Fulani-herdsmen and farmers’ crises up to 2018: Causes, Effects and its Management. The source of information for this study is secondary which relied mostly on Newspapers and internet materials. From the study, the major causes are; the traditional trek routes, which become favorite cropping sites because of their better soil fertility resulting from the concentration of animal manure from the trekking herds in these areas. Inadequacy of grazing resources and poor management of the existing grazing reserves has resulted to the crises. On the effects, it has social and economic effects; social effects- Sexual harassment of women, acquiring of weapons/arms and reduction in quality of social relationship, economic effects- Loss of produce in storage, displacement of farmers, and reduction in output and income of farmers/nomads. As a result of the above, we recommend the following: The Federal Government as a matter of urgency should ensure that ranches are created in states that want them. This will go a long way to stop movement of the cows, reduce clashes, and these cows‟ stands to do well when provided for as in the case of India, Chad and other countries of the world that export cow milk and meat. The Federal Government of Nigeria needs to invest on National Orientation programs for the need to value lives in this country. The National Orientations Agency should be strategic in this direction.  


1.1        Background to the Study

Land is probably the most important resource needed by Man for his day-to-day existence. All human livelihoods and activities are directly or indirectly dependent on land at varying thresholds. But land connotes different meanings to the various user groups. For instance, builders, manufacturers, fishermen, miners, hunters and farmers have different specifications in their requirements for land for their production/services. Out of all user groups, agricultural production perhaps exhibits the highest form of sophistication in its use of land. Not only must agricultural land be capable of supplying crop-specific nutrients and water; soil temperature, structure, texture and PH levels are inevitable requisites in the choice of land for agricultural production activities. Yet, land is a limited, somewhat scarce resource with both artificial and natural access and usage barriers (Rashid 2012).

These factors of specifications, multifarious uses of land and its limitedness have necessitated that various shades of competition for its utilization must ensue. Thus, competition for land between and within various user groups has been the bane of mankind since time immemorial. Non-agricultural user groups compete with
agricultural user groups on one hand, while there are various levels of intra-user group competition on the other. Indeed, competition for land use is becoming keener and fiercer, largely due to increasing human and animal populations (Richard 1976). It has been illustrated that increasing population growth rate has continued to exert great pressure on available land resources with varying environmental and socioeconomic implications (Fiki and Lee, 2004).

Crime rate and other forms of crises have increased overtime in Nigeria. a lot of effort has been put together to resolve the issue of crise and other forms of conflict in Nigeria.

According to Hellstrom, 2001; Niemella et al, 2005) stated that the incessant resource conflicts witnessed in the tropics have resulted in loss of lives, properties and environmental degradation as a also witnessed in some developed countries such as Balhans.

This incidence is now a household name among the West African countries including Nigeria.
(Thebaud and Batterburry, 2001) in their research stated that the Fulani Herds men have borne a large proportion of the blame for most conflict and environmental degradation in policy statements in the Guinea Savannah region of West African states.

The Fulani herdsmen brutality that was experienced lately in Benue state was a result of fighting space for grazing land. It is evident from the instructions from the president of Nigeria that each stated must provide a grazing space for the Fulani herdsmen; which resulted to conflict in most of the rural areas in Nigeria as a result of high level of illiteracy and greed.

According to Berger (2003) stated that there is a need for grazing movements to access pasture resources across regions in order to ensure food security for the herds. Hence, pastures, woody vegetation, water resources and land are taken as a common property resource.

Most of the local government area in Benue and Kogi State has had a terrible experience lately as a result of crises over grazing space. It was reported that the complex land-use system that has changed markedly over time, has culminated in the present day tension and conflicts between herds man and host communities.

Jibo et al. (2001) reported that the Benue Valley region in Nigeria had witnessed violent conflicts enough to attract both State and National attention. Crops, livestock’s, water resources and other vegetal resources played key roles in the development, maintenance and projection of socio-economic strength of a society (Schama, 1996). The Fulani herdsmen livelihood strategies had resulted in conflicts over the destruction of crops. The environmental degradation is perceived to be contributing enormously to the deterioration in ecosystem services to the environment of various communities. It is to this regard that study wishes to use Buruku local and Anyangba government area of Benue and Kogi State respectively as the case study.

1.2 Statement Of Research Problem
What really instigated the study was as result of threat pose by the activities of the Fulani herdsmen on lives and socioeconomic development in Nigeria. It is evident that the constant change in complex land-use system has culminated in the present day tension and conflicts between herds man and host communities. Secondly the level of illiteracy in most of the communities has significant effect on the effectiveness of communication among the fulani herdsmen and the members of the various communities. The ongoing incidence has resulted to lost of lives, damage of crops, livestock and environmental degradation.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to assess the history of farmer-herdsmen crisis in Nigeria. The specific objectives are to :
i.                    Examine is the cause of the farmer- Fulani herdsmen conflict in Nigeria
ii.                  Discuss the components of fulani social organization
iii.                Examine the factors affecting the migration the Fulani herdsmen into other regions of Nigeria
iv.                Provide a historical analysis of farmers-herders crisis in Nigeria up to 2018

1.4     Significance of the study

Sustainable development in rural agriculture requires the prevalence of peaceful cohabitation among crop farmers and cattle herders. The disruption of agricultural productivity, as a result of herdsmen brutality hampers development and as well may lead to intensification of poverty. The Conflicts have led to grave consequences like death, starvation, poverty, social unrest and unquantifiable losses among the citizens of different nations (Olabode and Ajibade 2010). Therefore, there is need to study and understand the principles and history of conflict and to find out appropriate strategies for negotiating and amicably resolving them.

This study sought to provide the information that can be used to formulate practical policies that would be of assistance towards reducing the senseless destruction of crops, cattle, property and human lives. The destruction of crops, killing of cattle and human beings take place in the study area as a result of resource use competition. This killing and destruction could be settled amicably through the promotion of positive values. Understanding the socio-economic characteristics and production system of both groups will assist in proffering meaningful solutions to the incessant and terrible conflict between cattle herders and farmers.

From the foregoing, it is discernible that there is a compelling need to continue to find lasting solutions to the frequent problems posed by crop farmers and cattle herders conflicts that displaces crop Farmers and cattle Herders as well as claiming human lives, crops and animals.....

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