Title Page
Approval Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Framework
Child abuse and neglect
Forms of child abuse and neglect
Proportion of child abuse and neglect and its measurement
Perpetrators of child abuse and neglect
Consequences of child abuse and neglect
Demographic predictors and factors associated with child abuse and neglect
Preventive measures of child abuse and neglect
Theoretical Framework
Developmental ecological model (DEM)
Caregiver stress theory (CST)
Cumulative risk model (CRM)
Empirical Studies
Summary of Literature Review

Research Design
Area of Study
Population for the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of the instrument.
Reliability of the instrument.
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion
Summary of Major Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Study


Literature has revealed that there is child abuse and neglect in Nigeria including Bauchi State. The study therefore examined Demographic Predictors of Parental Child Abuse and Neglect and Preventive Measures in Bauchi State, Nigeria. To achieve these purpose seventeen research objectives were posed with seventeen corresponding research questions and seven null hypotheses were postulated and tested at

.05 level of significance. The correlation research design was utilized for this study. The population for the study consisted of all secondary school students in Bauchi State (550,421) and 20 experts from the field of health education, measurement and evaluation and psychologists from the departments of psychology, measurement and evaluation and Physical and Health Education of the Universities of Nigeria, Nsukka. A sample size of 1549 secondary school students was drawn from the population using a multi-stage sampling procedure with appropriate technique was used. All the 20 experts were used for the study. Three types of instruments were used for this study. First, the Demographic Predictors of Child Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire (DePCANQ), secondly, Child Abuse and Neglect Focus Group Discussion (CANFGD) Guide and thirdly, Child Abuse and Neglect Preventive Measures Questionnaire (CANPMQ). Two sets of the instruments DePCANQ and CANPMQ were subjected to validation by five experts from the Department of Health and Physical Education, Psychology, and Measurement and Evaluation University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The cronbach Alpha method of reliability index of DeCANQ was .88 and CANPMQ reliability index was .86. Research questions 1 and 2 were answered using frequencies and percentages while research question 17 was answered using mean while research questions 3-16 were answered using multiple-regression analysis. The ANOVA statistic was used to test hypotheses 1-7 at .05 level of significance. The findings reveals that Parents physically abused their children by always pushing (11. 2%), kicking (8.7%); sometimes beating (38.4%), slapping (30.9%). Parents sexually abuse their children by always fondling (7.1%), robbing breast against their body (5.3%). Parents emotionally abuse their children by always showing lack of acceptance (40.9%), lack of love (11.1%). Parents physically neglected their children by always not providing good shelter (71.8%), enough food (68.6%); sometimes not giving shoes (25.2%), clothes (23.3%). Relationship between age of parents and child abuse was very low (r = -0.095; P = 0.045), age and child neglect was very low (r = 0.118, P = 0.003), preventive measures of CAN were considered appropriate with mean 2.00-2.49 (SD =

.459 - .681), 2.15 – 2.35 (SD = .608 - .684) and 2.23 – 2.25 (SD = .578-.605). Fathers’ age (P-value =

.004), mothers’ age (P-value = 0.002), mothers’ occupation (P-value = .012) and parity (P-value = .001) were significant predictors of physical child abuse, fathers’ age (P-value = .003), fathers’ age (P-value =

.002), mothers’ age (P-value = .000) and marital status (P-value =.037) were significant predictors of educational child neglect, fathers’ age (P-value = .000) and mothers’ age (P-value = .001) were significant predictors of medical child neglect. It was recommended that the Bauchi State may collaboration with Ministry of Youth and Sport and lend logistic and manpower support to schools in the implementation of the Child Abuse and Neglect Preventive Measures in schools. Ministry of Education under the auspices of Agency for Mass Education should educate parents on the effect or consequences of child abuse and neglect by organizing workshops and seminars for parents by health educators.

Background to the Study
Child abuse and neglect (CAN) is a serious public health problem and occurs in varying proportions or magnitudes, resulting to burden imposed on children by parents or adults. Most adults often impose their wishes on children without any recourse to their feelings. This flagrant imposition more often than not instilled so much fear in the minds of children. World wide, approximately 5 children die every day because of child abuse and neglect (National Children's Alliance, 2014). They further reported that in 2010, about 1,537 children died of abuse or neglect, 79.4 per cent were under the age of 18 years. Statistics indicated that, there were an estimated 896,000 substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the United States of America (USA) in 2004. Cases involving approximately 4.5 million children were referred to Child Protective Services throughout the country each year for investigation into allegations of abuse and neglect. Of these reported cases 30 per cent were abuse and neglect of children (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-USDHHS, 2008). World Health Organization and International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect-WHO/ISPCAN (2006) and USDHHS (2008) revealed that child abuse and neglect have been and continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. This therefore portends that it is a problem that is not perculiar to the USA alone, but other countries of the world.

In Rome, until quite recently, children had very few rights with regard to protection from abuse and neglect by their parents. However, child abuse and neglect continued to be perpetuated in many parts of communities in Rome (Ministry of Women and Child Development-Rome-MWCDR, 2014). These suggest that child abuse and neglect is still prevalent in some parts of developed nations of the world.

In Africa, it has been reported that 35 per cent of the children in West and Central Africa are estimated to suffer from child abuse and neglect. There are, however, wide variations among individual countries in the region (UNICEF, 2009).The incidence of child abuse and neglect in Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe, for example, is very low, at 3 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively. In contrast, six countries (Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and Togo) have child abuse and neglect rates of more than 40 per cent, and more than half the children’s population in Chad experienced child abuse and neglect. In many African countries, the child abuse and neglect rate in rural areas is at least twice as high as that in urban areas and abuse and neglect in educational settings leads to high rates of school dropouts and low rates of school enrolment in this region, especially among girls (UNICEF, 2009).

In Nigeria, child abuse and neglect by parents seems to be relatively high. Studies conducted by (UNICEF, 2012) in separate surveys on prevalence of sex and class of secondary....

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