Title Page
Approval Page
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures

1.0.      Introduction
1.1.      Energy Costs in Telecommunication Industries
1.2.      Environmental Impact and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
1.3       Energy Consumption at a Macro Base Transmitter Station (BTS) Site
1.4       Power Solutions for BTS Sites
1.4.1    Mains Power
1.4.2    Diesel Generators
1.4.3.   Renewable Energy Solution Renewable Energy Technologies Renewable Power Options at BTS Sites
1.4.4    Off-Grid Cell Sites and Renewable Energy Potentials in Nigeria
1.5.      Hybrid Power Systems (HPS)
1.6       Problem Statement
1.7.      Objectives and Significance of the Study

2.0.      Introduction
2.1.      Energy Optimization
2.2       Simulation and Optimization Software Tools for Hybrid Systems
2.2.1.   Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER )
2.2.2.   Hybrid Power System Simulation Model (HYBRID2)
2.2.3.   Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms (HOGA)
2.2.4.   Transient Energy System Simulation Program (TRNSYS)
2.3.      Component Sizing
2.4.      Optimization
2.5.      Optimization Techniques
2.5.1.   Multi-Objective Design of Stand-Alone Hybrid Systems
2.5.2.   Control Strategies
2.5.3.   System Cost Analysis
2.6.      Summary

3.0.      Introduction
3.1.      Mathematical Model
3.2.      System Components Used in the Modeling and Simulation
3.2.1    Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
3.2.2.   Wind Generator
3.2.3.   Micro-Hydro Power
3.2.4.   Diesel/Gasoline Engine-Generator Power Systems
3.3.      Energy Storage
3.3.1.   Battery Electricity
3.4.      Conversion Devices
3.5.      Modeling of Hybrid Energy System Components
3.6.      Power Generation Model
3.7.      Mathematical Cost Model (Economic & Environmental Costs) of Energy Systems
3.8.      The Energy Optimization Model
3.9.      Calibration of the Model
3.10.    Materials and Method
3.11.    Hybrid System Components
3.12.    Optimal Design of Hybrid System
3.13.    Computer Simulation
3.14.    Supervisory Control System
3.15.    Summary

4.0.      Introduction
4.1.      The Results
4.2.      Analysis of the Results
4.2.1.   Optimal Ranking of the Hybrid System Types
4.2.2.   Energy Rating of the Hybrid Systems and Components
4.2.3.   Economic Rating of the Hybrid System Types and Components Initial Capital Costs [ICC] The Total Net Present Cost [NPC]
4.2.4.   Environmental Impact Rating of the Hybrid System Types and Components
4.3.      Discussions
4.3.1    Justification for Renewable Power Options at BTS Sites
4.4.      Summary



The work presented in this thesis explored the potential of using a mix of renewable energy resources (hybrid power systems, HPSs) to generate electricity that meets power needs of mobile base stations at rural areas in Nigeria. The study was based on theoretical mathematical modeling and simulation using the hybrid optimization model for electric renewables (HOMER) software. A sample of eight hypothetical off-grid remote telecommunication base station (BTS) sites at various geographical locations in Nigeria was used for the study. These locations include: Abaji (Abuja, FCT), Nkanu-West (Enugu), Ikwerre (Rivers), Nembe (Bayelsa), Mopa-Muro (Kogi), Kauru (Kaduna), Guzamala (Borno), and Tureta (Sokoto), and were selected to reflect the various climatic conditions in Nigeria. Eight different combinations (HPS options) of four energy resources [small-hydro power (SHP), wind turbine generator, solar photovoltaic (SPV) and diesel generator (DG)] were studied and compared for each of the eight selected BTS sites. These are: Hybrid (Solar, Wind & Hydro) + DG; Hybrid (Solar & Hydro) + DG; Hybrid (Wind & Hydro) + DG; Hydro only + DG; Hybrid (Solar & Wind) + DG; Solar only + DG; Wind only + DG. Total Net Present Cost (NPC) and total CO2 generated are used as indices for measuring the optimization level of each energy solution, and the option with the highest optimization value is considered to be the best energy solution for that base station site. The quantitative results of the study (as reported here) show that the hybrid power system can be more cost-effective and environmentally friendly in providing energy to BTS sites than diesel generators. The results also show that there is no general least-cost option for powering GSM base station sites at different locations. It all depends on climatic conditions and available renewable energy resources. A major contribution of this work is the demonstration (by these results) that it is possible to develop an optimized energy map for appropriate locations of GSM Base Station sites in Nigeria, both as a design guide for network operators and for the formulation of energy use policies by the national telecommunications regulatory authority (the NCC). One of such policies could be the requirement that any network operator intending to site a base station in any location should first produce an optimized energy feasibility study of the location before an approval would be granted.

1.0 Introduction
Communication services have faced several challenges with the increasing spread of wireless voice and data signals into remote areas [1]. Power supply is one of the critical challenges the telecommunication operators confront in deploying their networks. This challenge is readily overcome in the developed countries as a result of well-developed power infrastructure. In the developing world, where national electricity grid exists, it is always the energy solution of choice for powering Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). Unfortunately, it is not always reliable and has limited coverage. This is complicated in developing countries like Nigeria as mobile communication extends more and more into rural areas outside the reach of national grid. The electrification by grid extension or secondary power station can only reach a small minority of the population in rural areas. In view of the dispersion of localities, the cost of production, transmission and especially distribution of electricity, would be expensive.

In Nigeria, Airtel Nigeria (Mobile Operator) has embarked on upgrading 250 diesel-powered stations on– sites. The company regretted that non-availability of regular grid power supply to sites across the country is responsible for over 70% of down time, resulting in poor QoS (Quality of Service) [2]. MTN Nigeria, one of the four mobile telecommunications operators in Nigeria with 4,798 base stations spends a whooping $82.8 million on generator acquisition almost every three years and $3.5 million monthly on diesel oil and generator maintenance [3]. This puts the operating expenditure (OPEX) of generators and diesel at about $69 million annually....

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Item Type: Ph.D Material  |  Attribute: 190 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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