SHARED KNOWLEDGE AND PERFORMANCE OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION
APPROVAL
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES & FIGURES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2       PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5       HYPOTHESES
1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8       LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.9       DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.10     PROFILE OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRM UNDER STUDY
REFERENCES

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW  OF  THE  RELATED  LITERATURE
2.0       INTRODUCTION
2.1       CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.1.1    CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF KNOWLEDGE
2.1.2    THE CONCEPT OF CONTRIBUTION OF SHARED KNOWLEDGE
2.1.3    THE CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE LEARNING CAPACITY OF WORKERS
2.1.4    THE CONCEPT OF TACIT KNOWLEDGE
2.1.5    THE CONCEPT OF PRINCIPAL MODE OF EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE
2.1.6    THE CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE BASED CAPACITY
2.1.7    THE CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE
2.1.8    THE CONCEPT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS
2.1.9    THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE
2.1.10  THE CONCEPT OF IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE
2.1.11  THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE
2.1.12  THE CONCEPT OF PRODUCTIVITY ASPECT OF PERFORMANCE
2.1.13  THE CONCEPT OF EFFICIENCY ASPECT OF PERFORMANCE
2.1.14  THE CONCEPT OF EFFECTIVENESS ASPECT OF PERFORMANCE
2.1.15  THE CONCEPT OF IMPROVEMENT IN PROFITABILITY
2.3       THEORETICAL REVIEW
2.3.1    THEORETICAL REVIEW OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
2.3.2    THEORETICAL REVIEW OF OPERATIONALISING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
2.3.3 THEORETICAL REVIEW OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
2.3.4    THEORETICAL REVIEW OF KNOWLEDGE CREATION
2.3.4.1 TACIT TO TACIT (SOCIALIZATION)
2.3.4.2 EXPLICIT TO EXPLICIT (COMBINATION)
2.3.4.3 TACIT TO EXPLICIT (EXTERNALIZATION)
2.3.4.4 EXPLICIT TO TACIT (INTERNALIZATION)
2.3.5    THEORETICAL REVIEW OF KNOWLEDGE AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING (KS)
2.3.6    THEORETICAL REVIEW OF KNOWLEDGE SHARING USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
2.3.6.1 GROUPWARE
2.3.6.2 INTRANETS
2.3.6.3 KNOWLEDGE PORTALS
2.3.6.4 EXTENSIBLE MARK-UP LANGUAGE (XML)
2.3.6.5 KNOWLEDGE MAPPING
2.3.6.6 DATA MINING AND DATA WAREHOUSE
2.3.6.7 ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT (EDM)
2.3.6.8 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
2.3.6.9 EXPERT SYSTEMS
2.3.6.10 CASE BASED REASONING
2.3.6.11 ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
2.3.6.12 INTELLIGENT AGENTS
2.3.7 THEORETICAL REVIEW OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF MANUFACTURING FIRM
2.3.7.1 THE CONTEXT FOR MANUFACTURING PLANNING AND CONTROL
2.3.7.2 NETWORKING AS KNOWLEDGE WORK: A STUDY OF STRATEGIC INTERORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONALIZATION
2.3.8    THEORETICAL REVIEW OF DEFINING ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE
2.3.9 THE CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
2.3.9.1PERFORMANCE INDICATORS AND ITS EFFECT ON THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS
2.3.9.2 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
2.3.10 THEORETICAL REVIEW OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND MANUFACTURING PERFORMANCE
2.3.11 THEORETICAL REVIEW OF BALANCED SCORECARD: AS A PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT METHOD
2.3.12  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: ORGANISATIONAL KNOWLEDGE
2.3.12.1 THEORY
2.3.12.2 THEORY  OF  ORGANISATIONAL  KNOWLEDGE  CREATION
2.3.12.3 THEORIES  OF  FIRM  INTERNATIONALIZATION
2.3.12.4           RESOURCE  BASE  VIEW  OF  THE  FIRM
2.3.12.5           FROM THE RESOURCE-BASED TO THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIEW OF THE FIRM
2.3.12.6           THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIEW OF THE FIRM
2.3.12.7           REINFORCEMENT THEORY OF LEARNING
2.3.12.8           FACILITATION THEORY (THE HUMANIST APPROACH)
2.3.12.8.1        FACILITATIVE  TEACHERS  ARE:
2.3.12.8.2        LEARNERS:
2.3.13  COGNITIVISM THEORY OF LEARNING
2.3.14  GOAL THEORY
2.3.15  CONTROL THEORY
2.3.16 SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
2.4       MODEL MODIFICATION
2.5       EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.5.1    SHARED KNOWLEDGE AND PERFORMANCE OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS
2.5.2    COMPARISON OF CONTRIBUTION OF SHARED KNOWLEDGE TO THE PERFORMANCE OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
2.5.3    KNOWLEDGE LEARNING CAPACITY OF WORKERS AND SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE OF THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS
2.5.4    TACIT KNOWLEDGE AND THE PERFORMANCE OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS
2.5.5    THE PRINCIPAL MODE OF EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE ANDPERFORMANCE OF THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS
2.5.6    HOW KNOWLEDGE-BASED CAPACITY IMPROVES THE PROFITABILITY OF THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS
2.6       SUMMARY OF THE REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE…….. 132 REFERENCES

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0       INTRODUCTION
3.1       METHODOLOGICAL REVIEW
3.2       RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3       SOURCES OF DATA
3.3.1    PRIMARY SOURCES OF DATA
3.3.2    SECONDARY  SOURCES OF DATA
3.4       POPULATION
3.5       SAMPLING AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.6       DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.7       DESCRIPTION OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS TOOLS
3.8       RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.9       VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
            REFERENCES

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       INTRODUCTION
4.2       DATA PRESENTATION
4.3       DATA ANALYSIS
4.3.1    RELIABILITY  ANALYSIS
4.3.2    VALIDITY  ANALYSIS
4.3.3    PERCENTAGE  ANALYSIS
4.3.4    RELATIVE  FREQUENCY  ANALYSIS
4.3.5    ANALYSIS OF DATA USING THE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
4.3.6 ANALYSIS OF SOME LIKERT SCALE STATEMENT USING THE Z TEST
4.3.7 ANALYSIS OF DATA USING THE Z TEST OF POPULATION PROPORTIONS
4.3.8    THEORETICAL  ANALYSIS
4.3.9    HYPOTHESES TESTING
4.3.10  INTERVIEW DATA ANALYSIS
4.4       DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
4.4.1    DISCUSSION OF THEORETICAL FINDINGS
REFERENCES

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS,CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE AND SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
5.1       SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS
5.2       CONCLUSION
5.3       RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4       CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
5.5       SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
REFERENCES
APPENDIX    I
APPENDIX II
QUESTIONNAIRE
SECTION 1: PERSONAL DATA
SECTION 2: DATA ON SHARED KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS THEY AFFECT  MANUFACTURING  PERFORMANCE
APPENDIX III INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
APPENDIX IV
BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABSTRACT
This thesis examined the effect of shared knowledge on the performance of firms in Nigeria. The objectives of the study are: (1) To determine the effect of shared knowledge on the performance of firms (2) To find out whether the contribution of shared knowledge to the performance of firms compares with national and international standards. (3) To determine the effects of knowledge learning capacity of workers on a sustainable competitive performance of the firms. (5) To ascertain the extent to which tacit knowledge helps to improve the performance of the firms. (5) To identify the principal mode of explicit knowledge that contributes to a sustained performance of the firms. (6) To investigate the extent to which knowledge based capacity is considered the most strategic resource for improving the profitability of the firms. The research design chosen in the study is a combination of a survey and oral interview. A representative sample of 504 respondents where chosen using the table of random numbers from a population of 735 respondents from Nigerian Breweries Plc., Guinness Nig. Plc. and Bendel Breweries Plc. The data presentation tools were tables. The data analyses tools were percentages Z test, Z test of population proportions and coefficient of determination. The Z test and Z test of population proportions were used to test the six hypotheses. The test-retest method of reliability and content validity were used. It was found that: (1) shared knowledge had a positive effect on the performance of the firms. (2) It was found that the contribution of shared knowledge to the performance of the firms compared favourably with national and international standards. It was also found that knowledge learning capacity of the workers had a positive effect on the sustained competitive performance of the firms. It was found that the tacit knowledge to a large extent helped to improve the performance of the firms. It was also found that combination and externalization were the principal modes of explicit knowledge that contributed to a sustained performance of the firms and lastly it was found that knowledge based capacity is considered to a large extent a strategic resource but not the most strategic resource as there were other resources such as men, materials, money time, energy, information and infrastructure. It was concluded that as shared knowledge increased, the performance of the firms also increased. It was recommended that the strategic managers of the firms studied should as a matter of policy continue to use shared knowledge as a tool for improving performance in their companies.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1               BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Shared knowledge and performance have been relevant in four epochs namely the era of early influences, the era of the industrial revolution, the era of scientific management movement and the modern era. Many records and ideas relating to management date from antiquity. Among these are the records of the Egyptians, the early Greeks, and the ancient Romans. In addition, there have been the experience and administrative practices of the Catholic Church, military organizations, and the cameralists of the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. Interpretation of early Egyptian papyri, extending as far back as 1300 B.C., indicate the recognition of the importance of organization (Koontz, O’donnel and Weirich, 2000:34).

The Industrial Revolution in Europe was the transitory phase from the manufacturing or putting-out system to the factory system. The present thesis will attempt to show that management was relevant during the three epochs of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, United States of America and Japan and so it was more of a Management Revolution than an Industrial Revolution (Berliner, 2003:5). Although Frederick Taylor, who did his work in the early years of the twentieth century, is...

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